# Source code for matplotlib.path

```
r"""
A module for dealing with the polylines used throughout Matplotlib.
The primary class for polyline handling in Matplotlib is `Path`. Almost all
vector drawing makes use of `Path`\s somewhere in the drawing pipeline.
Whilst a `Path` instance itself cannot be drawn, some `.Artist` subclasses,
such as `.PathPatch` and `.PathCollection`, can be used for convenient `Path`
visualisation.
"""
from functools import lru_cache
from weakref import WeakValueDictionary
import numpy as np
import matplotlib as mpl
from . import _api, _path
from .cbook import _to_unmasked_float_array, simple_linear_interpolation
from .bezier import BezierSegment
[docs]class Path:
"""
A series of possibly disconnected, possibly closed, line and curve
segments.
The underlying storage is made up of two parallel numpy arrays:
- *vertices*: an Nx2 float array of vertices
- *codes*: an N-length uint8 array of vertex types, or None
These two arrays always have the same length in the first
dimension. For example, to represent a cubic curve, you must
provide three vertices as well as three codes ``CURVE3``.
The code types are:
- ``STOP`` : 1 vertex (ignored)
A marker for the end of the entire path (currently not required and
ignored)
- ``MOVETO`` : 1 vertex
Pick up the pen and move to the given vertex.
- ``LINETO`` : 1 vertex
Draw a line from the current position to the given vertex.
- ``CURVE3`` : 1 control point, 1 endpoint
Draw a quadratic Bezier curve from the current position, with the given
control point, to the given end point.
- ``CURVE4`` : 2 control points, 1 endpoint
Draw a cubic Bezier curve from the current position, with the given
control points, to the given end point.
- ``CLOSEPOLY`` : 1 vertex (ignored)
Draw a line segment to the start point of the current polyline.
If *codes* is None, it is interpreted as a ``MOVETO`` followed by a series
of ``LINETO``.
Users of Path objects should not access the vertices and codes arrays
directly. Instead, they should use `iter_segments` or `cleaned` to get the
vertex/code pairs. This helps, in particular, to consistently handle the
case of *codes* being None.
Some behavior of Path objects can be controlled by rcParams. See the
rcParams whose keys start with 'path.'.
.. note::
The vertices and codes arrays should be treated as
immutable -- there are a number of optimizations and assumptions
made up front in the constructor that will not change when the
data changes.
"""
code_type = np.uint8
# Path codes
STOP = code_type(0) # 1 vertex
MOVETO = code_type(1) # 1 vertex
LINETO = code_type(2) # 1 vertex
CURVE3 = code_type(3) # 2 vertices
CURVE4 = code_type(4) # 3 vertices
CLOSEPOLY = code_type(79) # 1 vertex
#: A dictionary mapping Path codes to the number of vertices that the
#: code expects.
NUM_VERTICES_FOR_CODE = {STOP: 1,
MOVETO: 1,
LINETO: 1,
CURVE3: 2,
CURVE4: 3,
CLOSEPOLY: 1}
def __init__(self, vertices, codes=None, _interpolation_steps=1,
closed=False, readonly=False):
"""
Create a new path with the given vertices and codes.
Parameters
----------
vertices : (N, 2) array-like
The path vertices, as an array, masked array or sequence of pairs.
Masked values, if any, will be converted to NaNs, which are then
handled correctly by the Agg PathIterator and other consumers of
path data, such as :meth:`iter_segments`.
codes : array-like or None, optional
n-length array integers representing the codes of the path.
If not None, codes must be the same length as vertices.
If None, *vertices* will be treated as a series of line segments.
_interpolation_steps : int, optional
Used as a hint to certain projections, such as Polar, that this
path should be linearly interpolated immediately before drawing.
This attribute is primarily an implementation detail and is not
intended for public use.
closed : bool, optional
If *codes* is None and closed is True, vertices will be treated as
line segments of a closed polygon. Note that the last vertex will
then be ignored (as the corresponding code will be set to
CLOSEPOLY).
readonly : bool, optional
Makes the path behave in an immutable way and sets the vertices
and codes as read-only arrays.
"""
vertices = _to_unmasked_float_array(vertices)
_api.check_shape((None, 2), vertices=vertices)
if codes is not None:
codes = np.asarray(codes, self.code_type)
if codes.ndim != 1 or len(codes) != len(vertices):
raise ValueError("'codes' must be a 1D list or array with the "
"same length of 'vertices'. "
f"Your vertices have shape {vertices.shape} "
f"but your codes have shape {codes.shape}")
if len(codes) and codes[0] != self.MOVETO:
raise ValueError("The first element of 'code' must be equal "
f"to 'MOVETO' ({self.MOVETO}). "
f"Your first code is {codes[0]}")
elif closed and len(vertices):
codes = np.empty(len(vertices), dtype=self.code_type)
codes[0] = self.MOVETO
codes[1:-1] = self.LINETO
codes[-1] = self.CLOSEPOLY
self._vertices = vertices
self._codes = codes
self._interpolation_steps = _interpolation_steps
self._update_values()
if readonly:
self._vertices.flags.writeable = False
if self._codes is not None:
self._codes.flags.writeable = False
self._readonly = True
else:
self._readonly = False
@classmethod
def _fast_from_codes_and_verts(cls, verts, codes, internals_from=None):
"""
Creates a Path instance without the expense of calling the constructor.
Parameters
----------
verts : numpy array
codes : numpy array
internals_from : Path or None
If not None, another `Path` from which the attributes
``should_simplify``, ``simplify_threshold``, and
``interpolation_steps`` will be copied. Note that ``readonly`` is
never copied, and always set to ``False`` by this constructor.
"""
pth = cls.__new__(cls)
pth._vertices = _to_unmasked_float_array(verts)
pth._codes = codes
pth._readonly = False
if internals_from is not None:
pth._should_simplify = internals_from._should_simplify
pth._simplify_threshold = internals_from._simplify_threshold
pth._interpolation_steps = internals_from._interpolation_steps
else:
pth._should_simplify = True
pth._simplify_threshold = mpl.rcParams['path.simplify_threshold']
pth._interpolation_steps = 1
return pth
def _update_values(self):
self._simplify_threshold = mpl.rcParams['path.simplify_threshold']
self._should_simplify = (
self._simplify_threshold > 0 and
mpl.rcParams['path.simplify'] and
len(self._vertices) >= 128 and
(self._codes is None or np.all(self._codes <= Path.LINETO))
)
@property
def vertices(self):
"""
The list of vertices in the `Path` as an Nx2 numpy array.
"""
return self._vertices
@vertices.setter
def vertices(self, vertices):
if self._readonly:
raise AttributeError("Can't set vertices on a readonly Path")
self._vertices = vertices
self._update_values()
@property
def codes(self):
"""
The list of codes in the `Path` as a 1D numpy array. Each
code is one of `STOP`, `MOVETO`, `LINETO`, `CURVE3`, `CURVE4`
or `CLOSEPOLY`. For codes that correspond to more than one
vertex (`CURVE3` and `CURVE4`), that code will be repeated so
that the length of `self.vertices` and `self.codes` is always
the same.
"""
return self._codes
@codes.setter
def codes(self, codes):
if self._readonly:
raise AttributeError("Can't set codes on a readonly Path")
self._codes = codes
self._update_values()
@property
def simplify_threshold(self):
"""
The fraction of a pixel difference below which vertices will
be simplified out.
"""
return self._simplify_threshold
@simplify_threshold.setter
def simplify_threshold(self, threshold):
self._simplify_threshold = threshold
@property
def should_simplify(self):
"""
`True` if the vertices array should be simplified.
"""
return self._should_simplify
@should_simplify.setter
def should_simplify(self, should_simplify):
self._should_simplify = should_simplify
@property
def readonly(self):
"""
`True` if the `Path` is read-only.
"""
return self._readonly
def __copy__(self):
"""
Return a shallow copy of the `Path`, which will share the
vertices and codes with the source `Path`.
"""
import copy
return copy.copy(self)
copy = __copy__
def __deepcopy__(self, memo=None):
"""
Return a deepcopy of the `Path`. The `Path` will not be
readonly, even if the source `Path` is.
"""
try:
codes = self.codes.copy()
except AttributeError:
codes = None
return self.__class__(
self.vertices.copy(), codes,
_interpolation_steps=self._interpolation_steps)
deepcopy = __deepcopy__
[docs] @classmethod
def make_compound_path_from_polys(cls, XY):
"""
Make a compound path object to draw a number
of polygons with equal numbers of sides XY is a (numpolys x
numsides x 2) numpy array of vertices. Return object is a
:class:`Path`
.. plot:: gallery/misc/histogram_path.py
"""
# for each poly: 1 for the MOVETO, (numsides-1) for the LINETO, 1 for
# the CLOSEPOLY; the vert for the closepoly is ignored but we still
# need it to keep the codes aligned with the vertices
numpolys, numsides, two = XY.shape
if two != 2:
raise ValueError("The third dimension of 'XY' must be 2")
stride = numsides + 1
nverts = numpolys * stride
verts = np.zeros((nverts, 2))
codes = np.full(nverts, cls.LINETO, dtype=cls.code_type)
codes[0::stride] = cls.MOVETO
codes[numsides::stride] = cls.CLOSEPOLY
for i in range(numsides):
verts[i::stride] = XY[:, i]
return cls(verts, codes)
[docs] @classmethod
def make_compound_path(cls, *args):
"""
Make a compound path from a list of Path objects. Blindly removes all
Path.STOP control points.
"""
# Handle an empty list in args (i.e. no args).
if not args:
return Path(np.empty([0, 2], dtype=np.float32))
vertices = np.concatenate([x.vertices for x in args])
codes = np.empty(len(vertices), dtype=cls.code_type)
i = 0
for path in args:
if path.codes is None:
codes[i] = cls.MOVETO
codes[i + 1:i + len(path.vertices)] = cls.LINETO
else:
codes[i:i + len(path.codes)] = path.codes
i += len(path.vertices)
# remove STOP's, since internal STOPs are a bug
not_stop_mask = codes != cls.STOP
vertices = vertices[not_stop_mask, :]
codes = codes[not_stop_mask]
return cls(vertices, codes)
def __repr__(self):
return "Path(%r, %r)" % (self.vertices, self.codes)
def __len__(self):
return len(self.vertices)
[docs] def iter_segments(self, transform=None, remove_nans=True, clip=None,
snap=False, stroke_width=1.0, simplify=None,
curves=True, sketch=None):
"""
Iterate over all curve segments in the path.
Each iteration returns a pair ``(vertices, code)``, where ``vertices``
is a sequence of 1-3 coordinate pairs, and ``code`` is a `Path` code.
Additionally, this method can provide a number of standard cleanups and
conversions to the path.
Parameters
----------
transform : None or :class:`~matplotlib.transforms.Transform`
If not None, the given affine transformation will be applied to the
path.
remove_nans : bool, optional
Whether to remove all NaNs from the path and skip over them using
MOVETO commands.
clip : None or (float, float, float, float), optional
If not None, must be a four-tuple (x1, y1, x2, y2)
defining a rectangle in which to clip the path.
snap : None or bool, optional
If True, snap all nodes to pixels; if False, don't snap them.
If None, snap if the path contains only segments
parallel to the x or y axes, and no more than 1024 of them.
stroke_width : float, optional
The width of the stroke being drawn (used for path snapping).
simplify : None or bool, optional
Whether to simplify the path by removing vertices
that do not affect its appearance. If None, use the
:attr:`should_simplify` attribute. See also :rc:`path.simplify`
and :rc:`path.simplify_threshold`.
curves : bool, optional
If True, curve segments will be returned as curve segments.
If False, all curves will be converted to line segments.
sketch : None or sequence, optional
If not None, must be a 3-tuple of the form
(scale, length, randomness), representing the sketch parameters.
"""
if not len(self):
return
cleaned = self.cleaned(transform=transform,
remove_nans=remove_nans, clip=clip,
snap=snap, stroke_width=stroke_width,
simplify=simplify, curves=curves,
sketch=sketch)
# Cache these object lookups for performance in the loop.
NUM_VERTICES_FOR_CODE = self.NUM_VERTICES_FOR_CODE
STOP = self.STOP
vertices = iter(cleaned.vertices)
codes = iter(cleaned.codes)
for curr_vertices, code in zip(vertices, codes):
if code == STOP:
break
extra_vertices = NUM_VERTICES_FOR_CODE[code] - 1
if extra_vertices:
for i in range(extra_vertices):
next(codes)
curr_vertices = np.append(curr_vertices, next(vertices))
yield curr_vertices, code
[docs] def iter_bezier(self, **kwargs):
"""
Iterate over each bezier curve (lines included) in a Path.
Parameters
----------
**kwargs
Forwarded to `.iter_segments`.
Yields
------
B : matplotlib.bezier.BezierSegment
The bezier curves that make up the current path. Note in particular
that freestanding points are bezier curves of order 0, and lines
are bezier curves of order 1 (with two control points).
code : Path.code_type
The code describing what kind of curve is being returned.
Path.MOVETO, Path.LINETO, Path.CURVE3, Path.CURVE4 correspond to
bezier curves with 1, 2, 3, and 4 control points (respectively).
Path.CLOSEPOLY is a Path.LINETO with the control points correctly
chosen based on the start/end points of the current stroke.
"""
first_vert = None
prev_vert = None
for verts, code in self.iter_segments(**kwargs):
if first_vert is None:
if code != Path.MOVETO:
raise ValueError("Malformed path, must start with MOVETO.")
if code == Path.MOVETO: # a point is like "CURVE1"
first_vert = verts
yield BezierSegment(np.array([first_vert])), code
elif code == Path.LINETO: # "CURVE2"
yield BezierSegment(np.array([prev_vert, verts])), code
elif code == Path.CURVE3:
yield BezierSegment(np.array([prev_vert, verts[:2],
verts[2:]])), code
elif code == Path.CURVE4:
yield BezierSegment(np.array([prev_vert, verts[:2],
verts[2:4], verts[4:]])), code
elif code == Path.CLOSEPOLY:
yield BezierSegment(np.array([prev_vert, first_vert])), code
elif code == Path.STOP:
return
else:
raise ValueError("Invalid Path.code_type: " + str(code))
prev_vert = verts[-2:]
[docs] @_api.delete_parameter("3.3", "quantize")
def cleaned(self, transform=None, remove_nans=False, clip=None,
quantize=False, simplify=False, curves=False,
stroke_width=1.0, snap=False, sketch=None):
"""
Return a new Path with vertices and codes cleaned according to the
parameters.
See Also
--------
Path.iter_segments : for details of the keyword arguments.
"""
vertices, codes = _path.cleanup_path(
self, transform, remove_nans, clip, snap, stroke_width, simplify,
curves, sketch)
pth = Path._fast_from_codes_and_verts(vertices, codes, self)
if not simplify:
pth._should_simplify = False
return pth
[docs] def transformed(self, transform):
"""
Return a transformed copy of the path.
See Also
--------
matplotlib.transforms.TransformedPath
A specialized path class that will cache the transformed result and
automatically update when the transform changes.
"""
return Path(transform.transform(self.vertices), self.codes,
self._interpolation_steps)
[docs] def contains_point(self, point, transform=None, radius=0.0):
"""
Return whether the area enclosed by the path contains the given point.
The path is always treated as closed; i.e. if the last code is not
CLOSEPOLY an implicit segment connecting the last vertex to the first
vertex is assumed.
Parameters
----------
point : (float, float)
The point (x, y) to check.
transform : `matplotlib.transforms.Transform`, optional
If not ``None``, *point* will be compared to ``self`` transformed
by *transform*; i.e. for a correct check, *transform* should
transform the path into the coordinate system of *point*.
radius : float, default: 0
Add an additional margin on the path in coordinates of *point*.
The path is extended tangentially by *radius/2*; i.e. if you would
draw the path with a linewidth of *radius*, all points on the line
would still be considered to be contained in the area. Conversely,
negative values shrink the area: Points on the imaginary line
will be considered outside the area.
Returns
-------
bool
Notes
-----
The current algorithm has some limitations:
- The result is undefined for points exactly at the boundary
(i.e. at the path shifted by *radius/2*).
- The result is undefined if there is no enclosed area, i.e. all
vertices are on a straight line.
- If bounding lines start to cross each other due to *radius* shift,
the result is not guaranteed to be correct.
"""
if transform is not None:
transform = transform.frozen()
# `point_in_path` does not handle nonlinear transforms, so we
# transform the path ourselves. If *transform* is affine, letting
# `point_in_path` handle the transform avoids allocating an extra
# buffer.
if transform and not transform.is_affine:
self = transform.transform_path(self)
transform = None
return _path.point_in_path(point[0], point[1], radius, self, transform)
[docs] def contains_points(self, points, transform=None, radius=0.0):
"""
Return whether the area enclosed by the path contains the given points.
The path is always treated as closed; i.e. if the last code is not
CLOSEPOLY an implicit segment connecting the last vertex to the first
vertex is assumed.
Parameters
----------
points : (N, 2) array
The points to check. Columns contain x and y values.
transform : `matplotlib.transforms.Transform`, optional
If not ``None``, *points* will be compared to ``self`` transformed
by *transform*; i.e. for a correct check, *transform* should
transform the path into the coordinate system of *points*.
radius : float, default: 0
Add an additional margin on the path in coordinates of *points*.
The path is extended tangentially by *radius/2*; i.e. if you would
draw the path with a linewidth of *radius*, all points on the line
would still be considered to be contained in the area. Conversely,
negative values shrink the area: Points on the imaginary line
will be considered outside the area.
Returns
-------
length-N bool array
Notes
-----
The current algorithm has some limitations:
- The result is undefined for points exactly at the boundary
(i.e. at the path shifted by *radius/2*).
- The result is undefined if there is no enclosed area, i.e. all
vertices are on a straight line.
- If bounding lines start to cross each other due to *radius* shift,
the result is not guaranteed to be correct.
"""
if transform is not None:
transform = transform.frozen()
result = _path.points_in_path(points, radius, self, transform)
return result.astype('bool')
[docs] def contains_path(self, path, transform=None):
"""
Return whether this (closed) path completely contains the given path.
If *transform* is not ``None``, the path will be transformed before
checking for containment.
"""
if transform is not None:
transform = transform.frozen()
return _path.path_in_path(self, None, path, transform)
[docs] def get_extents(self, transform=None, **kwargs):
"""
Get Bbox of the path.
Parameters
----------
transform : matplotlib.transforms.Transform, optional
Transform to apply to path before computing extents, if any.
**kwargs
Forwarded to `.iter_bezier`.
Returns
-------
matplotlib.transforms.Bbox
The extents of the path Bbox([[xmin, ymin], [xmax, ymax]])
"""
from .transforms import Bbox
if transform is not None:
self = transform.transform_path(self)
if self.codes is None:
xys = self.vertices
elif len(np.intersect1d(self.codes, [Path.CURVE3, Path.CURVE4])) == 0:
# Optimization for the straight line case.
# Instead of iterating through each curve, consider
# each line segment's end-points
# (recall that STOP and CLOSEPOLY vertices are ignored)
xys = self.vertices[np.isin(self.codes,
[Path.MOVETO, Path.LINETO])]
else:
xys = []
for curve, code in self.iter_bezier(**kwargs):
# places where the derivative is zero can be extrema
_, dzeros = curve.axis_aligned_extrema()
# as can the ends of the curve
xys.append(curve([0, *dzeros, 1]))
xys = np.concatenate(xys)
if len(xys):
return Bbox([xys.min(axis=0), xys.max(axis=0)])
else:
return Bbox.null()
[docs] def intersects_path(self, other, filled=True):
"""
Return whether if this path intersects another given path.
If *filled* is True, then this also returns True if one path completely
encloses the other (i.e., the paths are treated as filled).
"""
return _path.path_intersects_path(self, other, filled)
[docs] def intersects_bbox(self, bbox, filled=True):
"""
Return whether this path intersects a given `~.transforms.Bbox`.
If *filled* is True, then this also returns True if the path completely
encloses the `.Bbox` (i.e., the path is treated as filled).
The bounding box is always considered filled.
"""
return _path.path_intersects_rectangle(
self, bbox.x0, bbox.y0, bbox.x1, bbox.y1, filled)
[docs] def interpolated(self, steps):
"""
Return a new path resampled to length N x steps.
Codes other than LINETO are not handled correctly.
"""
if steps == 1:
return self
vertices = simple_linear_interpolation(self.vertices, steps)
codes = self.codes
if codes is not None:
new_codes = np.full((len(codes) - 1) * steps + 1, Path.LINETO,
dtype=self.code_type)
new_codes[0::steps] = codes
else:
new_codes = None
return Path(vertices, new_codes)
[docs] def to_polygons(self, transform=None, width=0, height=0, closed_only=True):
"""
Convert this path to a list of polygons or polylines. Each
polygon/polyline is an Nx2 array of vertices. In other words,
each polygon has no ``MOVETO`` instructions or curves. This
is useful for displaying in backends that do not support
compound paths or Bezier curves.
If *width* and *height* are both non-zero then the lines will
be simplified so that vertices outside of (0, 0), (width,
height) will be clipped.
If *closed_only* is `True` (default), only closed polygons,
with the last point being the same as the first point, will be
returned. Any unclosed polylines in the path will be
explicitly closed. If *closed_only* is `False`, any unclosed
polygons in the path will be returned as unclosed polygons,
and the closed polygons will be returned explicitly closed by
setting the last point to the same as the first point.
"""
if len(self.vertices) == 0:
return []
if transform is not None:
transform = transform.frozen()
if self.codes is None and (width == 0 or height == 0):
vertices = self.vertices
if closed_only:
if len(vertices) < 3:
return []
elif np.any(vertices[0] != vertices[-1]):
vertices = [*vertices, vertices[0]]
if transform is None:
return [vertices]
else:
return [transform.transform(vertices)]
# Deal with the case where there are curves and/or multiple
# subpaths (using extension code)
return _path.convert_path_to_polygons(
self, transform, width, height, closed_only)
_unit_rectangle = None
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_rectangle(cls):
"""
Return a `Path` instance of the unit rectangle from (0, 0) to (1, 1).
"""
if cls._unit_rectangle is None:
cls._unit_rectangle = cls([[0, 0], [1, 0], [1, 1], [0, 1], [0, 0]],
closed=True, readonly=True)
return cls._unit_rectangle
_unit_regular_polygons = WeakValueDictionary()
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_regular_polygon(cls, numVertices):
"""
Return a :class:`Path` instance for a unit regular polygon with the
given *numVertices* such that the circumscribing circle has radius 1.0,
centered at (0, 0).
"""
if numVertices <= 16:
path = cls._unit_regular_polygons.get(numVertices)
else:
path = None
if path is None:
theta = ((2 * np.pi / numVertices) * np.arange(numVertices + 1)
# This initial rotation is to make sure the polygon always
# "points-up".
+ np.pi / 2)
verts = np.column_stack((np.cos(theta), np.sin(theta)))
path = cls(verts, closed=True, readonly=True)
if numVertices <= 16:
cls._unit_regular_polygons[numVertices] = path
return path
_unit_regular_stars = WeakValueDictionary()
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_regular_star(cls, numVertices, innerCircle=0.5):
"""
Return a :class:`Path` for a unit regular star with the given
numVertices and radius of 1.0, centered at (0, 0).
"""
if numVertices <= 16:
path = cls._unit_regular_stars.get((numVertices, innerCircle))
else:
path = None
if path is None:
ns2 = numVertices * 2
theta = (2*np.pi/ns2 * np.arange(ns2 + 1))
# This initial rotation is to make sure the polygon always
# "points-up"
theta += np.pi / 2.0
r = np.ones(ns2 + 1)
r[1::2] = innerCircle
verts = (r * np.vstack((np.cos(theta), np.sin(theta)))).T
path = cls(verts, closed=True, readonly=True)
if numVertices <= 16:
cls._unit_regular_stars[(numVertices, innerCircle)] = path
return path
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_regular_asterisk(cls, numVertices):
"""
Return a :class:`Path` for a unit regular asterisk with the given
numVertices and radius of 1.0, centered at (0, 0).
"""
return cls.unit_regular_star(numVertices, 0.0)
_unit_circle = None
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_circle(cls):
"""
Return the readonly :class:`Path` of the unit circle.
For most cases, :func:`Path.circle` will be what you want.
"""
if cls._unit_circle is None:
cls._unit_circle = cls.circle(center=(0, 0), radius=1,
readonly=True)
return cls._unit_circle
[docs] @classmethod
def circle(cls, center=(0., 0.), radius=1., readonly=False):
"""
Return a `Path` representing a circle of a given radius and center.
Parameters
----------
center : (float, float), default: (0, 0)
The center of the circle.
radius : float, default: 1
The radius of the circle.
readonly : bool
Whether the created path should have the "readonly" argument
set when creating the Path instance.
Notes
-----
The circle is approximated using 8 cubic Bezier curves, as described in
Lancaster, Don. `Approximating a Circle or an Ellipse Using Four
Bezier Cubic Splines <https://www.tinaja.com/glib/ellipse4.pdf>`_.
"""
MAGIC = 0.2652031
SQRTHALF = np.sqrt(0.5)
MAGIC45 = SQRTHALF * MAGIC
vertices = np.array([[0.0, -1.0],
[MAGIC, -1.0],
[SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[SQRTHALF, -SQRTHALF],
[SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[1.0, -MAGIC],
[1.0, 0.0],
[1.0, MAGIC],
[SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[SQRTHALF, SQRTHALF],
[SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[MAGIC, 1.0],
[0.0, 1.0],
[-MAGIC, 1.0],
[-SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[-SQRTHALF, SQRTHALF],
[-SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[-1.0, MAGIC],
[-1.0, 0.0],
[-1.0, -MAGIC],
[-SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[-SQRTHALF, -SQRTHALF],
[-SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[-MAGIC, -1.0],
[0.0, -1.0],
[0.0, -1.0]],
dtype=float)
codes = [cls.CURVE4] * 26
codes[0] = cls.MOVETO
codes[-1] = cls.CLOSEPOLY
return Path(vertices * radius + center, codes, readonly=readonly)
_unit_circle_righthalf = None
[docs] @classmethod
def unit_circle_righthalf(cls):
"""
Return a `Path` of the right half of a unit circle.
See `Path.circle` for the reference on the approximation used.
"""
if cls._unit_circle_righthalf is None:
MAGIC = 0.2652031
SQRTHALF = np.sqrt(0.5)
MAGIC45 = SQRTHALF * MAGIC
vertices = np.array(
[[0.0, -1.0],
[MAGIC, -1.0],
[SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[SQRTHALF, -SQRTHALF],
[SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, -SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[1.0, -MAGIC],
[1.0, 0.0],
[1.0, MAGIC],
[SQRTHALF+MAGIC45, SQRTHALF-MAGIC45],
[SQRTHALF, SQRTHALF],
[SQRTHALF-MAGIC45, SQRTHALF+MAGIC45],
[MAGIC, 1.0],
[0.0, 1.0],
[0.0, -1.0]],
float)
codes = np.full(14, cls.CURVE4, dtype=cls.code_type)
codes[0] = cls.MOVETO
codes[-1] = cls.CLOSEPOLY
cls._unit_circle_righthalf = cls(vertices, codes, readonly=True)
return cls._unit_circle_righthalf
[docs] @classmethod
def arc(cls, theta1, theta2, n=None, is_wedge=False):
"""
Return the unit circle arc from angles *theta1* to *theta2* (in
degrees).
*theta2* is unwrapped to produce the shortest arc within 360 degrees.
That is, if *theta2* > *theta1* + 360, the arc will be from *theta1* to
*theta2* - 360 and not a full circle plus some extra overlap.
If *n* is provided, it is the number of spline segments to make.
If *n* is not provided, the number of spline segments is
determined based on the delta between *theta1* and *theta2*.
Masionobe, L. 2003. `Drawing an elliptical arc using
polylines, quadratic or cubic Bezier curves
<http://www.spaceroots.org/documents/ellipse/index.html>`_.
"""
halfpi = np.pi * 0.5
eta1 = theta1
eta2 = theta2 - 360 * np.floor((theta2 - theta1) / 360)
# Ensure 2pi range is not flattened to 0 due to floating-point errors,
# but don't try to expand existing 0 range.
if theta2 != theta1 and eta2 <= eta1:
eta2 += 360
eta1, eta2 = np.deg2rad([eta1, eta2])
# number of curve segments to make
if n is None:
n = int(2 ** np.ceil((eta2 - eta1) / halfpi))
if n < 1:
raise ValueError("n must be >= 1 or None")
deta = (eta2 - eta1) / n
t = np.tan(0.5 * deta)
alpha = np.sin(deta) * (np.sqrt(4.0 + 3.0 * t * t) - 1) / 3.0
steps = np.linspace(eta1, eta2, n + 1, True)
cos_eta = np.cos(steps)
sin_eta = np.sin(steps)
xA = cos_eta[:-1]
yA = sin_eta[:-1]
xA_dot = -yA
yA_dot = xA
xB = cos_eta[1:]
yB = sin_eta[1:]
xB_dot = -yB
yB_dot = xB
if is_wedge:
length = n * 3 + 4
vertices = np.zeros((length, 2), float)
codes = np.full(length, cls.CURVE4, dtype=cls.code_type)
vertices[1] = [xA[0], yA[0]]
codes[0:2] = [cls.MOVETO, cls.LINETO]
codes[-2:] = [cls.LINETO, cls.CLOSEPOLY]
vertex_offset = 2
end = length - 2
else:
length = n * 3 + 1
vertices = np.empty((length, 2), float)
codes = np.full(length, cls.CURVE4, dtype=cls.code_type)
vertices[0] = [xA[0], yA[0]]
codes[0] = cls.MOVETO
vertex_offset = 1
end = length
vertices[vertex_offset:end:3, 0] = xA + alpha * xA_dot
vertices[vertex_offset:end:3, 1] = yA + alpha * yA_dot
vertices[vertex_offset+1:end:3, 0] = xB - alpha * xB_dot
vertices[vertex_offset+1:end:3, 1] = yB - alpha * yB_dot
vertices[vertex_offset+2:end:3, 0] = xB
vertices[vertex_offset+2:end:3, 1] = yB
return cls(vertices, codes, readonly=True)
[docs] @classmethod
def wedge(cls, theta1, theta2, n=None):
"""
Return the unit circle wedge from angles *theta1* to *theta2* (in
degrees).
*theta2* is unwrapped to produce the shortest wedge within 360 degrees.
That is, if *theta2* > *theta1* + 360, the wedge will be from *theta1*
to *theta2* - 360 and not a full circle plus some extra overlap.
If *n* is provided, it is the number of spline segments to make.
If *n* is not provided, the number of spline segments is
determined based on the delta between *theta1* and *theta2*.
See `Path.arc` for the reference on the approximation used.
"""
return cls.arc(theta1, theta2, n, True)
[docs] @staticmethod
@lru_cache(8)
def hatch(hatchpattern, density=6):
"""
Given a hatch specifier, *hatchpattern*, generates a Path that
can be used in a repeated hatching pattern. *density* is the
number of lines per unit square.
"""
from matplotlib.hatch import get_path
return (get_path(hatchpattern, density)
if hatchpattern is not None else None)
[docs] def clip_to_bbox(self, bbox, inside=True):
"""
Clip the path to the given bounding box.
The path must be made up of one or more closed polygons. This
algorithm will not behave correctly for unclosed paths.
If *inside* is `True`, clip to the inside of the box, otherwise
to the outside of the box.
"""
# Use make_compound_path_from_polys
verts = _path.clip_path_to_rect(self, bbox, inside)
paths = [Path(poly) for poly in verts]
return self.make_compound_path(*paths)
[docs]def get_path_collection_extents(
master_transform, paths, transforms, offsets, offset_transform):
r"""
Given a sequence of `Path`\s, `~.Transform`\s objects, and offsets, as
found in a `~.PathCollection`, returns the bounding box that encapsulates
all of them.
Parameters
----------
master_transform : `~.Transform`
Global transformation applied to all paths.
paths : list of `Path`
transforms : list of `~.Affine2D`
offsets : (N, 2) array-like
offset_transform : `~.Affine2D`
Transform applied to the offsets before offsetting the path.
Notes
-----
The way that *paths*, *transforms* and *offsets* are combined
follows the same method as for collections: Each is iterated over
independently, so if you have 3 paths, 2 transforms and 1 offset,
their combinations are as follows:
(A, A, A), (B, B, A), (C, A, A)
"""
from .transforms import Bbox
if len(paths) == 0:
raise ValueError("No paths provided")
extents, minpos = _path.get_path_collection_extents(
master_transform, paths, np.atleast_3d(transforms),
offsets, offset_transform)
return Bbox.from_extents(*extents, minpos=minpos)
```