mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.axes3d.Axes3D#

class mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.axes3d.Axes3D(fig, rect=None, *args, elev=30, azim=- 60, roll=0, sharez=None, proj_type='persp', box_aspect=None, computed_zorder=True, focal_length=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Bases: matplotlib.axes._axes.Axes

3D Axes object.

Parameters
figFigure

The parent figure.

rect(float, float, float, float)

The (left, bottom, width, height) axes position.

elevfloat, default: 30

The elevation angle in degrees rotates the camera above and below the x-y plane, with a positive angle corresponding to a location above the plane.

azimfloat, default: -60

The azimuthal angle in degrees rotates the camera about the z axis, with a positive angle corresponding to a right-handed rotation. In other words, a positive azimuth rotates the camera about the origin from its location along the +x axis towards the +y axis.

rollfloat, default: 0

The roll angle in degrees rotates the camera about the viewing axis. A positive angle spins the camera clockwise, causing the scene to rotate counter-clockwise.

sharezAxes3D, optional

Other Axes to share z-limits with.

proj_type{'persp', 'ortho'}

The projection type, default 'persp'.

box_aspect3-tuple of floats, default: None

Changes the physical dimensions of the Axes3D, such that the ratio of the axis lengths in display units is x:y:z. If None, defaults to 4:4:3

computed_zorderbool, default: True

If True, the draw order is computed based on the average position of the Artists along the view direction. Set to False if you want to manually control the order in which Artists are drawn on top of each other using their zorder attribute. This can be used for fine-tuning if the automatic order does not produce the desired result. Note however, that a manual zorder will only be correct for a limited view angle. If the figure is rotated by the user, it will look wrong from certain angles.

auto_add_to_figurebool, default: False

Prior to Matplotlib 3.4 Axes3D would add themselves to their host Figure on init. Other Axes class do not do this.

This behavior is deprecated in 3.4, the default is changed to False in 3.6. The keyword will be undocumented and a non-False value will be an error in 3.7.

focal_lengthfloat, default: None

For a projection type of 'persp', the focal length of the virtual camera. Must be > 0. If None, defaults to 1. For a projection type of 'ortho', must be set to either None or infinity (numpy.inf). If None, defaults to infinity. The focal length can be computed from a desired Field Of View via the equation: focal_length = 1/tan(FOV/2)

**kwargs

Other optional keyword arguments:

Property

Description

adjustable

{'box', 'datalim'}

agg_filter

a filter function, which takes a (m, n, 3) float array and a dpi value, and returns a (m, n, 3) array

alpha

scalar or None

anchor

(float, float) or {'C', 'SW', 'S', 'SE', 'E', 'NE', ...}

animated

bool

aspect

{'auto'}

autoscale_on

bool

autoscalex_on

unknown

autoscaley_on

unknown

autoscalez_on

unknown

axes_locator

Callable[[Axes, Renderer], Bbox]

axisbelow

bool or 'line'

box_aspect

3-tuple of floats or None

clip_box

Bbox

clip_on

bool

clip_path

Patch or (Path, Transform) or None

facecolor or fc

color

figure

Figure

frame_on

bool

gid

str

in_layout

bool

label

object

mouseover

bool

navigate

bool

navigate_mode

unknown

path_effects

AbstractPathEffect

picker

None or bool or float or callable

position

[left, bottom, width, height] or Bbox

proj_type

{'persp', 'ortho'}

prop_cycle

unknown

rasterization_zorder

float or None

rasterized

bool

sketch_params

(scale: float, length: float, randomness: float)

snap

bool or None

title

unknown

transform

Transform

url

str

visible

bool

xbound

unknown

xlabel

str

xlim or xlim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

xlim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

xmargin

float greater than -0.5

xscale

{"linear"}

xticklabels

unknown

xticks

unknown

ybound

unknown

ylabel

str

ylim or ylim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

ylim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

ymargin

float greater than -0.5

yscale

{"linear"}

yticklabels

unknown

yticks

unknown

zbound

unknown

zlabel

unknown

zlim or zlim3d

unknown

zmargin

float greater than -0.5

zorder

float

zscale

{"linear"}

zticklabels

unknown

zticks

unknown

add_collection3d(col, zs=0, zdir='z')[source]#

Add a 3D collection object to the plot.

2D collection types are converted to a 3D version by modifying the object and adding z coordinate information.

Supported are:

  • PolyCollection

  • LineCollection

  • PatchCollection

add_contour_set(cset, extend3d=False, stride=5, zdir='z', offset=None)[source]#
add_contourf_set(cset, zdir='z', offset=None)[source]#
apply_aspect(position=None)[source]#

Adjust the Axes for a specified data aspect ratio.

Depending on get_adjustable this will modify either the Axes box (position) or the view limits. In the former case, get_anchor will affect the position.

See also

matplotlib.axes.Axes.set_aspect

For a description of aspect ratio handling.

matplotlib.axes.Axes.set_adjustable

Set how the Axes adjusts to achieve the required aspect ratio.

matplotlib.axes.Axes.set_anchor

Set the position in case of extra space.

Notes

This is called automatically when each Axes is drawn. You may need to call it yourself if you need to update the Axes position and/or view limits before the Figure is drawn.

auto_scale_xyz(X, Y, Z=None, had_data=None)[source]#
autoscale(enable=True, axis='both', tight=None)[source]#

Convenience method for simple axis view autoscaling.

See Axes.autoscale for full documentation. Because this function applies to 3D Axes, axis can also be set to 'z', and setting axis to 'both' autoscales all three axes.

autoscale_view(tight=None, scalex=True, scaley=True, scalez=True)[source]#

Autoscale the view limits using the data limits.

See Axes.autoscale_view for full documentation. Because this function applies to 3D Axes, it also takes a scalez argument.

bar(left, height, zs=0, zdir='z', *args, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Add 2D bar(s).

Parameters
left1D array-like

The x coordinates of the left sides of the bars.

height1D array-like

The height of the bars.

zsfloat or 1D array-like

Z coordinate of bars; if a single value is specified, it will be used for all bars.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

When plotting 2D data, the direction to use as z ('x', 'y' or 'z').

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

**kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.bar.

Returns
mpl_toolkits.mplot3d.art3d.Patch3DCollection
bar3d(x, y, z, dx, dy, dz, color=None, zsort='average', shade=True, lightsource=None, *args, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Generate a 3D barplot.

This method creates three dimensional barplot where the width, depth, height, and color of the bars can all be uniquely set.

Parameters
x, y, zarray-like

The coordinates of the anchor point of the bars.

dx, dy, dzfloat or array-like

The width, depth, and height of the bars, respectively.

colorsequence of colors, optional

The color of the bars can be specified globally or individually. This parameter can be:

  • A single color, to color all bars the same color.

  • An array of colors of length N bars, to color each bar independently.

  • An array of colors of length 6, to color the faces of the bars similarly.

  • An array of colors of length 6 * N bars, to color each face independently.

When coloring the faces of the boxes specifically, this is the order of the coloring:

  1. -Z (bottom of box)

  2. +Z (top of box)

  3. -Y

  4. +Y

  5. -X

  6. +X

zsortstr, optional

The z-axis sorting scheme passed onto Poly3DCollection

shadebool, default: True

When true, this shades the dark sides of the bars (relative to the plot's source of light).

lightsourceLightSource

The lightsource to use when shade is True.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

**kwargs

Any additional keyword arguments are passed onto Poly3DCollection.

Returns
collectionPoly3DCollection

A collection of three dimensional polygons representing the bars.

can_pan()[source]#

Return whether this Axes supports the pan/zoom button functionality.

Axes3d objects do not use the pan/zoom button.

can_zoom()[source]#

Return whether this Axes supports the zoom box button functionality.

Axes3D objects do not use the zoom box button.

clabel(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Currently not implemented for 3D axes, and returns None.

clear()[source]#

Clear the Axes.

contour(X, Y, Z, *args, extend3d=False, stride=5, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D contour plot.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like,

Input data. See Axes.contour for supported data shapes.

extend3dbool, default: False

Whether to extend contour in 3D.

strideint

Step size for extending contour.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contour.

Returns
matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
contour3D(X, Y, Z, *args, extend3d=False, stride=5, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D contour plot.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like,

Input data. See Axes.contour for supported data shapes.

extend3dbool, default: False

Whether to extend contour in 3D.

strideint

Step size for extending contour.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contour.

Returns
matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
contourf(X, Y, Z, *args, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D filled contour plot.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

Input data. See Axes.contourf for supported data shapes.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contourf.

Returns
matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
contourf3D(X, Y, Z, *args, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D filled contour plot.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

Input data. See Axes.contourf for supported data shapes.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.contourf.

Returns
matplotlib.contour.QuadContourSet
convert_zunits(z)[source]#

For artists in an Axes, if the zaxis has units support, convert z using zaxis unit type

disable_mouse_rotation()[source]#

Disable mouse buttons for 3D rotation and zooming.

property dist[source]#
draw(renderer)[source]#

Draw the Artist (and its children) using the given renderer.

This has no effect if the artist is not visible (Artist.get_visible returns False).

Parameters
rendererRendererBase subclass.

Notes

This method is overridden in the Artist subclasses.

errorbar(x, y, z, zerr=None, yerr=None, xerr=None, fmt='', barsabove=False, errorevery=1, ecolor=None, elinewidth=None, capsize=None, capthick=None, xlolims=False, xuplims=False, ylolims=False, yuplims=False, zlolims=False, zuplims=False, *, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot lines and/or markers with errorbars around them.

x/y/z define the data locations, and xerr/yerr/zerr define the errorbar sizes. By default, this draws the data markers/lines as well the errorbars. Use fmt='none' to draw errorbars only.

Parameters
x, y, zfloat or array-like

The data positions.

xerr, yerr, zerrfloat or array-like, shape (N,) or (2, N), optional

The errorbar sizes:

  • scalar: Symmetric +/- values for all data points.

  • shape(N,): Symmetric +/-values for each data point.

  • shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper errors.

  • None: No errorbar.

Note that all error arrays should have positive values.

fmtstr, default: ''

The format for the data points / data lines. See plot for details.

Use 'none' (case insensitive) to plot errorbars without any data markers.

ecolorcolor, default: None

The color of the errorbar lines. If None, use the color of the line connecting the markers.

elinewidthfloat, default: None

The linewidth of the errorbar lines. If None, the linewidth of the current style is used.

capsizefloat, default: rcParams["errorbar.capsize"] (default: 0.0)

The length of the error bar caps in points.

capthickfloat, default: None

An alias to the keyword argument markeredgewidth (a.k.a. mew). This setting is a more sensible name for the property that controls the thickness of the error bar cap in points. For backwards compatibility, if mew or markeredgewidth are given, then they will over-ride capthick. This may change in future releases.

barsabovebool, default: False

If True, will plot the errorbars above the plot symbols. Default is below.

xlolims, ylolims, zlolimsbool, default: False

These arguments can be used to indicate that a value gives only lower limits. In that case a caret symbol is used to indicate this. lims-arguments may be scalars, or array-likes of the same length as the errors. To use limits with inverted axes, set_xlim or set_ylim must be called before errorbar. Note the tricky parameter names: setting e.g. ylolims to True means that the y-value is a lower limit of the True value, so, only an upward-pointing arrow will be drawn!

xuplims, yuplims, zuplimsbool, default: False

Same as above, but for controlling the upper limits.

erroreveryint or (int, int), default: 1

draws error bars on a subset of the data. errorevery =N draws error bars on the points (x[::N], y[::N], z[::N]). errorevery =(start, N) draws error bars on the points (x[start::N], y[start::N], z[start::N]). e.g. errorevery=(6, 3) adds error bars to the data at (x[6], x[9], x[12], x[15], ...). Used to avoid overlapping error bars when two series share x-axis values.

Returns
errlineslist

List of Line3DCollection instances each containing an errorbar line.

caplineslist

List of Line3D instances each containing a capline object.

limmarkslist

List of Line3D instances each containing a marker with an upper or lower limit.

Other Parameters
dataindexable object, optional

If given, the following parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception):

x, y, z, xerr, yerr, zerr

**kwargs

All other keyword arguments for styling errorbar lines are passed Line3DCollection.

Examples

(Source code, png)

../../_images/errorbar3d.png
format_coord(xd, yd)[source]#

Given the 2D view coordinates attempt to guess a 3D coordinate. Looks for the nearest edge to the point and then assumes that the point is at the same z location as the nearest point on the edge.

format_zdata(z)[source]#

Return z string formatted. This function will use the fmt_zdata attribute if it is callable, else will fall back on the zaxis major formatter

get_autoscalez_on()[source]#

Return whether the zaxis is autoscaled.

get_axis_position()[source]#
get_frame_on()[source]#

Get whether the 3D axes panels are drawn.

get_proj()[source]#

Create the projection matrix from the current viewing position.

get_tightbbox(renderer, call_axes_locator=True, bbox_extra_artists=None, *, for_layout_only=False)[source]#

Return the tight bounding box of the Axes, including axis and their decorators (xlabel, title, etc).

Artists that have artist.set_in_layout(False) are not included in the bbox.

Parameters
rendererRendererBase subclass

renderer that will be used to draw the figures (i.e. fig.canvas.get_renderer())

bbox_extra_artistslist of Artist or None

List of artists to include in the tight bounding box. If None (default), then all artist children of the Axes are included in the tight bounding box.

call_axes_locatorbool, default: True

If call_axes_locator is False, it does not call the _axes_locator attribute, which is necessary to get the correct bounding box. call_axes_locator=False can be used if the caller is only interested in the relative size of the tightbbox compared to the Axes bbox.

for_layout_onlydefault: False

The bounding box will not include the x-extent of the title and the xlabel, or the y-extent of the ylabel.

Returns
BboxBase

Bounding box in figure pixel coordinates.

get_w_lims()[source]#

Get 3D world limits.

get_xlim()[source]#

Return the x-axis view limits.

Returns
left, right(float, float)

The current x-axis limits in data coordinates.

See also

Axes.set_xlim
set_xbound, get_xbound
invert_xaxis, xaxis_inverted

Notes

The x-axis may be inverted, in which case the left value will be greater than the right value.

get_xlim3d()[source]#

Alias for get_xlim.

get_ylim()[source]#

Return the y-axis view limits.

Returns
bottom, top(float, float)

The current y-axis limits in data coordinates.

See also

Axes.set_ylim
set_ybound, get_ybound
invert_yaxis, yaxis_inverted

Notes

The y-axis may be inverted, in which case the bottom value will be greater than the top value.

get_ylim3d()[source]#

Alias for get_ylim.

get_zaxis()[source]#

Return the ZAxis (Axis) instance.

get_zbound()[source]#

Return the lower and upper z-axis bounds, in increasing order.

get_zgridlines()[source]#

Return the zaxis' grid lines as a list of Line2Ds.

get_zlabel()[source]#

Get the z-label text string.

get_zlim()[source]#

Get 3D z limits.

get_zlim3d()[source]#

Alias for get_zlim.

get_zmajorticklabels()[source]#

Return the zaxis' major tick labels, as a list of Text.

get_zminorticklabels()[source]#

Return the zaxis' minor tick labels, as a list of Text.

get_zscale()[source]#
get_zticklabels(minor=False, which=None)[source]#

Get the zaxis' tick labels.

Parameters
minorbool

Whether to return the minor or the major ticklabels.

whichNone, ('minor', 'major', 'both')

Overrides minor.

Selects which ticklabels to return

Returns
list of Text

Notes

The tick label strings are not populated until a draw method has been called.

See also: draw and draw.

get_zticklines(minor=False)[source]#

Return the zaxis' tick lines as a list of Line2Ds.

get_zticks(*, minor=False)[source]#

Return the zaxis' tick locations in data coordinates.

grid(visible=True, **kwargs)[source]#

Set / unset 3D grid.

Note

Currently, this function does not behave the same as axes.Axes.grid, but it is intended to eventually support that behavior.

invert_zaxis()[source]#

Invert the z-axis.

margins(*margins, x=None, y=None, z=None, tight=True)[source]#

Set or retrieve autoscaling margins.

See Axes.margins for full documentation. Because this function applies to 3D Axes, it also takes a z argument, and returns (xmargin, ymargin, zmargin).

mouse_init(rotate_btn=1, zoom_btn=3)[source]#

Set the mouse buttons for 3D rotation and zooming.

Parameters
rotate_btnint or list of int, default: 1

The mouse button or buttons to use for 3D rotation of the axes.

zoom_btnint or list of int, default: 3

The mouse button or buttons to use to zoom the 3D axes.

name = '3d'#
plot(xs, ys, *args, zdir='z', **kwargs)[source]#

Plot 2D or 3D data.

Parameters
xs1D array-like

x coordinates of vertices.

ys1D array-like

y coordinates of vertices.

zsfloat or 1D array-like

z coordinates of vertices; either one for all points or one for each point.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

When plotting 2D data, the direction to use as z ('x', 'y' or 'z').

**kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.plot.

plot3D(xs, ys, *args, zdir='z', **kwargs)[source]#

Plot 2D or 3D data.

Parameters
xs1D array-like

x coordinates of vertices.

ys1D array-like

y coordinates of vertices.

zsfloat or 1D array-like

z coordinates of vertices; either one for all points or one for each point.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

When plotting 2D data, the direction to use as z ('x', 'y' or 'z').

**kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.plot.

plot_surface(X, Y, Z, *, norm=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, lightsource=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a surface plot.

By default it will be colored in shades of a solid color, but it also supports colormapping by supplying the cmap argument.

Note

The rcount and ccount kwargs, which both default to 50, determine the maximum number of samples used in each direction. If the input data is larger, it will be downsampled (by slicing) to these numbers of points.

Note

To maximize rendering speed consider setting rstride and cstride to divisors of the number of rows minus 1 and columns minus 1 respectively. For example, given 51 rows rstride can be any of the divisors of 50.

Similarly, a setting of rstride and cstride equal to 1 (or rcount and ccount equal the number of rows and columns) can use the optimized path.

Parameters
X, Y, Z2D arrays

Data values.

rcount, ccountint

Maximum number of samples used in each direction. If the input data is larger, it will be downsampled (by slicing) to these numbers of points. Defaults to 50.

rstride, cstrideint

Downsampling stride in each direction. These arguments are mutually exclusive with rcount and ccount. If only one of rstride or cstride is set, the other defaults to 10.

'classic' mode uses a default of rstride = cstride = 10 instead of the new default of rcount = ccount = 50.

colorcolor-like

Color of the surface patches.

cmapColormap

Colormap of the surface patches.

facecolorsarray-like of colors.

Colors of each individual patch.

normNormalize

Normalization for the colormap.

vmin, vmaxfloat

Bounds for the normalization.

shadebool, default: True

Whether to shade the facecolors. Shading is always disabled when cmap is specified.

lightsourceLightSource

The lightsource to use when shade is True.

**kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to Poly3DCollection.

plot_trisurf(*args, color=None, norm=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, lightsource=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot a triangulated surface.

The (optional) triangulation can be specified in one of two ways; either:

plot_trisurf(triangulation, ...)

where triangulation is a Triangulation object, or:

plot_trisurf(X, Y, ...)
plot_trisurf(X, Y, triangles, ...)
plot_trisurf(X, Y, triangles=triangles, ...)

in which case a Triangulation object will be created. See Triangulation for a explanation of these possibilities.

The remaining arguments are:

plot_trisurf(..., Z)

where Z is the array of values to contour, one per point in the triangulation.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

Data values as 1D arrays.

color

Color of the surface patches.

cmap

A colormap for the surface patches.

normNormalize

An instance of Normalize to map values to colors.

vmin, vmaxfloat, default: None

Minimum and maximum value to map.

shadebool, default: True

Whether to shade the facecolors. Shading is always disabled when cmap is specified.

lightsourceLightSource

The lightsource to use when shade is True.

**kwargs

All other arguments are passed on to Poly3DCollection

Examples

(Source code, png)

../../_images/trisurf3d.png

(Source code, png)

../../_images/trisurf3d_2.png
plot_wireframe(X, Y, Z, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot a 3D wireframe.

Note

The rcount and ccount kwargs, which both default to 50, determine the maximum number of samples used in each direction. If the input data is larger, it will be downsampled (by slicing) to these numbers of points.

Parameters
X, Y, Z2D arrays

Data values.

rcount, ccountint

Maximum number of samples used in each direction. If the input data is larger, it will be downsampled (by slicing) to these numbers of points. Setting a count to zero causes the data to be not sampled in the corresponding direction, producing a 3D line plot rather than a wireframe plot. Defaults to 50.

rstride, cstrideint

Downsampling stride in each direction. These arguments are mutually exclusive with rcount and ccount. If only one of rstride or cstride is set, the other defaults to 1. Setting a stride to zero causes the data to be not sampled in the corresponding direction, producing a 3D line plot rather than a wireframe plot.

'classic' mode uses a default of rstride = cstride = 1 instead of the new default of rcount = ccount = 50.

**kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to Line3DCollection.

quiver(X, Y, Z, U, V, W, /, length=1, arrow_length_ratio=.3, pivot='tail', normalize=False, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot a 3D field of arrows.

The arguments could be array-like or scalars, so long as they they can be broadcast together. The arguments can also be masked arrays. If an element in any of argument is masked, then that corresponding quiver element will not be plotted.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

The x, y and z coordinates of the arrow locations (default is tail of arrow; see pivot kwarg).

U, V, Warray-like

The x, y and z components of the arrow vectors.

lengthfloat, default: 1

The length of each quiver.

arrow_length_ratiofloat, default: 0.3

The ratio of the arrow head with respect to the quiver.

pivot{'tail', 'middle', 'tip'}, default: 'tail'

The part of the arrow that is at the grid point; the arrow rotates about this point, hence the name pivot.

normalizebool, default: False

Whether all arrows are normalized to have the same length, or keep the lengths defined by u, v, and w.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

**kwargs

Any additional keyword arguments are delegated to LineCollection

quiver3D(X, Y, Z, U, V, W, /, length=1, arrow_length_ratio=.3, pivot='tail', normalize=False, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot a 3D field of arrows.

The arguments could be array-like or scalars, so long as they they can be broadcast together. The arguments can also be masked arrays. If an element in any of argument is masked, then that corresponding quiver element will not be plotted.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

The x, y and z coordinates of the arrow locations (default is tail of arrow; see pivot kwarg).

U, V, Warray-like

The x, y and z components of the arrow vectors.

lengthfloat, default: 1

The length of each quiver.

arrow_length_ratiofloat, default: 0.3

The ratio of the arrow head with respect to the quiver.

pivot{'tail', 'middle', 'tip'}, default: 'tail'

The part of the arrow that is at the grid point; the arrow rotates about this point, hence the name pivot.

normalizebool, default: False

Whether all arrows are normalized to have the same length, or keep the lengths defined by u, v, and w.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

**kwargs

Any additional keyword arguments are delegated to LineCollection

scatter(xs, ys, zs=0, zdir='z', s=20, c=None, depthshade=True, *args, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a scatter plot.

Parameters
xs, ysarray-like

The data positions.

zsfloat or array-like, default: 0

The z-positions. Either an array of the same length as xs and ys or a single value to place all points in the same plane.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z', '-x', '-y', '-z'}, default: 'z'

The axis direction for the zs. This is useful when plotting 2D data on a 3D Axes. The data must be passed as xs, ys. Setting zdir to 'y' then plots the data to the x-z-plane.

See also Plot 2D data on 3D plot.

sfloat or array-like, default: 20

The marker size in points**2. Either an array of the same length as xs and ys or a single value to make all markers the same size.

ccolor, sequence, or sequence of colors, optional

The marker color. Possible values:

  • A single color format string.

  • A sequence of colors of length n.

  • A sequence of n numbers to be mapped to colors using cmap and norm.

  • A 2D array in which the rows are RGB or RGBA.

For more details see the c argument of scatter.

depthshadebool, default: True

Whether to shade the scatter markers to give the appearance of depth. Each call to scatter() will perform its depthshading independently.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, the following parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception):

xs, ys, zs, s, edgecolors, c, facecolor, facecolors, color

**kwargs

All other arguments are passed on to scatter.

Returns
pathsPathCollection
scatter3D(xs, ys, zs=0, zdir='z', s=20, c=None, depthshade=True, *args, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a scatter plot.

Parameters
xs, ysarray-like

The data positions.

zsfloat or array-like, default: 0

The z-positions. Either an array of the same length as xs and ys or a single value to place all points in the same plane.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z', '-x', '-y', '-z'}, default: 'z'

The axis direction for the zs. This is useful when plotting 2D data on a 3D Axes. The data must be passed as xs, ys. Setting zdir to 'y' then plots the data to the x-z-plane.

See also Plot 2D data on 3D plot.

sfloat or array-like, default: 20

The marker size in points**2. Either an array of the same length as xs and ys or a single value to make all markers the same size.

ccolor, sequence, or sequence of colors, optional

The marker color. Possible values:

  • A single color format string.

  • A sequence of colors of length n.

  • A sequence of n numbers to be mapped to colors using cmap and norm.

  • A 2D array in which the rows are RGB or RGBA.

For more details see the c argument of scatter.

depthshadebool, default: True

Whether to shade the scatter markers to give the appearance of depth. Each call to scatter() will perform its depthshading independently.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, the following parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception):

xs, ys, zs, s, edgecolors, c, facecolor, facecolors, color

**kwargs

All other arguments are passed on to scatter.

Returns
pathsPathCollection
set(*, adjustable=<UNSET>, agg_filter=<UNSET>, alpha=<UNSET>, anchor=<UNSET>, animated=<UNSET>, aspect=<UNSET>, autoscale_on=<UNSET>, autoscalex_on=<UNSET>, autoscaley_on=<UNSET>, autoscalez_on=<UNSET>, axes_locator=<UNSET>, axisbelow=<UNSET>, box_aspect=<UNSET>, clip_box=<UNSET>, clip_on=<UNSET>, clip_path=<UNSET>, facecolor=<UNSET>, frame_on=<UNSET>, gid=<UNSET>, in_layout=<UNSET>, label=<UNSET>, mouseover=<UNSET>, navigate=<UNSET>, path_effects=<UNSET>, picker=<UNSET>, position=<UNSET>, proj_type=<UNSET>, prop_cycle=<UNSET>, rasterization_zorder=<UNSET>, rasterized=<UNSET>, sketch_params=<UNSET>, snap=<UNSET>, title=<UNSET>, transform=<UNSET>, url=<UNSET>, visible=<UNSET>, xbound=<UNSET>, xlabel=<UNSET>, xlim=<UNSET>, xlim3d=<UNSET>, xmargin=<UNSET>, xscale=<UNSET>, xticklabels=<UNSET>, xticks=<UNSET>, ybound=<UNSET>, ylabel=<UNSET>, ylim=<UNSET>, ylim3d=<UNSET>, ymargin=<UNSET>, yscale=<UNSET>, yticklabels=<UNSET>, yticks=<UNSET>, zbound=<UNSET>, zlabel=<UNSET>, zlim=<UNSET>, zlim3d=<UNSET>, zmargin=<UNSET>, zorder=<UNSET>, zscale=<UNSET>, zticklabels=<UNSET>, zticks=<UNSET>)[source]#

Set multiple properties at once.

Supported properties are

Property

Description

adjustable

{'box', 'datalim'}

agg_filter

a filter function, which takes a (m, n, 3) float array and a dpi value, and returns a (m, n, 3) array

alpha

scalar or None

anchor

(float, float) or {'C', 'SW', 'S', 'SE', 'E', 'NE', ...}

animated

bool

aspect

{'auto'}

autoscale_on

bool

autoscalex_on

unknown

autoscaley_on

unknown

autoscalez_on

unknown

axes_locator

Callable[[Axes, Renderer], Bbox]

axisbelow

bool or 'line'

box_aspect

3-tuple of floats or None

clip_box

Bbox

clip_on

bool

clip_path

Patch or (Path, Transform) or None

facecolor or fc

color

figure

Figure

frame_on

bool

gid

str

in_layout

bool

label

object

mouseover

bool

navigate

bool

navigate_mode

unknown

path_effects

AbstractPathEffect

picker

None or bool or float or callable

position

[left, bottom, width, height] or Bbox

proj_type

{'persp', 'ortho'}

prop_cycle

unknown

rasterization_zorder

float or None

rasterized

bool

sketch_params

(scale: float, length: float, randomness: float)

snap

bool or None

title

unknown

transform

Transform

url

str

visible

bool

xbound

unknown

xlabel

str

xlim

(bottom: float, top: float)

xlim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

xmargin

float greater than -0.5

xscale

{"linear"}

xticklabels

unknown

xticks

unknown

ybound

unknown

ylabel

str

ylim

(bottom: float, top: float)

ylim3d

(bottom: float, top: float)

ymargin

float greater than -0.5

yscale

{"linear"}

yticklabels

unknown

yticks

unknown

zbound

unknown

zlabel

unknown

zlim

unknown

zlim3d

unknown

zmargin

float greater than -0.5

zorder

float

zscale

{"linear"}

zticklabels

unknown

zticks

unknown

set_aspect(aspect, adjustable=None, anchor=None, share=False)[source]#

Set the aspect ratios.

Axes 3D does not current support any aspect but 'auto' which fills the Axes with the data limits.

To simulate having equal aspect in data space, set the ratio of your data limits to match the value of get_box_aspect. To control box aspect ratios use set_box_aspect.

Parameters
aspect{'auto'}

Possible values:

value

description

'auto'

automatic; fill the position rectangle with data.

adjustableNone

Currently ignored by Axes3D

If not None, this defines which parameter will be adjusted to meet the required aspect. See set_adjustable for further details.

anchorNone or str or 2-tuple of float, optional

If not None, this defines where the Axes will be drawn if there is extra space due to aspect constraints. The most common way to to specify the anchor are abbreviations of cardinal directions:

value

description

'C'

centered

'SW'

lower left corner

'S'

middle of bottom edge

'SE'

lower right corner

etc.

See set_anchor for further details.

sharebool, default: False

If True, apply the settings to all shared Axes.

set_autoscalez_on(b)[source]#

Set whether the zaxis is autoscaled when drawing or by Axes.autoscale_view.

Parameters
bbool
set_axis_off()[source]#

Turn the x- and y-axis off.

This affects the axis lines, ticks, ticklabels, grid and axis labels.

set_axis_on()[source]#

Turn the x- and y-axis on.

This affects the axis lines, ticks, ticklabels, grid and axis labels.

set_box_aspect(aspect, *, zoom=1)[source]#

Set the Axes box aspect.

The box aspect is the ratio of height to width in display units for each face of the box when viewed perpendicular to that face. This is not to be confused with the data aspect (which for Axes3D is always 'auto'). The default ratios are 4:4:3 (x:y:z).

To simulate having equal aspect in data space, set the box aspect to match your data range in each dimension.

zoom controls the overall size of the Axes3D in the figure.

Parameters
aspect3-tuple of floats or None

Changes the physical dimensions of the Axes3D, such that the ratio of the axis lengths in display units is x:y:z. If None, defaults to (4,4,3).

zoomfloat, default: 1

Control overall size of the Axes3D in the figure. Must be > 0.

set_frame_on(b)[source]#

Set whether the 3D axes panels are drawn.

Parameters
bbool
set_proj_type(proj_type, focal_length=None)[source]#

Set the projection type.

Parameters
proj_type{'persp', 'ortho'}

The projection type.

focal_lengthfloat, default: None

For a projection type of 'persp', the focal length of the virtual camera. Must be > 0. If None, defaults to 1. The focal length can be computed from a desired Field Of View via the equation: focal_length = 1/tan(FOV/2)

set_title(label, fontdict=None, loc='center', **kwargs)[source]#

Set a title for the Axes.

Set one of the three available Axes titles. The available titles are positioned above the Axes in the center, flush with the left edge, and flush with the right edge.

Parameters
labelstr

Text to use for the title

fontdictdict

A dictionary controlling the appearance of the title text, the default fontdict is:

{'fontsize': rcParams['axes.titlesize'],
 'fontweight': rcParams['axes.titleweight'],
 'color': rcParams['axes.titlecolor'],
 'verticalalignment': 'baseline',
 'horizontalalignment': loc}
loc{'center', 'left', 'right'}, default: rcParams["axes.titlelocation"] (default: 'center')

Which title to set.

yfloat, default: rcParams["axes.titley"] (default: None)

Vertical Axes location for the title (1.0 is the top). If None (the default) and rcParams["axes.titley"] (default: None) is also None, y is determined automatically to avoid decorators on the Axes.

padfloat, default: rcParams["axes.titlepad"] (default: 6.0)

The offset of the title from the top of the Axes, in points.

Returns
Text

The matplotlib text instance representing the title

Other Parameters
**kwargsText properties

Other keyword arguments are text properties, see Text for a list of valid text properties.

set_top_view()[source]#
set_xlim3d(left=None, right=None, *, emit=True, auto=False, xmin=None, xmax=None)[source]#

Set the x-axis view limits.

Parameters
leftfloat, optional

The left xlim in data coordinates. Passing None leaves the limit unchanged.

The left and right xlims may also be passed as the tuple (left, right) as the first positional argument (or as the left keyword argument).

rightfloat, optional

The right xlim in data coordinates. Passing None leaves the limit unchanged.

emitbool, default: True

Whether to notify observers of limit change.

autobool or None, default: False

Whether to turn on autoscaling of the x-axis. True turns on, False turns off, None leaves unchanged.

xmin, xmaxfloat, optional

They are equivalent to left and right respectively, and it is an error to pass both xmin and left or xmax and right.

Returns
left, right(float, float)

The new x-axis limits in data coordinates.

See also

get_xlim
set_xbound, get_xbound
invert_xaxis, xaxis_inverted

Notes

The left value may be greater than the right value, in which case the x-axis values will decrease from left to right.

Examples

>>> set_xlim(left, right)
>>> set_xlim((left, right))
>>> left, right = set_xlim(left, right)

One limit may be left unchanged.

>>> set_xlim(right=right_lim)

Limits may be passed in reverse order to flip the direction of the x-axis. For example, suppose x represents the number of years before present. The x-axis limits might be set like the following so 5000 years ago is on the left of the plot and the present is on the right.

>>> set_xlim(5000, 0)
set_xscale(value, **kwargs)[source]#

Set the x-axis scale.

Parameters
value{"linear"}

The axis scale type to apply. 3D axes currently only support linear scales; other scales yield nonsensical results.

**kwargs

Keyword arguments are nominally forwarded to the scale class, but none of them is applicable for linear scales.

set_ylim3d(bottom=None, top=None, *, emit=True, auto=False, ymin=None, ymax=None)[source]#

Set the y-axis view limits.

Parameters
bottomfloat, optional

The bottom ylim in data coordinates. Passing None leaves the limit unchanged.

The bottom and top ylims may also be passed as the tuple (bottom, top) as the first positional argument (or as the bottom keyword argument).

topfloat, optional

The top ylim in data coordinates. Passing None leaves the limit unchanged.

emitbool, default: True

Whether to notify observers of limit change.

autobool or None, default: False

Whether to turn on autoscaling of the y-axis. True turns on, False turns off, None leaves unchanged.

ymin, ymaxfloat, optional

They are equivalent to bottom and top respectively, and it is an error to pass both ymin and bottom or ymax and top.

Returns
bottom, top(float, float)

The new y-axis limits in data coordinates.

See also

get_ylim
set_ybound, get_ybound
invert_yaxis, yaxis_inverted

Notes

The bottom value may be greater than the top value, in which case the y-axis values will decrease from bottom to top.

Examples

>>> set_ylim(bottom, top)
>>> set_ylim((bottom, top))
>>> bottom, top = set_ylim(bottom, top)

One limit may be left unchanged.

>>> set_ylim(top=top_lim)

Limits may be passed in reverse order to flip the direction of the y-axis. For example, suppose y represents depth of the ocean in m. The y-axis limits might be set like the following so 5000 m depth is at the bottom of the plot and the surface, 0 m, is at the top.

>>> set_ylim(5000, 0)
set_yscale(value, **kwargs)[source]#

Set the y-axis scale.

Parameters
value{"linear"}

The axis scale type to apply. 3D axes currently only support linear scales; other scales yield nonsensical results.

**kwargs

Keyword arguments are nominally forwarded to the scale class, but none of them is applicable for linear scales.

set_zbound(lower=None, upper=None)[source]#

Set the lower and upper numerical bounds of the z-axis.

This method will honor axes inversion regardless of parameter order. It will not change the autoscaling setting (get_autoscalez_on()).

set_zlabel(zlabel, fontdict=None, labelpad=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Set zlabel. See doc for set_ylabel for description.

set_zlim(bottom=None, top=None, *, emit=True, auto=False, zmin=None, zmax=None)[source]#

Set 3D z limits.

See Axes.set_ylim for full documentation

set_zlim3d(bottom=None, top=None, *, emit=True, auto=False, zmin=None, zmax=None)[source]#

Alias for set_zlim.

set_zmargin(m)[source]#

Set padding of Z data limits prior to autoscaling.

m times the data interval will be added to each end of that interval before it is used in autoscaling. If m is negative, this will clip the data range instead of expanding it.

For example, if your data is in the range [0, 2], a margin of 0.1 will result in a range [-0.2, 2.2]; a margin of -0.1 will result in a range of [0.2, 1.8].

Parameters
mfloat greater than -0.5
set_zscale(value, **kwargs)[source]#

Set the z-axis scale.

Parameters
value{"linear"}

The axis scale type to apply. 3D axes currently only support linear scales; other scales yield nonsensical results.

**kwargs

Keyword arguments are nominally forwarded to the scale class, but none of them is applicable for linear scales.

set_zticklabels(labels, *, fontdict=None, minor=False, **kwargs)[source]#

Set the zaxis' labels with list of string labels.

Warning

This method should only be used after fixing the tick positions using Axes3D.set_zticks. Otherwise, the labels may end up in unexpected positions.

Parameters
labelslist of str

The label texts.

fontdictdict, optional

A dictionary controlling the appearance of the ticklabels. The default fontdict is:

{'fontsize': rcParams['axes.titlesize'],
 'fontweight': rcParams['axes.titleweight'],
 'verticalalignment': 'baseline',
 'horizontalalignment': loc}
minorbool, default: False

Whether to set the minor ticklabels rather than the major ones.

Returns
list of Text

The labels.

Other Parameters
**kwargsText properties.
set_zticks(ticks, labels=None, *, minor=False, **kwargs)[source]#

Set the zaxis' tick locations and optionally labels.

If necessary, the view limits of the Axis are expanded so that all given ticks are visible.

Parameters
tickslist of floats

List of tick locations. The axis Locator is replaced by a FixedLocator.

Some tick formatters will not label arbitrary tick positions; e.g. log formatters only label decade ticks by default. In such a case you can set a formatter explicitly on the axis using Axis.set_major_formatter or provide formatted labels yourself.

labelslist of str, optional

List of tick labels. If not set, the labels are generated with the axis tick Formatter.

minorbool, default: False

If False, set the major ticks; if True, the minor ticks.

**kwargs

Text properties for the labels. These take effect only if you pass labels. In other cases, please use tick_params.

Notes

The mandatory expansion of the view limits is an intentional design choice to prevent the surprise of a non-visible tick. If you need other limits, you should set the limits explicitly after setting the ticks.

stem(x, y, z, *, linefmt='C0-', markerfmt='C0o', basefmt='C3-', bottom=0, label=None, orientation='z', data=None)[source]#

Create a 3D stem plot.

A stem plot draws lines perpendicular to a baseline, and places markers at the heads. By default, the baseline is defined by x and y, and stems are drawn vertically from bottom to z.

Parameters
x, y, zarray-like

The positions of the heads of the stems. The stems are drawn along the orientation-direction from the baseline at bottom (in the orientation-coordinate) to the heads. By default, the x and y positions are used for the baseline and z for the head position, but this can be changed by orientation.

linefmtstr, default: 'C0-'

A string defining the properties of the vertical lines. Usually, this will be a color or a color and a linestyle:

Character

Line Style

'-'

solid line

'--'

dashed line

'-.'

dash-dot line

':'

dotted line

Note: While it is technically possible to specify valid formats other than color or color and linestyle (e.g. 'rx' or '-.'), this is beyond the intention of the method and will most likely not result in a reasonable plot.

markerfmtstr, default: 'C0o'

A string defining the properties of the markers at the stem heads.

basefmtstr, default: 'C3-'

A format string defining the properties of the baseline.

bottomfloat, default: 0

The position of the baseline, in orientation-coordinates.

labelstr, default: None

The label to use for the stems in legends.

orientation{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction along which stems are drawn.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

Returns
StemContainer

The container may be treated like a tuple (markerline, stemlines, baseline)

Examples

(Source code, png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_00_00.png

(png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_01_00.png

(png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_02_00.png
stem3D(x, y, z, *, linefmt='C0-', markerfmt='C0o', basefmt='C3-', bottom=0, label=None, orientation='z', data=None)[source]#

Create a 3D stem plot.

A stem plot draws lines perpendicular to a baseline, and places markers at the heads. By default, the baseline is defined by x and y, and stems are drawn vertically from bottom to z.

Parameters
x, y, zarray-like

The positions of the heads of the stems. The stems are drawn along the orientation-direction from the baseline at bottom (in the orientation-coordinate) to the heads. By default, the x and y positions are used for the baseline and z for the head position, but this can be changed by orientation.

linefmtstr, default: 'C0-'

A string defining the properties of the vertical lines. Usually, this will be a color or a color and a linestyle:

Character

Line Style

'-'

solid line

'--'

dashed line

'-.'

dash-dot line

':'

dotted line

Note: While it is technically possible to specify valid formats other than color or color and linestyle (e.g. 'rx' or '-.'), this is beyond the intention of the method and will most likely not result in a reasonable plot.

markerfmtstr, default: 'C0o'

A string defining the properties of the markers at the stem heads.

basefmtstr, default: 'C3-'

A format string defining the properties of the baseline.

bottomfloat, default: 0

The position of the baseline, in orientation-coordinates.

labelstr, default: None

The label to use for the stems in legends.

orientation{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction along which stems are drawn.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

Returns
StemContainer

The container may be treated like a tuple (markerline, stemlines, baseline)

Examples

(Source code, png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_00_00.png

(png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_01_00.png

(png)

../../_images/stem3d_demo_02_00.png
text(x, y, z, s, zdir=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Add text to the plot. kwargs will be passed on to Axes.text, except for the zdir keyword, which sets the direction to be used as the z direction.

text2D(x, y, s, fontdict=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Add text to the Axes.

Add the text s to the Axes at location x, y in data coordinates.

Parameters
x, yfloat

The position to place the text. By default, this is in data coordinates. The coordinate system can be changed using the transform parameter.

sstr

The text.

fontdictdict, default: None

A dictionary to override the default text properties. If fontdict is None, the defaults are determined by rcParams.

Returns
Text

The created Text instance.

Other Parameters
**kwargsText properties.

Other miscellaneous text parameters.

Property

Description

agg_filter

a filter function, which takes a (m, n, 3) float array and a dpi value, and returns a (m, n, 3) array

alpha

scalar or None

animated

bool

backgroundcolor

color

bbox

dict with properties for patches.FancyBboxPatch

clip_box

unknown

clip_on

unknown

clip_path

unknown

color or c

color

figure

Figure

fontfamily or family

{FONTNAME, 'serif', 'sans-serif', 'cursive', 'fantasy', 'monospace'}

fontproperties or font or font_properties

font_manager.FontProperties or str or pathlib.Path

fontsize or size

float or {'xx-small', 'x-small', 'small', 'medium', 'large', 'x-large', 'xx-large'}

fontstretch or stretch

{a numeric value in range 0-1000, 'ultra-condensed', 'extra-condensed', 'condensed', 'semi-condensed', 'normal', 'semi-expanded', 'expanded', 'extra-expanded', 'ultra-expanded'}

fontstyle or style

{'normal', 'italic', 'oblique'}

fontvariant or variant

{'normal', 'small-caps'}

fontweight or weight

{a numeric value in range 0-1000, 'ultralight', 'light', 'normal', 'regular', 'book', 'medium', 'roman', 'semibold', 'demibold', 'demi', 'bold', 'heavy', 'extra bold', 'black'}

gid

str

horizontalalignment or ha

{'left', 'center', 'right'}

in_layout

bool

label

object

linespacing

float (multiple of font size)

math_fontfamily

str

mouseover

bool

multialignment or ma

{'left', 'right', 'center'}

parse_math

bool

path_effects

AbstractPathEffect

picker

None or bool or float or callable

position

(float, float)

rasterized

bool

rotation

float or {'vertical', 'horizontal'}

rotation_mode

{None, 'default', 'anchor'}

sketch_params

(scale: float, length: float, randomness: float)

snap

bool or None

text

object

transform

Transform

transform_rotates_text

bool

url

str

usetex

bool or None

verticalalignment or va

{'bottom', 'baseline', 'center', 'center_baseline', 'top'}

visible

bool

wrap

bool

x

float

y

float

zorder

float

Examples

Individual keyword arguments can be used to override any given parameter:

>>> text(x, y, s, fontsize=12)

The default transform specifies that text is in data coords, alternatively, you can specify text in axis coords ((0, 0) is lower-left and (1, 1) is upper-right). The example below places text in the center of the Axes:

>>> text(0.5, 0.5, 'matplotlib', horizontalalignment='center',
...      verticalalignment='center', transform=ax.transAxes)

You can put a rectangular box around the text instance (e.g., to set a background color) by using the keyword bbox. bbox is a dictionary of Rectangle properties. For example:

>>> text(x, y, s, bbox=dict(facecolor='red', alpha=0.5))
text3D(x, y, z, s, zdir=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Add text to the plot. kwargs will be passed on to Axes.text, except for the zdir keyword, which sets the direction to be used as the z direction.

tick_params(axis='both', **kwargs)[source]#

Convenience method for changing the appearance of ticks and tick labels.

See Axes.tick_params for full documentation. Because this function applies to 3D Axes, axis can also be set to 'z', and setting axis to 'both' autoscales all three axes.

Also, because of how Axes3D objects are drawn very differently from regular 2D axes, some of these settings may have ambiguous meaning. For simplicity, the 'z' axis will accept settings as if it was like the 'y' axis.

Note

Axes3D currently ignores some of these settings.

tricontour(*args, extend3d=False, stride=5, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D contour plot.

Note

This method currently produces incorrect output due to a longstanding bug in 3D PolyCollection rendering.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

Input data. See Axes.tricontour for supported data shapes.

extend3dbool, default: False

Whether to extend contour in 3D.

strideint

Step size for extending contour.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.tricontour.

Returns
matplotlib.tri.tricontour.TriContourSet
tricontourf(*args, zdir='z', offset=None, data=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Create a 3D filled contour plot.

Note

This method currently produces incorrect output due to a longstanding bug in 3D PolyCollection rendering.

Parameters
X, Y, Zarray-like

Input data. See Axes.tricontourf for supported data shapes.

zdir{'x', 'y', 'z'}, default: 'z'

The direction to use.

offsetfloat, optional

If specified, plot a projection of the contour lines at this position in a plane normal to zdir.

dataindexable object, optional

If given, all parameters also accept a string s, which is interpreted as data[s] (unless this raises an exception).

*args, **kwargs

Other arguments are forwarded to matplotlib.axes.Axes.tricontourf.

Returns
matplotlib.tri.tricontour.TriContourSet
tunit_cube(vals=None, M=None)[source]#
tunit_edges(vals=None, M=None)[source]#
unit_cube(vals=None)[source]#
update_datalim(xys, **kwargs)[source]#

Extend the dataLim Bbox to include the given points.

If no data is set currently, the Bbox will ignore its limits and set the bound to be the bounds of the xydata (xys). Otherwise, it will compute the bounds of the union of its current data and the data in xys.

Parameters
xys2D array-like

The points to include in the data limits Bbox. This can be either a list of (x, y) tuples or a Nx2 array.

updatex, updateybool, default: True

Whether to update the x/y limits.

view_init(elev=None, azim=None, roll=None, vertical_axis='z')[source]#

Set the elevation and azimuth of the axes in degrees (not radians).

This can be used to rotate the axes programmatically.

Parameters
elevfloat, default: None

The elevation angle in degrees rotates the camera above the plane pierced by the vertical axis, with a positive angle corresponding to a location above that plane. For example, with the default vertical axis of 'z', the elevation defines the angle of the camera location above the x-y plane. If None, then the initial value as specified in the Axes3D constructor is used.

azimfloat, default: None

The azimuthal angle in degrees rotates the camera about the vertical axis, with a positive angle corresponding to a right-handed rotation. For example, with the default vertical axis of 'z', a positive azimuth rotates the camera about the origin from its location along the +x axis towards the +y axis. If None, then the initial value as specified in the Axes3D constructor is used.

rollfloat, default: None

The roll angle in degrees rotates the camera about the viewing axis. A positive angle spins the camera clockwise, causing the scene to rotate counter-clockwise. If None, then the initial value as specified in the Axes3D constructor is used.

vertical_axis{"z", "x", "y"}, default: "z"

The axis to align vertically. azim rotates about this axis.

voxels([x, y, z, ]/, filled, facecolors=None, edgecolors=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Plot a set of filled voxels

All voxels are plotted as 1x1x1 cubes on the axis, with filled[0, 0, 0] placed with its lower corner at the origin. Occluded faces are not plotted.

Parameters
filled3D np.array of bool

A 3D array of values, with truthy values indicating which voxels to fill

x, y, z3D np.array, optional

The coordinates of the corners of the voxels. This should broadcast to a shape one larger in every dimension than the shape of filled. These can be used to plot non-cubic voxels.

If not specified, defaults to increasing integers along each axis, like those returned by indices(). As indicated by the / in the function signature, these arguments can only be passed positionally.

facecolors, edgecolorsarray-like, optional

The color to draw the faces and edges of the voxels. Can only be passed as keyword arguments. These parameters can be:

  • A single color value, to color all voxels the same color. This can be either a string, or a 1D rgb/rgba array

  • None, the default, to use a single color for the faces, and the style default for the edges.

  • A 3D ndarray of color names, with each item the color for the corresponding voxel. The size must match the voxels.

  • A 4D ndarray of rgb/rgba data, with the components along the last axis.

shadebool, default: True

Whether to shade the facecolors. Shading is always disabled when cmap is specified.

lightsourceLightSource

The lightsource to use when shade is True.

**kwargs

Additional keyword arguments to pass onto Poly3DCollection.

Returns
facesdict

A dictionary indexed by coordinate, where faces[i, j, k] is a Poly3DCollection of the faces drawn for the voxel filled[i, j, k]. If no faces were drawn for a given voxel, either because it was not asked to be drawn, or it is fully occluded, then (i, j, k) not in faces.

Examples

(Source code, png)

../../_images/voxels.png

(Source code, png)

../../_images/voxels_rgb.png

(Source code, png)

../../_images/voxels_torus.png

(Source code, png)

../../_images/voxels_numpy_logo.png
property w_xaxis[source]#
property w_yaxis[source]#
property w_zaxis[source]#
zaxis_date(tz=None)[source]#

Set up axis ticks and labels to treat data along the zaxis as dates.

Parameters
tzstr or datetime.tzinfo, default: rcParams["timezone"] (default: 'UTC')

The timezone used to create date labels.

Notes

This function is merely provided for completeness, but 3D axes do not support dates for ticks, and so this may not work as expected.

zaxis_inverted()[source]#

Returns True if the z-axis is inverted.