# Scatter plot with histograms¶

Show the marginal distributions of a scatter as histograms at the sides of the plot.

For a nice alignment of the main axes with the marginals, two options are shown below.

• the axes positions are defined in terms of rectangles in figure coordinates
• the axes positions are defined via a gridspec

An alternative method to produce a similar figure using the axes_grid1 toolkit is shown in the Scatter Histogram (Locatable Axes) example.

Let us first define a function that takes x and y data as input, as well as three axes, the main axes for the scatter, and two marginal axes. It will then create the scatter and histograms inside the provided axes.

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

# Fixing random state for reproducibility
np.random.seed(19680801)

# some random data
x = np.random.randn(1000)
y = np.random.randn(1000)

def scatter_hist(x, y, ax, ax_histx, ax_histy):
# no labels
ax_histx.tick_params(axis="x", labelbottom=False)
ax_histy.tick_params(axis="y", labelleft=False)

# the scatter plot:
ax.scatter(x, y)

# now determine nice limits by hand:
binwidth = 0.25
xymax = max(np.max(np.abs(x)), np.max(np.abs(y)))
lim = (int(xymax/binwidth) + 1) * binwidth

bins = np.arange(-lim, lim + binwidth, binwidth)
ax_histx.hist(x, bins=bins)
ax_histy.hist(y, bins=bins, orientation='horizontal')


## Axes in figure coordinates¶

To define the axes positions, Figure.add_axes is provided with a rectangle [left, bottom, width, height] in figure coordinates. The marginal axes share one dimension with the main axes.

# definitions for the axes
left, width = 0.1, 0.65
bottom, height = 0.1, 0.65
spacing = 0.005

rect_scatter = [left, bottom, width, height]
rect_histx = [left, bottom + height + spacing, width, 0.2]
rect_histy = [left + width + spacing, bottom, 0.2, height]

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(8, 8))

# use the previously defined function
scatter_hist(x, y, ax, ax_histx, ax_histy)

plt.show() ## Using a gridspec¶

We may equally define a gridspec with unequal width- and height-ratios to achieve desired layout. Also see the Customizing Figure Layouts Using GridSpec and Other Functions tutorial.

# start with a square Figure
fig = plt.figure(figsize=(8, 8))

# Add a gridspec with two rows and two columns and a ratio of 2 to 7 between
# the size of the marginal axes and the main axes in both directions.
# Also adjust the subplot parameters for a square plot.
gs = fig.add_gridspec(2, 2,  width_ratios=(7, 2), height_ratios=(2, 7),
left=0.1, right=0.9, bottom=0.1, top=0.9,
wspace=0.05, hspace=0.05) 