matplotlib.pyplot.specgram¶

matplotlib.pyplot.
specgram
(x, NFFT=None, Fs=None, Fc=None, detrend=None, window=None, noverlap=None, cmap=None, xextent=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, scale_by_freq=None, mode=None, scale=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, *, data=None, **kwargs)[source]¶ Plot a spectrogram.
Compute and plot a spectrogram of data in x. Data are split into NFFT length segments and the spectrum of each section is computed. The windowing function window is applied to each segment, and the amount of overlap of each segment is specified with noverlap. The spectrogram is plotted as a colormap (using imshow).
Parameters:  x1D array or sequence
Array or sequence containing the data.
 Fsfloat, default: 2
The sampling frequency (samples per time unit). It is used to calculate the Fourier frequencies, freqs, in cycles per time unit.
 windowcallable or ndarray, default:
window_hanning
A function or a vector of length NFFT. To create window vectors see
window_hanning
,window_none
,numpy.blackman
,numpy.hamming
,numpy.bartlett
,scipy.signal
,scipy.signal.get_window
, etc. If a function is passed as the argument, it must take a data segment as an argument and return the windowed version of the segment. sides{'default', 'onesided', 'twosided'}, optional
Which sides of the spectrum to return. 'default' is onesided for real data and twosided for complex data. 'onesided' forces the return of a onesided spectrum, while 'twosided' forces twosided.
 pad_toint, optional
The number of points to which the data segment is padded when performing the FFT. This can be different from NFFT, which specifies the number of data points used. While not increasing the actual resolution of the spectrum (the minimum distance between resolvable peaks), this can give more points in the plot, allowing for more detail. This corresponds to the n parameter in the call to fft(). The default is None, which sets pad_to equal to NFFT
 NFFTint, default: 256
The number of data points used in each block for the FFT. A power 2 is most efficient. This should NOT be used to get zero padding, or the scaling of the result will be incorrect; use pad_to for this instead.
 detrend{'none', 'mean', 'linear'} or callable, default 'none'
The function applied to each segment before ffting, designed to remove the mean or linear trend. Unlike in MATLAB, where the detrend parameter is a vector, in Matplotlib is it a function. The
mlab
module definesdetrend_none
,detrend_mean
, anddetrend_linear
, but you can use a custom function as well. You can also use a string to choose one of the functions: 'none' callsdetrend_none
. 'mean' callsdetrend_mean
. 'linear' callsdetrend_linear
. scale_by_freqbool, default: True
Whether the resulting density values should be scaled by the scaling frequency, which gives density in units of Hz^1. This allows for integration over the returned frequency values. The default is True for MATLAB compatibility.
 mode{'default', 'psd', 'magnitude', 'angle', 'phase'}
What sort of spectrum to use. Default is 'psd', which takes the power spectral density. 'magnitude' returns the magnitude spectrum. 'angle' returns the phase spectrum without unwrapping. 'phase' returns the phase spectrum with unwrapping.
 noverlapint
The number of points of overlap between blocks. The default value is 128.
 scale{'default', 'linear', 'dB'}
The scaling of the values in the spec. 'linear' is no scaling. 'dB' returns the values in dB scale. When mode is 'psd', this is dB power (10 * log10). Otherwise this is dB amplitude (20 * log10). 'default' is 'dB' if mode is 'psd' or 'magnitude' and 'linear' otherwise. This must be 'linear' if mode is 'angle' or 'phase'.
 Fcint, default: 0
The center frequency of x, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband.
 cmap
Colormap
, default:rcParams["image.cmap"]
(default:'viridis'
)  xextentNone or (xmin, xmax)
The image extent along the xaxis. The default sets xmin to the left border of the first bin (spectrum column) and xmax to the right border of the last bin. Note that for noverlap>0 the width of the bins is smaller than those of the segments.
 **kwargs
Additional keyword arguments are passed on to
imshow
which makes the specgram image.
Returns:  spectrum2D array
Columns are the periodograms of successive segments.
 freqs1D array
The frequencies corresponding to the rows in spectrum.
 t1D array
The times corresponding to midpoints of segments (i.e., the columns in spectrum).
 im
AxesImage
The image created by imshow containing the spectrogram.
See also
psd
 Differs in the default overlap; in returning the mean of the segment periodograms; in not returning times; and in generating a line plot instead of colormap.
magnitude_spectrum
 A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when mode is 'magnitude'. Plots a line instead of a colormap.
angle_spectrum
 A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when mode is 'angle'. Plots a line instead of a colormap.
phase_spectrum
 A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when mode is 'phase'. Plots a line instead of a colormap.
Notes
The parameters detrend and scale_by_freq do only apply when mode is set to 'psd'.
Note
In addition to the above described arguments, this function can take a data keyword argument. If such a data argument is given, the following arguments can also be string
s
, which is interpreted asdata[s]
(unless this raises an exception): x.Objects passed as data must support item access (
data[s]
) and membership test (s in data
).