API Changes for 3.2.0

Behavior changes

Reduced default value of rcParams["axes.formatter.limits"] (default: [-5, 6])

Changed the default value of rcParams["axes.formatter.limits"] (default: [-5, 6]) from -7, 7 to -5, 6 for better readability.

(Source code, png, pdf)

../../_images/api_changes_3-2-0-1.png

matplotlib.colorbar.Colorbar uses un-normalized axes for all mappables

Before 3.0, matplotlib.colorbar.Colorbar (colorbar) normalized all axes limits between 0 and 1 and had custom tickers to handle the labelling of the colorbar ticks. After 3.0, colorbars constructed from mappables that were not contours were constructed with axes that had limits between vmin and vmax of the mappable's norm, and the tickers were made children of the normal axes tickers.

This version of Matplotlib extends that to mappables made by contours, and allows the axes to run between the lowest boundary in the contour and the highest.

Code that worked around the normalization between 0 and 1 will need to be modified.

MovieWriterRegistry

MovieWriterRegistry now always checks the availability of the writer classes before returning them. If one wishes, for example, to get the first available writer, without performing the availability check on subsequent writers, it is now possible to iterate over the registry, which will yield the names of the available classes.

Autoscaling

Matplotlib used to recompute autoscaled limits after every plotting (plot(), bar(), etc.) call. It now only does so when actually rendering the canvas, or when the user queries the Axes limits. This is a major performance improvement for plots with a large number of artists.

In particular, this means that artists added manually with Axes.add_line, Axes.add_patch, etc. will be taken into account by the autoscale, even without an explicit call to Axes.autoscale_view.

In some cases, this can result in different limits being reported. If this is an issue, consider triggering a draw with fig.canvas.draw().

Autoscaling has also changed for artists that are based on the Collection class. Previously, the method that calculates the automatic limits Collection.get_datalim tried to take into account the size of objects in the collection and make the limits large enough to not clip any of the object, i.e., for Axes.scatter it would make the limits large enough to not clip any markers in the scatter. This is problematic when the object size is specified in physical space, or figure-relative space, because the transform from physical units to data limits requires knowing the data limits, and becomes invalid when the new limits are applied. This is an inverse problem that is theoretically solvable (if the object is physically smaller than the axes), but the extra complexity was not deemed worth it, particularly as the most common use case is for markers in scatter that are usually small enough to be accommodated by the default data limit margins.

While the new behavior is algorithmically simpler, it is conditional on properties of the Collection object:

  1. offsets = None, transform is a child of Axes.transData: use the paths for the automatic limits (i.e. for LineCollection in Axes.streamplot).

  2. offsets != None, and offset_transform is child of Axes.transData:

  1. transform is child of Axes.transData: use the path + offset for

    limits (i.e., for Axes.bar).

  2. transform is not a child of Axes.transData: just use the offsets

    for the limits (i.e. for scatter)

  1. otherwise return a null Bbox.

While this seems complicated, the logic is simply to use the information from the object that are in data space for the limits, but not information that is in physical units.

log-scale bar() / hist() autolimits

The autolimits computation in bar and hist when the axes already uses log-scale has changed to match the computation when the axes is switched to log-scale after the call to bar and hist, and when calling bar(..., log=True) / hist(..., log=True): if there are at least two different bar heights, add the normal axes margins to them (in log-scale); if there is only a single bar height, expand the axes limits by one order of magnitude around it and then apply axes margins.

Axes labels spanning multiple rows/columns

Axes.label_outer now correctly keep the x labels and tick labels visible for Axes spanning multiple rows, as long as they cover the last row of the Axes grid. (This is consistent with keeping the y labels and tick labels visible for Axes spanning multiple columns as long as they cover the first column of the Axes grid.)

The Axes.is_last_row and Axes.is_last_col methods now correctly return True for Axes spanning multiple rows, as long as they cover the last row or column respectively. Again this is consistent with the behavior for axes covering the first row or column.

The Axes.rowNum and Axes.colNum attributes are deprecated, as they only refer to the first grid cell covered by the Axes. Instead, use the new ax.get_subplotspec().rowspan and ax.get_subplotspec().colspan properties, which are range objects indicating the whole span of rows and columns covered by the subplot.

(Note that all methods and attributes mentioned here actually only exist on the Subplot subclass of Axes, which is used for grid-positioned Axes but not for Axes positioned directly in absolute coordinates.)

The GridSpec class gained the nrows and ncols properties as more explicit synonyms for the parameters returned by GridSpec.get_geometry.

Locators

When more than Locator.MAXTICKS ticks are generated, the behavior of Locator.raise_if_exceeds changed from raising a RuntimeError to emitting a log at WARNING level.

nonsingular Locators

Locator.nonsingular (introduced in mpl 3.1), DateLocator.nonsingular, and AutoDateLocator.nonsingular now returns a range v0, v1 with v0 <= v1. This behavior is consistent with the implementation of nonsingular by the LogLocator and LogitLocator subclasses.

get_data_ratio

Axes.get_data_ratio now takes the axes scale into account (linear, log, logit, etc.) before computing the y-to-x ratio. This change allows fixed aspects to be applied to any combination of x and y scales.

Artist sticky edges

Previously, the sticky_edges attribute of artists was a list of values such that if an axis limit coincides with a sticky edge, it would not be expanded by the axes margins (this is the mechanism that e.g. prevents margins from being added around images).

sticky_edges now have an additional effect on margins application: even if an axis limit did not coincide with a sticky edge, it cannot cross a sticky edge through margin application -- instead, the margins will only expand the axis limit until it bumps against the sticky edge.

This change improves the margins of axes displaying a streamplot:

  • if the streamplot goes all the way to the edges of the vector field, then the axis limits are set to match exactly the vector field limits (whereas they would sometimes be off by a small floating point error previously).

  • if the streamplot does not reach the edges of the vector field (e.g., due to the use of start_points and maxlength), then margins expansion will not cross the vector field limits anymore.

This change is also used internally to ensure that polar plots don't display negative r values unless the user really passes in a negative value.

gid in svg output

Previously, if a figure, axis, legend or some other artists had a custom gid set (e.g. via .set_gid()), this would not be reflected in the svg output. Instead a default gid, like figure_1 would be shown. This is now fixed, such that e.g. fig.set_gid("myfigure") correctly shows up as <g id="myfigure"> in the svg file. If you relied on the gid having the default format, you now need to make sure not to set the gid parameter of the artists.

Fonts

Font weight guessing now first checks for the presence of the FT_STYLE_BOLD_FLAG before trying to match substrings in the font name. In particular, this means that Times New Roman Bold is now correctly detected as bold, not normal weight.

Color-like checking

matplotlib.colors.is_color_like used to return True for all string representations of floats. However, only those with values in 0-1 are valid colors (representing grayscale values). is_color_like now returns False for string representations of floats outside 0-1.

Default image interpolation

Images displayed in Matplotlib previously used nearest-neighbor interpolation, leading to aliasing effects for downscaling and non-integer upscaling.

New default for rcParams["image.interpolation"] (default: 'antialiased') is the new option "antialiased". imshow(A, interpolation='antialiased') will apply a Hanning filter when resampling the data in A for display (or saving to file) if the upsample rate is less than a factor of three, and not an integer; downsampled data is always smoothed at resampling.

To get the old behavior, set rcParams["image.interpolation"] (default: 'antialiased') to the old default "nearest" (or specify the interpolation kwarg of Axes.imshow)

To always get the anti-aliasing behavior, no matter what the up/down sample rate, set rcParams["image.interpolation"] (default: 'antialiased') to "hanning" (or one of the other filters available).

Note that the "hanning" filter was chosen because it has only a modest performance penalty. Anti-aliasing can be improved with other filters.

rcParams

When using RendererSVG with rcParams["svg.image_inline"] == True, externally written images now use a single counter even if the renderer.basename attribute is overwritten, rather than a counter per basename.

This change will only affect you if you used rcParams["svg.image_inline"] = True (the default is False) and manually modified renderer.basename.

Changed the default value of rcParams["axes.formatter.limits"] (default: [-5, 6]) from -7, 7 to -5, 6 for better readability.

add_subplot()

Figure.add_subplot() and pyplot.subplot() do not accept a figure keyword argument anymore. It only used to work anyway if the passed figure was self or the current figure, respectively.

indicate_inset()

In <= 3.1.0, indicate_inset and indicate_inset_zoom were documented as returning a 4-tuple of ConnectionPatch, where in fact they returned a 4-length list.

They now correctly return a 4-tuple. indicate_inset would previously raise an error if the optional inset_ax was not supplied; it now completes successfully, and returns None instead of the tuple of ConnectionPatch.

PGF backend

The pgf backend's get_canvas_width_height now returns the canvas size in display units rather than in inches, which it previously did. The new behavior is the correct one given the uses of get_canvas_width_height in the rest of the codebase.

The pgf backend now includes images using \includegraphics instead of \pgfimage if the version of graphicx is recent enough to support the interpolate option (this is detected automatically).

cbook

The default value of the "obj_type" parameter to cbook.warn_deprecated has been changed from "attribute" (a default that was never used internally) to the empty string.

Testing

The test suite no longer turns on the Python fault handler by default. Set the standard PYTHONFAULTHANDLER environment variable to do so.

Backend supports_blit

Backends do not need to explicitly define the flag supports_blit anymore. This is only relevant for backend developers. Backends had to define the flag supports_blit. This is not needed anymore because the blitting capability is now automatically detected.

Exception changes

Various APIs that raised a ValueError for incorrectly typed inputs now raise TypeError instead: backend_bases.GraphicsContextBase.set_clip_path, blocking_input.BlockingInput.__call__, cm.register_cmap, dviread.DviFont, rcsetup.validate_hatch, .rcsetup.validate_animation_writer_path, spines.Spine, many classes in the matplotlib.transforms module and matplotlib.tri package, and Axes methods that take a norm parameter.

If extra kwargs are passed to LogScale, TypeError will now be raised instead of ValueError.

mplot3d auto-registration

mpl_toolkits.mplot3d is always registered by default now. It is no longer necessary to import mplot3d to create 3d axes with

ax = fig.add_subplot(111, projection="3d")

SymLogNorm now has a base parameter

Previously, SymLogNorm had no base keyword argument and the base was hard-coded to base=np.e. This was inconsistent with the default behavior of SymmetricalLogScale (which defaults to base=10) and the use of the word "decade" in the documentation.

In preparation for changing the default base to 10, calling SymLogNorm without the new base keyword argument emits a deprecation warning.

Deprecations

matplotlib.use

The warn parameter to matplotlib.use() is deprecated (catch the ImportError emitted on backend switch failure and reemit a warning yourself if so desired).

plotfile

.pyplot.plotfile is deprecated in favor of separately loading and plotting the data. Use pandas or NumPy to load data, and pandas or matplotlib to plot the resulting data.

axes and axis

Setting Axis.major.locator, Axis.minor.locator, Axis.major.formatter or Axis.minor.formatter to an object that is not a subclass of Locator or Formatter (respectively) is deprecated. Note that these attributes should usually be set using Axis.set_major_locator, Axis.set_minor_locator, etc. which already raise an exception when an object of the wrong class is passed.

Passing more than one positional argument or unsupported keyword arguments to axis() is deprecated (such arguments used to be silently ignored).

minor argument will become keyword-only

Using the parameter minor to get_*ticks() / set_*ticks() as a positional parameter is deprecated. It will become keyword-only in future versions.

axes_grid1

The mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1.colorbar module and its colorbar implementation are deprecated in favor of matplotlib.colorbar, as the former is essentially abandoned and the latter is a more featureful replacement with a nearly compatible API (for example, the following additional keywords are supported: panchor, extendfrac, extendrect).

The main differences are:

  • Setting the ticks on the colorbar is done by calling colorbar.set_ticks rather than colorbar.cbar_axis.set_xticks or colorbar.cbar_axis.set_yticks; the locator parameter to colorbar() is deprecated in favor of its synonym ticks (which already existed previously, and is consistent with matplotlib.colorbar).

  • The colorbar's long axis is accessed with colorbar.xaxis or colorbar.yaxis depending on the orientation, rather than colorbar.cbar_axis.

  • The default ticker is no longer MaxNLocator(5), but a _ColorbarAutoLocator.

  • Overdrawing multiple colorbars on top of one another in a single Axes (e.g. when using the cax attribute of ImageGrid elements) is not supported; if you previously relied on the second colorbar being drawn over the first, you can call cax.cla() to clear the axes before drawing the second colorbar.

During the deprecation period, the mpl_toolkits.legacy_colorbar rcParam can be set to True to use mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1.colorbar in mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1 code with a deprecation warning (the default), or to False to use matplotlib.colorbar.

Passing a pad size of None (the default) as a synonym for zero to the append_axes, new_horizontal and new_vertical methods of axes_grid1.axes_divider.AxesDivider is deprecated. In a future release, the default value of None will mean "use rcParams["figure.subplot.wspace"] (default: 0.2) or rcParams["figure.subplot.hspace"] (default: 0.2)" (depending on the orientation). Explicitly pass pad=0 to keep the old behavior.

Axes3D

mplot3d.axis3d.get_flip_min_max is deprecated.

axes3d.unit_bbox is deprecated (use Bbox.unit instead).

axes3d.Axes3D.w_xaxis, .w_yaxis, and .w_zaxis are deprecated (use .xaxis, .yaxis, and .zaxis instead).

matplotlib.cm

cm.revcmap is deprecated. Use Colormap.reversed to reverse a colormap.

cm.datad no longer contains entries for reversed colormaps in their "unconverted" form.

axisartist

mpl_toolkits.axisartist.grid_finder.GridFinderBase is deprecated (its only use is to be inherited by the GridFinder class which just provides more defaults in the constructor and directly sets the transforms, so GridFinderBase's methods were just moved to GridFinder).

axisartist.axis_artist.BezierPath is deprecated (use patches.PathPatch to draw arbitrary Paths).

AxisArtist.line is now a patches.PathPatch instance instead of a BezierPath instance.

Returning a factor equal to None from axisartist Locators (which are not the same as "standard" tick Locators), or passing a factor equal to None to axisartist Formatters (which are not the same as "standard" tick Formatters) is deprecated. Pass a factor equal to 1 instead.

For the mpl_toolkits.axisartist.axis_artist.AttributeCopier class, the constructor and the set_ref_artist method, and the default_value parameter of get_attribute_from_ref_artist, are deprecated.

Deprecation of the constructor means that classes inheriting from AttributeCopier should no longer call its constructor.

Locators

The unused Locator.autoscale method is deprecated (pass the axis limits to Locator.view_limits instead).

Animation

The following methods and attributes of the MovieWriterRegistry class are deprecated: set_dirty, ensure_not_dirty, reset_available_writers, avail.

smart_bounds()

The "smart_bounds" functionality is deprecated. This includes Axis.set_smart_bounds(), Axis.get_smart_bounds(), Spine.set_smart_bounds(), and Spine.get_smart_bounds().

boxplot()

Setting the whis parameter of Axes.boxplot and cbook.boxplot_stats to "range" to mean "the whole data range" is deprecated; set it to (0, 100) (which gets interpreted as percentiles) to achieve the same effect.

fill_between()

Passing scalars to parameter where in fill_between() and fill_betweenx() is deprecated. While the documentation already states that where must be of the same size as x (or y), scalars were accepted and broadcasted to the size of x. Non-matching sizes will raise a ValueError in the future.

scatter()

Passing the verts parameter to axes.Axes.scatter is deprecated; use the marker parameter instead.

tight_layout()

The renderer parameter to Figure.tight_layout is deprecated; this method now always uses the renderer instance cached on the Figure.

rcParams

The rcsetup.validate_animation_writer_path function is deprecated.

Setting rcParams["savefig.format"] (default: 'png') to "auto" is deprecated; use its synonym "png" instead.

Setting rcParams["text.hinting"] (default: 'force_autohint') to True or False is deprecated; use their synonyms "auto" or "none" instead.

rcsetup.update_savefig_format is deprecated.

rcsetup.validate_path_exists is deprecated (use os.path.exists to check whether a path exists).

rcsetup.ValidateInterval is deprecated.

Dates

dates.mx2num is deprecated.

TK

NavigationToolbar2Tk.set_active is deprecated, as it has no (observable) effect.

WX

FigureFrameWx.statusbar and NavigationToolbar2Wx.statbar are deprecated. The status bar can be retrieved by calling standard wx methods (frame.GetStatusBar() and toolbar.GetTopLevelParent().GetStatusBar()).

backend_wx.ConfigureSubplotsWx.configure_subplots and backend_wx.ConfigureSubplotsWx.get_canvas are deprecated.

PGF

backend_pgf.repl_escapetext and backend_pgf.repl_mathdefault are deprecated.

RendererPgf.latexManager is deprecated.

FigureCanvas

FigureCanvasBase.draw_cursor (which has never done anything and has never been overridden in any backend) is deprecated.

FigureCanvasMac.invalidate is deprecated in favor of its synonym, FigureCanvasMac.draw_idle.

The dryrun parameter to the various FigureCanvasFoo.print_foo methods is deprecated.

QuiverKey doc

quiver.QuiverKey.quiverkey_doc is deprecated; use quiver.QuiverKey.__init__.__doc__ instead.

matplotlib.mlab

mlab.apply_window and mlab.stride_repeat are deprecated.

Fonts

font_manager.JSONEncoder is deprecated. Use font_manager.json_dump to dump a FontManager instance.

font_manager.createFontList is deprecated. font_manager.FontManager.addfont is now available to register a font at a given path.

The as_str, as_rgba_str, as_array, get_width and get_height methods of matplotlib.ft2font.FT2Image are deprecated. Convert the FT2Image to a NumPy array with np.asarray before processing it.

Colors

The function matplotlib.colors.makeMappingArray is not considered part of the public API any longer. Thus, it's deprecated.

Using a string of single-character colors as a color sequence (e.g. "rgb") is deprecated. Use an explicit list instead.

Scales

Passing unsupported keyword arguments to ScaleBase, and its subclasses LinearScale and SymmetricalLogScale, is deprecated and will raise a TypeError in 3.3.

If extra keyword arguments are passed to LogScale, TypeError will now be raised instead of ValueError.

Testing

The matplotlib.testing.disable_internet module is deprecated. Use (for example) pytest-remotedata instead.

Support in matplotlib.testing for nose-based tests is deprecated (a deprecation is emitted if using e.g. the decorators from that module while both 1) matplotlib's conftests have not been called and 2) nose is in sys.modules).

testing.is_called_from_pytest is deprecated.

During the deprecation period, to force the generation of nose base tests, import nose first.

The switch_backend_warn parameter to matplotlib.test has no effect and is deprecated.

testing.jpl_units.UnitDbl.UnitDbl.checkUnits is deprecated.

DivergingNorm renamed to TwoSlopeNorm

DivergingNorm was a misleading name; although the norm was developed with the idea that it would likely be used with diverging colormaps, the word 'diverging' does not describe or evoke the norm's mapping function. Since that function is monotonic, continuous, and piece-wise linear with two segments, the norm has been renamed to TwoSlopeNorm

Misc

matplotlib.get_home is deprecated (use e.g. os.path.expanduser("~")) instead.

matplotlib.compare_versions is deprecated (use comparison of distutils.version.LooseVersions instead).

matplotlib.checkdep_ps_distiller is deprecated.

matplotlib.figure.AxesStack is considered private API and will be removed from the public API in future versions.

BboxBase.is_unit is deprecated (check the Bbox extents if needed).

Affine2DBase.matrix_from_values(...) is deprecated. Use (for example) Affine2D.from_values(...).get_matrix() instead.

style.core.is_style_file and style.core.iter_style_files are deprecated.

The datapath rcParam

Use get_data_path instead. (The rcParam is deprecated because it cannot be meaningfully set by an end user.) The rcParam had no effect from 3.2.0, but was deprecated only in 3.2.1. In 3.2.1+ if 'datapath' is set in a matplotlibrc file it will be respected, but this behavior will be removed in 3.3.

Removals

The matplotlib.testing.determinism module, which exposes no public API, has been deleted.

The following API elements have been removed:

  • backend_gtk3.PIXELS_PER_INCH

  • backend_pgf.re_escapetext, backend_pgf.re_mathdefault.

  • the matplotlib.backends.tkagg, matplotlib.backends.windowing, matplotlib.backends.wx_compat, and matplotlib.compat.subprocess modules

  • RcParams.msg_depr, RcParams.msg_depr_ignore, RcParams.msg_depr_set, RcParams.msg_obsolete, RcParams.msg_backend_obsolete

  • afm.parse_afm (use afm.AFM instead)

  • axes.Axes.mouseover_set

  • backend_cairo.ArrayWrapper, backend_cairo.RendererCairo.convert_path

  • backend_gtk3.FileChooserDialog.sorted_filetypes (use sorted(self.filetypes.items()) instead)

  • backend_pgf.get_texcommand

  • backend_pdf.PdfFile.texFontMap

  • backend_ps.get_bbox

  • backend_qt.FigureCanvasQt.keyAutoRepeat (use event.guiEvent.isAutoRepeat instead), backend_qt.error_msg_qt, backend_qt.exception_handler

  • backend_wx.FigureCanvasWx.macros

  • backends.pylab_setup

  • cbook.Bunch (use types.SimpleNamespace instead), cbook.Locked, cbook.unicode_safe, cbook.is_numlike (use isinstance(..., numbers.Number) instead), cbook.mkdirs (use os.makedirs(..., exist_ok=True) instead), cbook.GetRealpathAndStat (use cbook.get_realpath_and_stat instead), cbook.listFiles

  • container.Container.set_remove_method

  • contour.ContourLabeler.cl, contour.ContourLabeler.cl_xy, contour.ContourLabeler.cl_cvalues (use labelTexts, labelXYs, labelCValues instead)

  • dates.DateFormatter.strftime, dates.DateFormatter.strftime_pre_1900

  • font_manager.TempCache, font_manager.FontManager.ttffiles, font_manager.FontManager.afmfiles

  • mathtext.unichr_safe (use chr instead)

  • patches.YAArrow (use patches.FancyArrowPatch instead)

  • sphinxext.plot_directive.remove_coding

  • table.Table.get_child_artists

  • testing.compare.compare_float, testing.decorators.CleanupTest, testing.decorators.ImageComparisonTest, testing.decorators.skip_if_command_unavailable, support for nose-based tests

  • text.Annotation.arrow (use text.Annotation.arrow_patch instead)

  • textpath.TextToPath.tex_font_map

  • ticker.Base, ticker.closeto, ticker.nearest_long

  • axes_grid1.axes_divider.LocatableAxesBase, axes_grid1.axes_divider.locatable_axes_factory, axes_grid1.axes_divider.Axes (use axes_grid1.mpl_axes.Axes instead), axes_grid1.axes_divider.LocatableAxes (use axes_grid1.mpl_axes.Axes instead)

  • axisartist.axes_divider.Axes, axisartist.axes_divider.LocatableAxes (use axisartist.axislines.Axes instead)

  • the normed keyword argument to hist (use density instead)

  • passing (verts, 0) or (..., 3) when specifying a marker to specify a path or a circle, respectively (instead, use verts or "o", respectively)

  • rcParams["examples.directory"]

The following members of matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfFile were removed:

  • nextObject

  • nextFont

  • nextAlphaState

  • nextHatch

  • nextImage

  • alphaStateObject

The required_interactive_framework attribute of backend modules introduced in Matplotlib 3.0 has been moved to the FigureCanvas class, in order to let it be inherited by third-party canvas subclasses and to make it easier to know what interactive framework is required by a canvas class.

backend_qt4.FigureCanvasQT5, which is an alias for backend_qt5.FigureCanvasQT (but only exists under that name in backend_qt4), has been removed.

Development changes

Windows build

Previously, when building the matplotlib._png extension, the build script would add "png" and "z" to the extensions .libraries attribute (if pkg-config information is not available, which is in particular the case on Windows).

In particular, this implies that the Windows build would look up files named png.lib and z.lib; but neither libpng upstream nor zlib upstream provides these files by default. (On Linux, this would look up libpng.so and libz.so, which are indeed standard names.)

Instead, on Windows, we now look up libpng16.lib and zlib.lib, which are the upstream names for the shared libraries (as of libpng 1.6.x).

For a statically-linked build, the upstream names are libpng16_static.lib and zlibstatic.lib; one still needs to manually rename them if such a build is desired.

Packaging DLLs

Previously, it was possible to package Windows DLLs into the Matplotlib wheel (or sdist) by copying them into the source tree and setting the package_data.dlls entry in setup.cfg.

DLLs copied in the source tree are now always packaged; the package_data.dlls entry has no effect anymore. If you do not want to include the DLLs, don't copy them into the source tree.