backend_pdf#

A PDF Matplotlib backend.

Author: Jouni K Seppänen <jks@iki.fi> and others.

matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.FigureCanvas[source]#

alias of FigureCanvasPdf

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.FigureCanvasPdf(figure=None)[source]#

Bases: FigureCanvasBase

draw()[source]#

Render the Figure.

This method must walk the artist tree, even if no output is produced, because it triggers deferred work that users may want to access before saving output to disk. For example computing limits, auto-limits, and tick values.

filetypes = {'pdf': 'Portable Document Format'}#
fixed_dpi = 72#
get_default_filetype()[source]#

Return the default savefig file format as specified in rcParams["savefig.format"] (default: 'png').

The returned string does not include a period. This method is overridden in backends that only support a single file type.

print_pdf(filename, *, bbox_inches_restore=None, metadata=None)[source]#
class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.GraphicsContextPdf(file)[source]#

Bases: GraphicsContextBase

alpha_cmd(alpha, forced, effective_alphas)[source]#
capstyle_cmd(style)[source]#
capstyles = {'butt': 0, 'projecting': 2, 'round': 1}#
clip_cmd(cliprect, clippath)[source]#

Set clip rectangle. Calls pop() and push().

commands = ((('_cliprect', '_clippath'), <function GraphicsContextPdf.clip_cmd>), (('_alpha', '_forced_alpha', '_effective_alphas'), <function GraphicsContextPdf.alpha_cmd>), (('_capstyle',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.capstyle_cmd>), (('_fillcolor',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.fillcolor_cmd>), (('_joinstyle',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.joinstyle_cmd>), (('_linewidth',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.linewidth_cmd>), (('_dashes',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.dash_cmd>), (('_rgb',), <function GraphicsContextPdf.rgb_cmd>), (('_hatch', '_hatch_color'), <function GraphicsContextPdf.hatch_cmd>))#
copy_properties(other)[source]#

Copy properties of other into self.

dash_cmd(dashes)[source]#
delta(other)[source]#

Copy properties of other into self and return PDF commands needed to transform self into other.

fill(*args)[source]#

Predicate: does the path need to be filled?

An optional argument can be used to specify an alternative _fillcolor, as needed by RendererPdf.draw_markers.

fillcolor_cmd(rgb)[source]#
finalize()[source]#

Make sure every pushed graphics state is popped.

hatch_cmd(hatch, hatch_color)[source]#
joinstyle_cmd(style)[source]#
joinstyles = {'bevel': 2, 'miter': 0, 'round': 1}#
linewidth_cmd(width)[source]#
paint()[source]#

Return the appropriate pdf operator to cause the path to be stroked, filled, or both.

pop()[source]#
push()[source]#
rgb_cmd(rgb)[source]#
stroke()[source]#

Predicate: does the path need to be stroked (its outline drawn)? This tests for the various conditions that disable stroking the path, in which case it would presumably be filled.

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Name(name)[source]#

Bases: object

PDF name object.

static hexify(match)[source]#

[Deprecated]

Notes

Deprecated since version 3.6:

name#
pdfRepr()[source]#
class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Op(value)[source]#

Bases: Enum

PDF operators (not an exhaustive list).

begin_text = b'BT'[source]#
clip = b'W'[source]#
close_fill_stroke = b'b'[source]#
close_stroke = b's'[source]#
closepath = b'h'[source]#
concat_matrix = b'cm'[source]#
curveto = b'c'[source]#
end_text = b'ET'[source]#
endpath = b'n'[source]#
fill = b'f'[source]#
fill_stroke = b'B'[source]#
grestore = b'Q'[source]#
gsave = b'q'[source]#
lineto = b'l'[source]#
moveto = b'm'[source]#
property op[source]#
classmethod paint_path(fill, stroke)[source]#

Return the PDF operator to paint a path.

Parameters:
fillbool

Fill the path with the fill color.

strokebool

Stroke the outline of the path with the line color.

pdfRepr()[source]#
rectangle = b're'[source]#
selectfont = b'Tf'[source]#
setcolor_nonstroke = b'scn'[source]#
setcolor_stroke = b'SCN'[source]#
setcolorspace_nonstroke = b'cs'[source]#
setcolorspace_stroke = b'CS'[source]#
setdash = b'd'[source]#
setgray_nonstroke = b'g'[source]#
setgray_stroke = b'G'[source]#
setgstate = b'gs'[source]#
setlinecap = b'J'[source]#
setlinejoin = b'j'[source]#
setlinewidth = b'w'[source]#
setrgb_nonstroke = b'rg'[source]#
setrgb_stroke = b'RG'[source]#
shading = b'sh'[source]#
show = b'Tj'[source]#
showkern = b'TJ'[source]#
stroke = b'S'[source]#
textmatrix = b'Tm'[source]#
textpos = b'Td'[source]#
use_xobject = b'Do'[source]#
class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Operator(op)[source]#

Bases: object

[Deprecated]

Notes

Deprecated since version 3.6:

op#
pdfRepr()[source]#
class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfFile(filename, metadata=None)[source]#

Bases: object

PDF file object.

Parameters:
filenamestr or path-like or file-like

Output target; if a string, a file will be opened for writing.

metadatadict from strings to strings and dates

Information dictionary object (see PDF reference section 10.2.1 'Document Information Dictionary'), e.g.: {'Creator': 'My software', 'Author': 'Me', 'Title': 'Awesome'}.

The standard keys are 'Title', 'Author', 'Subject', 'Keywords', 'Creator', 'Producer', 'CreationDate', 'ModDate', and 'Trapped'. Values have been predefined for 'Creator', 'Producer' and 'CreationDate'. They can be removed by setting them to None.

addGouraudTriangles(points, colors)[source]#

Add a Gouraud triangle shading.

Parameters:
pointsnp.ndarray

Triangle vertices, shape (n, 3, 2) where n = number of triangles, 3 = vertices, 2 = x, y.

colorsnp.ndarray

Vertex colors, shape (n, 3, 1) or (n, 3, 4) as with points, but last dimension is either (gray,) or (r, g, b, alpha).

Returns:
Name, Reference
alphaState(alpha)[source]#

Return name of an ExtGState that sets alpha to the given value.

beginStream(id, len, extra=None, png=None)[source]#
close()[source]#

Flush all buffers and free all resources.

createType1Descriptor(t1font, fontfile)[source]#
dviFontName(dvifont)[source]#

Given a dvi font object, return a name suitable for Op.selectfont. This registers the font information in self.dviFontInfo if not yet registered.

embedTTF(filename, characters)[source]#

Embed the TTF font from the named file into the document.

endStream()[source]#
finalize()[source]#

Write out the various deferred objects and the pdf end matter.

fontName(fontprop)[source]#

Select a font based on fontprop and return a name suitable for Op.selectfont. If fontprop is a string, it will be interpreted as the filename of the font.

hatchPattern(hatch_style)[source]#
imageObject(image)[source]#

Return name of an image XObject representing the given image.

markerObject(path, trans, fill, stroke, lw, joinstyle, capstyle)[source]#

Return name of a marker XObject representing the given path.

newPage(width, height)[source]#
newTextnote(text, positionRect=[-100, -100, 0, 0])[source]#
output(*data)[source]#
outputStream(ref, data, *, extra=None)[source]#
pathCollectionObject(gc, path, trans, padding, filled, stroked)[source]#
static pathOperations(path, transform, clip=None, simplify=None, sketch=None)[source]#
recordXref(id)[source]#
reserveObject(name='')[source]#

Reserve an ID for an indirect object.

The name is used for debugging in case we forget to print out the object with writeObject.

write(data)[source]#
writeExtGSTates()[source]#
writeFonts()[source]#
writeGouraudTriangles()[source]#
writeHatches()[source]#
writeImages()[source]#
writeInfoDict()[source]#

Write out the info dictionary, checking it for good form

writeMarkers()[source]#
writeObject(object, contents)[source]#
writePath(path, transform, clip=False, sketch=None)[source]#
writePathCollectionTemplates()[source]#
writeTrailer()[source]#

Write out the PDF trailer.

writeXref()[source]#

Write out the xref table.

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfPages(filename, keep_empty=True, metadata=None)[source]#

Bases: object

A multi-page PDF file.

Notes

In reality PdfPages is a thin wrapper around PdfFile, in order to avoid confusion when using savefig and forgetting the format argument.

Examples

>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
>>> # Initialize:
>>> with PdfPages('foo.pdf') as pdf:
...     # As many times as you like, create a figure fig and save it:
...     fig = plt.figure()
...     pdf.savefig(fig)
...     # When no figure is specified the current figure is saved
...     pdf.savefig()

Create a new PdfPages object.

Parameters:
filenamestr or path-like or file-like

Plots using PdfPages.savefig will be written to a file at this location. The file is opened at once and any older file with the same name is overwritten.

keep_emptybool, optional

If set to False, then empty pdf files will be deleted automatically when closed.

metadatadict, optional

Information dictionary object (see PDF reference section 10.2.1 'Document Information Dictionary'), e.g.: {'Creator': 'My software', 'Author': 'Me', 'Title': 'Awesome'}.

The standard keys are 'Title', 'Author', 'Subject', 'Keywords', 'Creator', 'Producer', 'CreationDate', 'ModDate', and 'Trapped'. Values have been predefined for 'Creator', 'Producer' and 'CreationDate'. They can be removed by setting them to None.

attach_note(text, positionRect=[-100, -100, 0, 0])[source]#

Add a new text note to the page to be saved next. The optional positionRect specifies the position of the new note on the page. It is outside the page per default to make sure it is invisible on printouts.

close()[source]#

Finalize this object, making the underlying file a complete PDF file.

get_pagecount()[source]#

Return the current number of pages in the multipage pdf file.

infodict()[source]#

Return a modifiable information dictionary object (see PDF reference section 10.2.1 'Document Information Dictionary').

keep_empty#
savefig(figure=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Save a Figure to this file as a new page.

Any other keyword arguments are passed to savefig.

Parameters:
figureFigure or int, default: the active figure

The figure, or index of the figure, that is saved to the file.

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Reference(id)[source]#

Bases: object

PDF reference object.

Use PdfFile.reserveObject() to create References.

pdfRepr()[source]#
write(contents, file)[source]#
class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.RendererPdf(file, image_dpi, height, width)[source]#

Bases: RendererPDFPSBase

check_gc(gc, fillcolor=None)[source]#
draw_gouraud_triangle(gc, points, colors, trans)[source]#

[Deprecated] Draw a Gouraud-shaded triangle.

Parameters:
gcGraphicsContextBase

The graphics context.

points(3, 2) array-like

Array of (x, y) points for the triangle.

colors(3, 4) array-like

RGBA colors for each point of the triangle.

transformmatplotlib.transforms.Transform

An affine transform to apply to the points.

Notes

Deprecated since version 3.7: Use draw_gouraud_triangles instead.

draw_gouraud_triangles(gc, points, colors, trans)[source]#

Draw a series of Gouraud triangles.

Parameters:
points(N, 3, 2) array-like

Array of N (x, y) points for the triangles.

colors(N, 3, 4) array-like

Array of N RGBA colors for each point of the triangles.

transformmatplotlib.transforms.Transform

An affine transform to apply to the points.

draw_image(gc, x, y, im, transform=None)[source]#

Draw an RGBA image.

Parameters:
gcGraphicsContextBase

A graphics context with clipping information.

xscalar

The distance in physical units (i.e., dots or pixels) from the left hand side of the canvas.

yscalar

The distance in physical units (i.e., dots or pixels) from the bottom side of the canvas.

im(N, M, 4) array-like of np.uint8

An array of RGBA pixels.

transformmatplotlib.transforms.Affine2DBase

If and only if the concrete backend is written such that option_scale_image returns True, an affine transformation (i.e., an Affine2DBase) may be passed to draw_image. The translation vector of the transformation is given in physical units (i.e., dots or pixels). Note that the transformation does not override x and y, and has to be applied before translating the result by x and y (this can be accomplished by adding x and y to the translation vector defined by transform).

draw_markers(gc, marker_path, marker_trans, path, trans, rgbFace=None)[source]#

Draw a marker at each of path's vertices (excluding control points).

The base (fallback) implementation makes multiple calls to draw_path. Backends may want to override this method in order to draw the marker only once and reuse it multiple times.

Parameters:
gcGraphicsContextBase

The graphics context.

marker_transmatplotlib.transforms.Transform

An affine transform applied to the marker.

transmatplotlib.transforms.Transform

An affine transform applied to the path.

draw_mathtext(gc, x, y, s, prop, angle)[source]#
draw_path(gc, path, transform, rgbFace=None)[source]#

Draw a Path instance using the given affine transform.

draw_path_collection(gc, master_transform, paths, all_transforms, offsets, offset_trans, facecolors, edgecolors, linewidths, linestyles, antialiaseds, urls, offset_position)[source]#

Draw a collection of paths.

Each path is first transformed by the corresponding entry in all_transforms (a list of (3, 3) matrices) and then by master_transform. They are then translated by the corresponding entry in offsets, which has been first transformed by offset_trans.

facecolors, edgecolors, linewidths, linestyles, and antialiased are lists that set the corresponding properties.

offset_position is unused now, but the argument is kept for backwards compatibility.

The base (fallback) implementation makes multiple calls to draw_path. Backends may want to override this in order to render each set of path data only once, and then reference that path multiple times with the different offsets, colors, styles etc. The generator methods _iter_collection_raw_paths and _iter_collection are provided to help with (and standardize) the implementation across backends. It is highly recommended to use those generators, so that changes to the behavior of draw_path_collection can be made globally.

draw_tex(gc, x, y, s, prop, angle, *, mtext=None)[source]#
draw_text(gc, x, y, s, prop, angle, ismath=False, mtext=None)[source]#

Draw a text instance.

Parameters:
gcGraphicsContextBase

The graphics context.

xfloat

The x location of the text in display coords.

yfloat

The y location of the text baseline in display coords.

sstr

The text string.

propmatplotlib.font_manager.FontProperties

The font properties.

anglefloat

The rotation angle in degrees anti-clockwise.

ismathbool or "TeX"

If True, use mathtext parser. If "TeX", use usetex mode.

mtextmatplotlib.text.Text

The original text object to be rendered.

Notes

Note for backend implementers:

When you are trying to determine if you have gotten your bounding box right (which is what enables the text layout/alignment to work properly), it helps to change the line in text.py:

if 0: bbox_artist(self, renderer)

to if 1, and then the actual bounding box will be plotted along with your text.

encode_string(s, fonttype)[source]#
finalize()[source]#
get_image_magnification()[source]#

Get the factor by which to magnify images passed to draw_image. Allows a backend to have images at a different resolution to other artists.

new_gc()[source]#

Return an instance of a GraphicsContextBase.

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Stream(id, len, file, extra=None, png=None)[source]#

Bases: object

PDF stream object.

This has no pdfRepr method. Instead, call begin(), then output the contents of the stream by calling write(), and finally call end().

Parameters:
idint

Object id of the stream.

lenReference or None

An unused Reference object for the length of the stream; None means to use a memory buffer so the length can be inlined.

filePdfFile

The underlying object to write the stream to.

extradict from Name to anything, or None

Extra key-value pairs to include in the stream header.

pngdict or None

If the data is already png encoded, the decode parameters.

compressobj#
end()[source]#

Finalize stream.

extra#
file#
id#
len#
pdfFile#
pos#
write(data)[source]#

Write some data on the stream.

class matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.Verbatim(x)[source]#

Bases: object

Store verbatim PDF command content for later inclusion in the stream.

pdfRepr()[source]#
matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.fill(strings, linelen=75)[source]#

[Deprecated]

Notes

Deprecated since version 3.6: Use a vendored copy of _fill instead.

matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.pdfRepr(obj)[source]#

Map Python objects to PDF syntax.