Source code for matplotlib.figure

"""
`matplotlib.figure` implements the following classes:

`Figure`
    Top level `~matplotlib.artist.Artist`, which holds all plot elements.
    Many methods are implemented in `FigureBase`.

`SubFigure`
    A logical figure inside a figure, usually added to a figure (or parent
    `SubFigure`) with `Figure.add_subfigure` or `Figure.subfigures` methods
    (provisional API v3.4).

`SubplotParams`
    Control the default spacing between subplots.
"""

import inspect
import logging
from numbers import Integral

import numpy as np

import matplotlib as mpl
from matplotlib import docstring, projections
from matplotlib import __version__ as _mpl_version

import matplotlib.artist as martist
from matplotlib.artist import (
    Artist, allow_rasterization, _finalize_rasterization)
from matplotlib.backend_bases import (
    FigureCanvasBase, NonGuiException, MouseButton)
import matplotlib._api as _api
import matplotlib.cbook as cbook
import matplotlib.colorbar as cbar
import matplotlib.image as mimage

from matplotlib.axes import Axes, SubplotBase, subplot_class_factory
from matplotlib.blocking_input import BlockingMouseInput, BlockingKeyMouseInput
from matplotlib.gridspec import GridSpec
import matplotlib.legend as mlegend
from matplotlib.patches import Rectangle
from matplotlib.text import Text
from matplotlib.transforms import (Affine2D, Bbox, BboxTransformTo,
                                   TransformedBbox)
import matplotlib._layoutgrid as layoutgrid

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)


def _stale_figure_callback(self, val):
    if self.figure:
        self.figure.stale = val


[docs]class SubplotParams: """ A class to hold the parameters for a subplot. """ def __init__(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None): """ Defaults are given by :rc:`figure.subplot.[name]`. Parameters ---------- left : float The position of the left edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure width. right : float The position of the right edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure width. bottom : float The position of the bottom edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure height. top : float The position of the top edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure height. wspace : float The width of the padding between subplots, as a fraction of the average Axes width. hspace : float The height of the padding between subplots, as a fraction of the average Axes height. """ self.validate = True for key in ["left", "bottom", "right", "top", "wspace", "hspace"]: setattr(self, key, mpl.rcParams[f"figure.subplot.{key}"]) self.update(left, bottom, right, top, wspace, hspace)
[docs] def update(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None): """ Update the dimensions of the passed parameters. *None* means unchanged. """ if self.validate: if ((left if left is not None else self.left) >= (right if right is not None else self.right)): raise ValueError('left cannot be >= right') if ((bottom if bottom is not None else self.bottom) >= (top if top is not None else self.top)): raise ValueError('bottom cannot be >= top') if left is not None: self.left = left if right is not None: self.right = right if bottom is not None: self.bottom = bottom if top is not None: self.top = top if wspace is not None: self.wspace = wspace if hspace is not None: self.hspace = hspace
[docs]class FigureBase(Artist): """ Base class for `.figure.Figure` and `.figure.SubFigure` containing the methods that add artists to the figure or subfigure, create Axes, etc. """ def __init__(self): super().__init__() # remove the non-figure artist _axes property # as it makes no sense for a figure to be _in_ an axes # this is used by the property methods in the artist base class # which are over-ridden in this class del self._axes self._suptitle = None self._supxlabel = None self._supylabel = None # constrained_layout: self._layoutgrid = None # groupers to keep track of x and y labels we want to align. # see self.align_xlabels and self.align_ylabels and # axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings self._align_label_groups = {"x": cbook.Grouper(), "y": cbook.Grouper()} self.figure = self # list of child gridspecs for this figure self._gridspecs = [] self._localaxes = cbook.Stack() # keep track of axes at this level self.artists = [] self.lines = [] self.patches = [] self.texts = [] self.images = [] self.legends = [] self.subfigs = [] self.stale = True self.suppressComposite = None def _get_draw_artists(self, renderer): """Also runs apply_aspect""" artists = self.get_children() for sfig in self.subfigs: artists.remove(sfig) childa = sfig.get_children() for child in childa: if child in artists: artists.remove(child) artists.remove(self.patch) artists = sorted( (artist for artist in artists if not artist.get_animated()), key=lambda artist: artist.get_zorder()) for ax in self._localaxes.as_list(): locator = ax.get_axes_locator() if locator: pos = locator(ax, renderer) ax.apply_aspect(pos) else: ax.apply_aspect() for child in ax.get_children(): if hasattr(child, 'apply_aspect'): locator = child.get_axes_locator() if locator: pos = locator(child, renderer) child.apply_aspect(pos) else: child.apply_aspect() return artists
[docs] def autofmt_xdate( self, bottom=0.2, rotation=30, ha='right', which='major'): """ Date ticklabels often overlap, so it is useful to rotate them and right align them. Also, a common use case is a number of subplots with shared x-axis where the x-axis is date data. The ticklabels are often long, and it helps to rotate them on the bottom subplot and turn them off on other subplots, as well as turn off xlabels. Parameters ---------- bottom : float, default: 0.2 The bottom of the subplots for `subplots_adjust`. rotation : float, default: 30 degrees The rotation angle of the xtick labels in degrees. ha : {'left', 'center', 'right'}, default: 'right' The horizontal alignment of the xticklabels. which : {'major', 'minor', 'both'}, default: 'major' Selects which ticklabels to rotate. """ if which is None: _api.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="Support for passing which=None to mean " "which='major' is deprecated since %(since)s and will be " "removed %(removal)s.") allsubplots = all(hasattr(ax, 'get_subplotspec') for ax in self.axes) if len(self.axes) == 1: for label in self.axes[0].get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_ha(ha) label.set_rotation(rotation) else: if allsubplots: for ax in self.get_axes(): if ax.get_subplotspec().is_last_row(): for label in ax.get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_ha(ha) label.set_rotation(rotation) else: for label in ax.get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_visible(False) ax.set_xlabel('') if allsubplots: self.subplots_adjust(bottom=bottom) self.stale = True
[docs] def get_children(self): """Get a list of artists contained in the figure.""" return [self.patch, *self.artists, *self._localaxes.as_list(), *self.lines, *self.patches, *self.texts, *self.images, *self.legends, *self.subfigs]
[docs] def contains(self, mouseevent): """ Test whether the mouse event occurred on the figure. Returns ------- bool, {} """ inside, info = self._default_contains(mouseevent, figure=self) if inside is not None: return inside, info inside = self.bbox.contains(mouseevent.x, mouseevent.y) return inside, {}
[docs] def get_window_extent(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Return the figure bounding box in display space. Arguments are ignored. """ return self.bbox
def _suplabels(self, t, info, **kwargs): """ Add a centered %(name)s to the figure. Parameters ---------- t : str The %(name)s text. x : float, default: %(x0)s The x location of the text in figure coordinates. y : float, default: %(y0)s The y location of the text in figure coordinates. horizontalalignment, ha : {'center', 'left', 'right'}, default: %(ha)s The horizontal alignment of the text relative to (*x*, *y*). verticalalignment, va : {'top', 'center', 'bottom', 'baseline'}, \ default: %(va)s The vertical alignment of the text relative to (*x*, *y*). fontsize, size : default: :rc:`figure.titlesize` The font size of the text. See `.Text.set_size` for possible values. fontweight, weight : default: :rc:`figure.titleweight` The font weight of the text. See `.Text.set_weight` for possible values. Returns ------- text The `.Text` instance of the %(name)s. Other Parameters ---------------- fontproperties : None or dict, optional A dict of font properties. If *fontproperties* is given the default values for font size and weight are taken from the `.FontProperties` defaults. :rc:`figure.titlesize` and :rc:`figure.titleweight` are ignored in this case. **kwargs Additional kwargs are `matplotlib.text.Text` properties. """ manual_position = ('x' in kwargs or 'y' in kwargs) suplab = getattr(self, info['name']) x = kwargs.pop('x', info['x0']) y = kwargs.pop('y', info['y0']) if 'horizontalalignment' not in kwargs and 'ha' not in kwargs: kwargs['horizontalalignment'] = info['ha'] if 'verticalalignment' not in kwargs and 'va' not in kwargs: kwargs['verticalalignment'] = info['va'] if 'rotation' not in kwargs: kwargs['rotation'] = info['rotation'] if 'fontproperties' not in kwargs: if 'fontsize' not in kwargs and 'size' not in kwargs: kwargs['size'] = mpl.rcParams['figure.titlesize'] if 'fontweight' not in kwargs and 'weight' not in kwargs: kwargs['weight'] = mpl.rcParams['figure.titleweight'] sup = self.text(x, y, t, **kwargs) if suplab is not None: suplab.set_text(t) suplab.set_position((x, y)) suplab.update_from(sup) sup.remove() else: suplab = sup if manual_position: suplab.set_in_layout(False) setattr(self, info['name'], suplab) self.stale = True return suplab
[docs] @docstring.Substitution(x0=0.5, y0=0.98, name='suptitle', ha='center', va='top') @docstring.copy(_suplabels) def suptitle(self, t, **kwargs): # docstring from _suplabels... info = {'name': '_suptitle', 'x0': 0.5, 'y0': 0.98, 'ha': 'center', 'va': 'top', 'rotation': 0} return self._suplabels(t, info, **kwargs)
[docs] @docstring.Substitution(x0=0.5, y0=0.01, name='supxlabel', ha='center', va='bottom') @docstring.copy(_suplabels) def supxlabel(self, t, **kwargs): # docstring from _suplabels... info = {'name': '_supxlabel', 'x0': 0.5, 'y0': 0.01, 'ha': 'center', 'va': 'bottom', 'rotation': 0} return self._suplabels(t, info, **kwargs)
[docs] @docstring.Substitution(x0=0.02, y0=0.5, name='supylabel', ha='left', va='center') @docstring.copy(_suplabels) def supylabel(self, t, **kwargs): # docstring from _suplabels... info = {'name': '_supylabel', 'x0': 0.02, 'y0': 0.5, 'ha': 'left', 'va': 'center', 'rotation': 'vertical', 'rotation_mode': 'anchor'} return self._suplabels(t, info, **kwargs)
[docs] def get_edgecolor(self): """Get the edge color of the Figure rectangle.""" return self.patch.get_edgecolor()
[docs] def get_facecolor(self): """Get the face color of the Figure rectangle.""" return self.patch.get_facecolor()
[docs] def get_frameon(self): """ Return the figure's background patch visibility, i.e. whether the figure background will be drawn. Equivalent to ``Figure.patch.get_visible()``. """ return self.patch.get_visible()
[docs] def set_linewidth(self, linewidth): """ Set the line width of the Figure rectangle. Parameters ---------- linewidth : number """ self.patch.set_linewidth(linewidth)
[docs] def get_linewidth(self): """ Get the line width of the Figure rectangle. """ return self.patch.get_linewidth()
[docs] def set_edgecolor(self, color): """ Set the edge color of the Figure rectangle. Parameters ---------- color : color """ self.patch.set_edgecolor(color)
[docs] def set_facecolor(self, color): """ Set the face color of the Figure rectangle. Parameters ---------- color : color """ self.patch.set_facecolor(color)
[docs] def set_frameon(self, b): """ Set the figure's background patch visibility, i.e. whether the figure background will be drawn. Equivalent to ``Figure.patch.set_visible()``. Parameters ---------- b : bool """ self.patch.set_visible(b) self.stale = True
frameon = property(get_frameon, set_frameon)
[docs] def add_artist(self, artist, clip=False): """ Add an `.Artist` to the figure. Usually artists are added to Axes objects using `.Axes.add_artist`; this method can be used in the rare cases where one needs to add artists directly to the figure instead. Parameters ---------- artist : `~matplotlib.artist.Artist` The artist to add to the figure. If the added artist has no transform previously set, its transform will be set to ``figure.transSubfigure``. clip : bool, default: False Whether the added artist should be clipped by the figure patch. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.artist.Artist` The added artist. """ artist.set_figure(self) self.artists.append(artist) artist._remove_method = self.artists.remove if not artist.is_transform_set(): artist.set_transform(self.transSubfigure) if clip: artist.set_clip_path(self.patch) self.stale = True return artist
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def add_axes(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Add an Axes to the figure. Call signatures:: add_axes(rect, projection=None, polar=False, **kwargs) add_axes(ax) Parameters ---------- rect : sequence of float The dimensions [left, bottom, width, height] of the new Axes. All quantities are in fractions of figure width and height. projection : {None, 'aitoff', 'hammer', 'lambert', 'mollweide', \ 'polar', 'rectilinear', str}, optional The projection type of the `~.axes.Axes`. *str* is the name of a custom projection, see `~matplotlib.projections`. The default None results in a 'rectilinear' projection. polar : bool, default: False If True, equivalent to projection='polar'. axes_class : subclass type of `~.axes.Axes`, optional The `.axes.Axes` subclass that is instantiated. This parameter is incompatible with *projection* and *polar*. See :ref:`axisartist_users-guide-index` for examples. sharex, sharey : `~.axes.Axes`, optional Share the x or y `~matplotlib.axis` with sharex and/or sharey. The axis will have the same limits, ticks, and scale as the axis of the shared axes. label : str A label for the returned Axes. Returns ------- `~.axes.Axes`, or a subclass of `~.axes.Axes` The returned axes class depends on the projection used. It is `~.axes.Axes` if rectilinear projection is used and `.projections.polar.PolarAxes` if polar projection is used. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs This method also takes the keyword arguments for the returned Axes class. The keyword arguments for the rectilinear Axes class `~.axes.Axes` can be found in the following table but there might also be other keyword arguments if another projection is used, see the actual Axes class. %(Axes_kwdoc)s Notes ----- In rare circumstances, `.add_axes` may be called with a single argument, an Axes instance already created in the present figure but not in the figure's list of Axes. See Also -------- .Figure.add_subplot .pyplot.subplot .pyplot.axes .Figure.subplots .pyplot.subplots Examples -------- Some simple examples:: rect = l, b, w, h fig = plt.figure() fig.add_axes(rect) fig.add_axes(rect, frameon=False, facecolor='g') fig.add_axes(rect, polar=True) ax = fig.add_axes(rect, projection='polar') fig.delaxes(ax) fig.add_axes(ax) """ if not len(args) and 'rect' not in kwargs: _api.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="Calling add_axes() without argument is " "deprecated since %(since)s and will be removed %(removal)s. " "You may want to use add_subplot() instead.") return elif 'rect' in kwargs: if len(args): raise TypeError( "add_axes() got multiple values for argument 'rect'") args = (kwargs.pop('rect'), ) if isinstance(args[0], Axes): a = args[0] key = a._projection_init if a.get_figure() is not self: raise ValueError( "The Axes must have been created in the present figure") else: rect = args[0] if not np.isfinite(rect).all(): raise ValueError('all entries in rect must be finite ' 'not {}'.format(rect)) projection_class, pkw = self._process_projection_requirements( *args, **kwargs) # create the new axes using the axes class given a = projection_class(self, rect, **pkw) key = (projection_class, pkw) return self._add_axes_internal(a, key)
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def add_subplot(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Add an `~.axes.Axes` to the figure as part of a subplot arrangement. Call signatures:: add_subplot(nrows, ncols, index, **kwargs) add_subplot(pos, **kwargs) add_subplot(ax) add_subplot() Parameters ---------- *args : int, (int, int, *index*), or `.SubplotSpec`, default: (1, 1, 1) The position of the subplot described by one of - Three integers (*nrows*, *ncols*, *index*). The subplot will take the *index* position on a grid with *nrows* rows and *ncols* columns. *index* starts at 1 in the upper left corner and increases to the right. *index* can also be a two-tuple specifying the (*first*, *last*) indices (1-based, and including *last*) of the subplot, e.g., ``fig.add_subplot(3, 1, (1, 2))`` makes a subplot that spans the upper 2/3 of the figure. - A 3-digit integer. The digits are interpreted as if given separately as three single-digit integers, i.e. ``fig.add_subplot(235)`` is the same as ``fig.add_subplot(2, 3, 5)``. Note that this can only be used if there are no more than 9 subplots. - A `.SubplotSpec`. In rare circumstances, `.add_subplot` may be called with a single argument, a subplot Axes instance already created in the present figure but not in the figure's list of Axes. projection : {None, 'aitoff', 'hammer', 'lambert', 'mollweide', \ 'polar', 'rectilinear', str}, optional The projection type of the subplot (`~.axes.Axes`). *str* is the name of a custom projection, see `~matplotlib.projections`. The default None results in a 'rectilinear' projection. polar : bool, default: False If True, equivalent to projection='polar'. axes_class : subclass type of `~.axes.Axes`, optional The `.axes.Axes` subclass that is instantiated. This parameter is incompatible with *projection* and *polar*. See :ref:`axisartist_users-guide-index` for examples. sharex, sharey : `~.axes.Axes`, optional Share the x or y `~matplotlib.axis` with sharex and/or sharey. The axis will have the same limits, ticks, and scale as the axis of the shared axes. label : str A label for the returned Axes. Returns ------- `.axes.SubplotBase`, or another subclass of `~.axes.Axes` The Axes of the subplot. The returned Axes base class depends on the projection used. It is `~.axes.Axes` if rectilinear projection is used and `.projections.polar.PolarAxes` if polar projection is used. The returned Axes is then a subplot subclass of the base class. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs This method also takes the keyword arguments for the returned Axes base class; except for the *figure* argument. The keyword arguments for the rectilinear base class `~.axes.Axes` can be found in the following table but there might also be other keyword arguments if another projection is used. %(Axes_kwdoc)s See Also -------- .Figure.add_axes .pyplot.subplot .pyplot.axes .Figure.subplots .pyplot.subplots Examples -------- :: fig = plt.figure() fig.add_subplot(231) ax1 = fig.add_subplot(2, 3, 1) # equivalent but more general fig.add_subplot(232, frameon=False) # subplot with no frame fig.add_subplot(233, projection='polar') # polar subplot fig.add_subplot(234, sharex=ax1) # subplot sharing x-axis with ax1 fig.add_subplot(235, facecolor="red") # red subplot ax1.remove() # delete ax1 from the figure fig.add_subplot(ax1) # add ax1 back to the figure """ if 'figure' in kwargs: # Axes itself allows for a 'figure' kwarg, but since we want to # bind the created Axes to self, it is not allowed here. raise TypeError( "add_subplot() got an unexpected keyword argument 'figure'") if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], SubplotBase): ax = args[0] key = ax._projection_init if ax.get_figure() is not self: raise ValueError("The Subplot must have been created in " "the present figure") else: if not args: args = (1, 1, 1) # Normalize correct ijk values to (i, j, k) here so that # add_subplot(211) == add_subplot(2, 1, 1). Invalid values will # trigger errors later (via SubplotSpec._from_subplot_args). if (len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], Integral) and 100 <= args[0] <= 999): args = tuple(map(int, str(args[0]))) projection_class, pkw = self._process_projection_requirements( *args, **kwargs) ax = subplot_class_factory(projection_class)(self, *args, **pkw) key = (projection_class, pkw) return self._add_axes_internal(ax, key)
def _add_axes_internal(self, ax, key): """Private helper for `add_axes` and `add_subplot`.""" self._axstack.push(ax) self._localaxes.push(ax) self.sca(ax) ax._remove_method = self.delaxes # this is to support plt.subplot's re-selection logic ax._projection_init = key self.stale = True ax.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback return ax
[docs] @_api.make_keyword_only("3.3", "sharex") def subplots(self, nrows=1, ncols=1, sharex=False, sharey=False, squeeze=True, subplot_kw=None, gridspec_kw=None): """ Add a set of subplots to this figure. This utility wrapper makes it convenient to create common layouts of subplots in a single call. Parameters ---------- nrows, ncols : int, default: 1 Number of rows/columns of the subplot grid. sharex, sharey : bool or {'none', 'all', 'row', 'col'}, default: False Controls sharing of properties among x (*sharex*) or y (*sharey*) axes: - True or 'all': x- or y-axis will be shared among all subplots. - False or 'none': each subplot x- or y-axis will be independent. - 'row': each subplot row will share an x- or y-axis. - 'col': each subplot column will share an x- or y-axis. When subplots have a shared x-axis along a column, only the x tick labels of the bottom subplot are created. Similarly, when subplots have a shared y-axis along a row, only the y tick labels of the first column subplot are created. To later turn other subplots' ticklabels on, use `~matplotlib.axes.Axes.tick_params`. When subplots have a shared axis that has units, calling `.Axis.set_units` will update each axis with the new units. squeeze : bool, default: True - If True, extra dimensions are squeezed out from the returned array of Axes: - if only one subplot is constructed (nrows=ncols=1), the resulting single Axes object is returned as a scalar. - for Nx1 or 1xM subplots, the returned object is a 1D numpy object array of Axes objects. - for NxM, subplots with N>1 and M>1 are returned as a 2D array. - If False, no squeezing at all is done: the returned Axes object is always a 2D array containing Axes instances, even if it ends up being 1x1. subplot_kw : dict, optional Dict with keywords passed to the `.Figure.add_subplot` call used to create each subplot. gridspec_kw : dict, optional Dict with keywords passed to the `~matplotlib.gridspec.GridSpec` constructor used to create the grid the subplots are placed on. Returns ------- `~.axes.Axes` or array of Axes Either a single `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` object or an array of Axes objects if more than one subplot was created. The dimensions of the resulting array can be controlled with the *squeeze* keyword, see above. See Also -------- .pyplot.subplots .Figure.add_subplot .pyplot.subplot Examples -------- :: # First create some toy data: x = np.linspace(0, 2*np.pi, 400) y = np.sin(x**2) # Create a figure plt.figure() # Create a subplot ax = fig.subplots() ax.plot(x, y) ax.set_title('Simple plot') # Create two subplots and unpack the output array immediately ax1, ax2 = fig.subplots(1, 2, sharey=True) ax1.plot(x, y) ax1.set_title('Sharing Y axis') ax2.scatter(x, y) # Create four polar Axes and access them through the returned array axes = fig.subplots(2, 2, subplot_kw=dict(projection='polar')) axes[0, 0].plot(x, y) axes[1, 1].scatter(x, y) # Share a X axis with each column of subplots fig.subplots(2, 2, sharex='col') # Share a Y axis with each row of subplots fig.subplots(2, 2, sharey='row') # Share both X and Y axes with all subplots fig.subplots(2, 2, sharex='all', sharey='all') # Note that this is the same as fig.subplots(2, 2, sharex=True, sharey=True) """ if gridspec_kw is None: gridspec_kw = {} gs = self.add_gridspec(nrows, ncols, figure=self, **gridspec_kw) axs = gs.subplots(sharex=sharex, sharey=sharey, squeeze=squeeze, subplot_kw=subplot_kw) return axs
[docs] def delaxes(self, ax): """ Remove the `~.axes.Axes` *ax* from the figure; update the current Axes. """ def _reset_locators_and_formatters(axis): # Set the formatters and locators to be associated with axis # (where previously they may have been associated with another # Axis instance) # # Because set_major_formatter() etc. force isDefault_* to be False, # we have to manually check if the original formatter was a # default and manually set isDefault_* if that was the case. majfmt = axis.get_major_formatter() isDefault = majfmt.axis.isDefault_majfmt axis.set_major_formatter(majfmt) if isDefault: majfmt.axis.isDefault_majfmt = True majloc = axis.get_major_locator() isDefault = majloc.axis.isDefault_majloc axis.set_major_locator(majloc) if isDefault: majloc.axis.isDefault_majloc = True minfmt = axis.get_minor_formatter() isDefault = majloc.axis.isDefault_minfmt axis.set_minor_formatter(minfmt) if isDefault: minfmt.axis.isDefault_minfmt = True minloc = axis.get_minor_locator() isDefault = majloc.axis.isDefault_minloc axis.set_minor_locator(minloc) if isDefault: minloc.axis.isDefault_minloc = True def _break_share_link(ax, grouper): siblings = grouper.get_siblings(ax) if len(siblings) > 1: grouper.remove(ax) for last_ax in siblings: if ax is not last_ax: return last_ax return None self._axstack.remove(ax) self._axobservers.process("_axes_change_event", self) self.stale = True self._localaxes.remove(ax) last_ax = _break_share_link(ax, ax._shared_y_axes) if last_ax is not None: _reset_locators_and_formatters(last_ax.yaxis) last_ax = _break_share_link(ax, ax._shared_x_axes) if last_ax is not None: _reset_locators_and_formatters(last_ax.xaxis)
# Note: in the docstring below, the newlines in the examples after the # calls to legend() allow replacing it with figlegend() to generate the # docstring of pyplot.figlegend.
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def legend(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Place a legend on the figure. Call signatures:: legend() legend(labels) legend(handles, labels) The call signatures correspond to these three different ways to use this method: **1. Automatic detection of elements to be shown in the legend** The elements to be added to the legend are automatically determined, when you do not pass in any extra arguments. In this case, the labels are taken from the artist. You can specify them either at artist creation or by calling the :meth:`~.Artist.set_label` method on the artist:: ax.plot([1, 2, 3], label='Inline label') fig.legend() or:: line, = ax.plot([1, 2, 3]) line.set_label('Label via method') fig.legend() Specific lines can be excluded from the automatic legend element selection by defining a label starting with an underscore. This is default for all artists, so calling `.Figure.legend` without any arguments and without setting the labels manually will result in no legend being drawn. **2. Labeling existing plot elements** To make a legend for all artists on all Axes, call this function with an iterable of strings, one for each legend item. For example:: fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(1, 2) ax1.plot([1, 3, 5], color='blue') ax2.plot([2, 4, 6], color='red') fig.legend(['the blues', 'the reds']) Note: This call signature is discouraged, because the relation between plot elements and labels is only implicit by their order and can easily be mixed up. **3. Explicitly defining the elements in the legend** For full control of which artists have a legend entry, it is possible to pass an iterable of legend artists followed by an iterable of legend labels respectively:: fig.legend([line1, line2, line3], ['label1', 'label2', 'label3']) Parameters ---------- handles : list of `.Artist`, optional A list of Artists (lines, patches) to be added to the legend. Use this together with *labels*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. The length of handles and labels should be the same in this case. If they are not, they are truncated to the smaller length. labels : list of str, optional A list of labels to show next to the artists. Use this together with *handles*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.legend.Legend` Other Parameters ---------------- %(_legend_kw_doc)s See Also -------- .Axes.legend Notes ----- Some artists are not supported by this function. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/legend_guide` for details. """ handles, labels, extra_args, kwargs = mlegend._parse_legend_args( self.axes, *args, **kwargs) # check for third arg if len(extra_args): # _api.warn_deprecated( # "2.1", # message="Figure.legend will accept no more than two " # "positional arguments in the future. Use " # "'fig.legend(handles, labels, loc=location)' " # "instead.") # kwargs['loc'] = extra_args[0] # extra_args = extra_args[1:] pass transform = kwargs.pop('bbox_transform', self.transSubfigure) # explicitly set the bbox transform if the user hasn't. l = mlegend.Legend(self, handles, labels, *extra_args, bbox_transform=transform, **kwargs) self.legends.append(l) l._remove_method = self.legends.remove self.stale = True return l
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def text(self, x, y, s, fontdict=None, **kwargs): """ Add text to figure. Parameters ---------- x, y : float The position to place the text. By default, this is in figure coordinates, floats in [0, 1]. The coordinate system can be changed using the *transform* keyword. s : str The text string. fontdict : dict, optional A dictionary to override the default text properties. If not given, the defaults are determined by :rc:`font.*`. Properties passed as *kwargs* override the corresponding ones given in *fontdict*. Returns ------- `~.text.Text` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.text.Text` properties Other miscellaneous text parameters. %(Text_kwdoc)s See Also -------- .Axes.text .pyplot.text """ effective_kwargs = { 'transform': self.transSubfigure, **(fontdict if fontdict is not None else {}), **kwargs, } text = Text(x=x, y=y, text=s, **effective_kwargs) text.set_figure(self) text.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback self.texts.append(text) text._remove_method = self.texts.remove self.stale = True return text
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def colorbar(self, mappable, cax=None, ax=None, use_gridspec=True, **kw): """%(colorbar_doc)s""" if ax is None: ax = self.gca() if (hasattr(mappable, "axes") and ax is not mappable.axes and cax is None): _api.warn_deprecated( "3.4", message="Starting from Matplotlib 3.6, colorbar() " "will steal space from the mappable's axes, rather than " "from the current axes, to place the colorbar. To " "silence this warning, explicitly pass the 'ax' argument " "to colorbar().") # Store the value of gca so that we can set it back later on. current_ax = self.gca() if cax is None: if (use_gridspec and isinstance(ax, SubplotBase) and not self.get_constrained_layout()): cax, kw = cbar.make_axes_gridspec(ax, **kw) else: cax, kw = cbar.make_axes(ax, **kw) # need to remove kws that cannot be passed to Colorbar NON_COLORBAR_KEYS = ['fraction', 'pad', 'shrink', 'aspect', 'anchor', 'panchor'] cb_kw = {k: v for k, v in kw.items() if k not in NON_COLORBAR_KEYS} cb = cbar.Colorbar(cax, mappable, **cb_kw) self.sca(current_ax) self.stale = True return cb
[docs] def subplots_adjust(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None): """ Adjust the subplot layout parameters. Unset parameters are left unmodified; initial values are given by :rc:`figure.subplot.[name]`. Parameters ---------- left : float, optional The position of the left edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure width. right : float, optional The position of the right edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure width. bottom : float, optional The position of the bottom edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure height. top : float, optional The position of the top edge of the subplots, as a fraction of the figure height. wspace : float, optional The width of the padding between subplots, as a fraction of the average Axes width. hspace : float, optional The height of the padding between subplots, as a fraction of the average Axes height. """ if self.get_constrained_layout(): self.set_constrained_layout(False) _api.warn_external( "This figure was using constrained_layout, but that is " "incompatible with subplots_adjust and/or tight_layout; " "disabling constrained_layout.") self.subplotpars.update(left, bottom, right, top, wspace, hspace) for ax in self.axes: if isinstance(ax, SubplotBase): ax._set_position(ax.get_subplotspec().get_position(self)) self.stale = True
[docs] def align_xlabels(self, axs=None): """ Align the xlabels of subplots in the same subplot column if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. If a label is on the bottom, it is aligned with labels on Axes that also have their label on the bottom and that have the same bottom-most subplot row. If the label is on the top, it is aligned with labels on Axes with the same top-most row. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` Optional list of (or ndarray) `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the xlabels. Default is to align all Axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_ylabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_labels Notes ----- This assumes that ``axs`` are from the same `.GridSpec`, so that their `.SubplotSpec` positions correspond to figure positions. Examples -------- Example with rotated xtick labels:: fig, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2) for tick in axs[0].get_xticklabels(): tick.set_rotation(55) axs[0].set_xlabel('XLabel 0') axs[1].set_xlabel('XLabel 1') fig.align_xlabels() """ if axs is None: axs = self.axes axs = np.ravel(axs) for ax in axs: _log.debug(' Working on: %s', ax.get_xlabel()) rowspan = ax.get_subplotspec().rowspan pos = ax.xaxis.get_label_position() # top or bottom # Search through other axes for label positions that are same as # this one and that share the appropriate row number. # Add to a grouper associated with each axes of siblings. # This list is inspected in `axis.draw` by # `axis._update_label_position`. for axc in axs: if axc.xaxis.get_label_position() == pos: rowspanc = axc.get_subplotspec().rowspan if (pos == 'top' and rowspan.start == rowspanc.start or pos == 'bottom' and rowspan.stop == rowspanc.stop): # grouper for groups of xlabels to align self._align_label_groups['x'].join(ax, axc)
[docs] def align_ylabels(self, axs=None): """ Align the ylabels of subplots in the same subplot column if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. If a label is on the left, it is aligned with labels on Axes that also have their label on the left and that have the same left-most subplot column. If the label is on the right, it is aligned with labels on Axes with the same right-most column. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` Optional list (or ndarray) of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the ylabels. Default is to align all Axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_xlabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_labels Notes ----- This assumes that ``axs`` are from the same `.GridSpec`, so that their `.SubplotSpec` positions correspond to figure positions. Examples -------- Example with large yticks labels:: fig, axs = plt.subplots(2, 1) axs[0].plot(np.arange(0, 1000, 50)) axs[0].set_ylabel('YLabel 0') axs[1].set_ylabel('YLabel 1') fig.align_ylabels() """ if axs is None: axs = self.axes axs = np.ravel(axs) for ax in axs: _log.debug(' Working on: %s', ax.get_ylabel()) colspan = ax.get_subplotspec().colspan pos = ax.yaxis.get_label_position() # left or right # Search through other axes for label positions that are same as # this one and that share the appropriate column number. # Add to a list associated with each axes of siblings. # This list is inspected in `axis.draw` by # `axis._update_label_position`. for axc in axs: if axc.yaxis.get_label_position() == pos: colspanc = axc.get_subplotspec().colspan if (pos == 'left' and colspan.start == colspanc.start or pos == 'right' and colspan.stop == colspanc.stop): # grouper for groups of ylabels to align self._align_label_groups['y'].join(ax, axc)
[docs] def align_labels(self, axs=None): """ Align the xlabels and ylabels of subplots with the same subplots row or column (respectively) if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` Optional list (or ndarray) of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the labels. Default is to align all Axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_xlabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_ylabels """ self.align_xlabels(axs=axs) self.align_ylabels(axs=axs)
[docs] def add_gridspec(self, nrows=1, ncols=1, **kwargs): """ Return a `.GridSpec` that has this figure as a parent. This allows complex layout of Axes in the figure. Parameters ---------- nrows : int, default: 1 Number of rows in grid. ncols : int, default: 1 Number or columns in grid. Returns ------- `.GridSpec` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments are passed to `.GridSpec`. See Also -------- matplotlib.pyplot.subplots Examples -------- Adding a subplot that spans two rows:: fig = plt.figure() gs = fig.add_gridspec(2, 2) ax1 = fig.add_subplot(gs[0, 0]) ax2 = fig.add_subplot(gs[1, 0]) # spans two rows: ax3 = fig.add_subplot(gs[:, 1]) """ _ = kwargs.pop('figure', None) # pop in case user has added this... gs = GridSpec(nrows=nrows, ncols=ncols, figure=self, **kwargs) self._gridspecs.append(gs) return gs
[docs] def subfigures(self, nrows=1, ncols=1, squeeze=True, wspace=None, hspace=None, width_ratios=None, height_ratios=None, **kwargs): """ Add a subfigure to this figure or subfigure. A subfigure has the same artist methods as a figure, and is logically the same as a figure, but cannot print itself. See :doc:`/gallery/subplots_axes_and_figures/subfigures`. Parameters ---------- nrows, ncols : int, default: 1 Number of rows/columns of the subfigure grid. squeeze : bool, default: True If True, extra dimensions are squeezed out from the returned array of subfigures. wspace, hspace : float, default: None The amount of width/height reserved for space between subfigures, expressed as a fraction of the average subfigure width/height. If not given, the values will be inferred from a figure or rcParams when necessary. width_ratios : array-like of length *ncols*, optional Defines the relative widths of the columns. Each column gets a relative width of ``width_ratios[i] / sum(width_ratios)``. If not given, all columns will have the same width. height_ratios : array-like of length *nrows*, optional Defines the relative heights of the rows. Each row gets a relative height of ``height_ratios[i] / sum(height_ratios)``. If not given, all rows will have the same height. """ gs = GridSpec(nrows=nrows, ncols=ncols, figure=self, wspace=wspace, hspace=hspace, width_ratios=width_ratios, height_ratios=height_ratios) sfarr = np.empty((nrows, ncols), dtype=object) for i in range(ncols): for j in range(nrows): sfarr[j, i] = self.add_subfigure(gs[j, i], **kwargs) if squeeze: # Discarding unneeded dimensions that equal 1. If we only have one # subfigure, just return it instead of a 1-element array. return sfarr.item() if sfarr.size == 1 else sfarr.squeeze() else: # Returned axis array will be always 2-d, even if nrows=ncols=1. return sfarr return sfarr
[docs] def add_subfigure(self, subplotspec, **kwargs): """ Add a `~.figure.SubFigure` to the figure as part of a subplot arrangement. Parameters ---------- subplotspec : `.gridspec.SubplotSpec` Defines the region in a parent gridspec where the subfigure will be placed. Returns ------- `.figure.SubFigure` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Are passed to the `~.figure.SubFigure` object. See Also -------- .Figure.subfigures """ sf = SubFigure(self, subplotspec, **kwargs) self.subfigs += [sf] return sf
[docs] def sca(self, a): """Set the current Axes to be *a* and return *a*.""" self._axstack.bubble(a) self._axobservers.process("_axes_change_event", self) return a
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def gca(self, **kwargs): """ Get the current Axes, creating one if necessary. The following kwargs are supported for ensuring the returned Axes adheres to the given projection etc., and for Axes creation if the active Axes does not exist: %(Axes_kwdoc)s """ if kwargs: _api.warn_deprecated( "3.4", message="Calling gca() with keyword arguments was deprecated " "in Matplotlib %(since)s. Starting %(removal)s, gca() will " "take no keyword arguments. The gca() function should only be " "used to get the current axes, or if no axes exist, create " "new axes with default keyword arguments. To create a new " "axes with non-default arguments, use plt.axes() or " "plt.subplot().") if self._axstack.empty(): return self.add_subplot(1, 1, 1, **kwargs) else: return self._axstack()
def _gci(self): # Helper for `~matplotlib.pyplot.gci`. Do not use elsewhere. """ Get the current colorable artist. Specifically, returns the current `.ScalarMappable` instance (`.Image` created by `imshow` or `figimage`, `.Collection` created by `pcolor` or `scatter`, etc.), or *None* if no such instance has been defined. The current image is an attribute of the current Axes, or the nearest earlier Axes in the current figure that contains an image. Notes ----- Historically, the only colorable artists were images; hence the name ``gci`` (get current image). """ # Look first for an image in the current Axes: if self._axstack.empty(): return None im = self._axstack()._gci() if im is not None: return im # If there is no image in the current Axes, search for # one in a previously created Axes. Whether this makes # sense is debatable, but it is the documented behavior. for ax in reversed(self.axes): im = ax._gci() if im is not None: return im return None def _process_projection_requirements( self, *args, axes_class=None, polar=False, projection=None, **kwargs): """ Handle the args/kwargs to add_axes/add_subplot/gca, returning:: (axes_proj_class, proj_class_kwargs) which can be used for new Axes initialization/identification. """ if axes_class is not None: if polar or projection is not None: raise ValueError( "Cannot combine 'axes_class' and 'projection' or 'polar'") projection_class = axes_class else: if polar: if projection is not None and projection != 'polar': raise ValueError( f"polar={polar}, yet projection={projection!r}. " "Only one of these arguments should be supplied." ) projection = 'polar' if isinstance(projection, str) or projection is None: projection_class = projections.get_projection_class(projection) elif hasattr(projection, '_as_mpl_axes'): projection_class, extra_kwargs = projection._as_mpl_axes() kwargs.update(**extra_kwargs) else: raise TypeError( f"projection must be a string, None or implement a " f"_as_mpl_axes method, not {projection!r}") if projection_class.__name__ == 'Axes3D': kwargs.setdefault('auto_add_to_figure', False) return projection_class, kwargs
[docs] def get_default_bbox_extra_artists(self): bbox_artists = [artist for artist in self.get_children() if (artist.get_visible() and artist.get_in_layout())] for ax in self.axes: if ax.get_visible(): bbox_artists.extend(ax.get_default_bbox_extra_artists()) return bbox_artists
[docs] def get_tightbbox(self, renderer, bbox_extra_artists=None): """ Return a (tight) bounding box of the figure in inches. Artists that have ``artist.set_in_layout(False)`` are not included in the bbox. Parameters ---------- renderer : `.RendererBase` subclass renderer that will be used to draw the figures (i.e. ``fig.canvas.get_renderer()``) bbox_extra_artists : list of `.Artist` or ``None`` List of artists to include in the tight bounding box. If ``None`` (default), then all artist children of each Axes are included in the tight bounding box. Returns ------- `.BboxBase` containing the bounding box (in figure inches). """ bb = [] if bbox_extra_artists is None: artists = self.get_default_bbox_extra_artists() else: artists = bbox_extra_artists for a in artists: bbox = a.get_tightbbox(renderer) if bbox is not None and (bbox.width != 0 or bbox.height != 0): bb.append(bbox) for ax in self.axes: if ax.get_visible(): # some axes don't take the bbox_extra_artists kwarg so we # need this conditional.... try: bbox = ax.get_tightbbox( renderer, bbox_extra_artists=bbox_extra_artists) except TypeError: bbox = ax.get_tightbbox(renderer) bb.append(bbox) bb = [b for b in bb if (np.isfinite(b.width) and np.isfinite(b.height) and (b.width != 0 or b.height != 0))] if len(bb) == 0: return self.bbox_inches _bbox = Bbox.union(bb) bbox_inches = TransformedBbox(_bbox, Affine2D().scale(1 / self.dpi)) return bbox_inches
@staticmethod def _normalize_grid_string(layout): if '\n' not in layout: # single-line string return [list(ln) for ln in layout.split(';')] else: # multi-line string layout = inspect.cleandoc(layout) return [list(ln) for ln in layout.strip('\n').split('\n')]
[docs] def subplot_mosaic(self, layout, *, subplot_kw=None, gridspec_kw=None, empty_sentinel='.'): """ Build a layout of Axes based on ASCII art or nested lists. This is a helper function to build complex GridSpec layouts visually. .. note :: This API is provisional and may be revised in the future based on early user feedback. Parameters ---------- layout : list of list of {hashable or nested} or str A visual layout of how you want your Axes to be arranged labeled as strings. For example :: x = [['A panel', 'A panel', 'edge'], ['C panel', '.', 'edge']] Produces 4 Axes: - 'A panel' which is 1 row high and spans the first two columns - 'edge' which is 2 rows high and is on the right edge - 'C panel' which in 1 row and 1 column wide in the bottom left - a blank space 1 row and 1 column wide in the bottom center Any of the entries in the layout can be a list of lists of the same form to create nested layouts. If input is a str, then it can either be a multi-line string of the form :: ''' AAE C.E ''' where each character is a column and each line is a row. Or it can be a single-line string where rows are separated by ``;``:: 'AB;CC' The string notation allows only single character Axes labels and does not support nesting but is very terse. subplot_kw : dict, optional Dictionary with keywords passed to the `.Figure.add_subplot` call used to create each subplot. gridspec_kw : dict, optional Dictionary with keywords passed to the `.GridSpec` constructor used to create the grid the subplots are placed on. empty_sentinel : object, optional Entry in the layout to mean "leave this space empty". Defaults to ``'.'``. Note, if *layout* is a string, it is processed via `inspect.cleandoc` to remove leading white space, which may interfere with using white-space as the empty sentinel. Returns ------- dict[label, Axes] A dictionary mapping the labels to the Axes objects. """ subplot_kw = subplot_kw or {} gridspec_kw = gridspec_kw or {} # special-case string input if isinstance(layout, str): layout = self._normalize_grid_string(layout) def _make_array(inp): """ Convert input into 2D array We need to have this internal function rather than ``np.asarray(..., dtype=object)`` so that a list of lists of lists does not get converted to an array of dimension > 2 Returns ------- 2D object array """ r0, *rest = inp if isinstance(r0, str): raise ValueError('List layout specification must be 2D') for j, r in enumerate(rest, start=1): if isinstance(r, str): raise ValueError('List layout specification must be 2D') if len(r0) != len(r): raise ValueError( "All of the rows must be the same length, however " f"the first row ({r0!r}) has length {len(r0)} " f"and row {j} ({r!r}) has length {len(r)}." ) out = np.zeros((len(inp), len(r0)), dtype=object) for j, r in enumerate(inp): for k, v in enumerate(r): out[j, k] = v return out def _identify_keys_and_nested(layout): """ Given a 2D object array, identify unique IDs and nested layouts Parameters ---------- layout : 2D numpy object array Returns ------- unique_ids : set The unique non-sub layout entries in this layout nested : dict[tuple[int, int]], 2D object array """ unique_ids = set() nested = {} for j, row in enumerate(layout): for k, v in enumerate(row): if v == empty_sentinel: continue elif not cbook.is_scalar_or_string(v): nested[(j, k)] = _make_array(v) else: unique_ids.add(v) return unique_ids, nested def _do_layout(gs, layout, unique_ids, nested): """ Recursively do the layout. Parameters ---------- gs : GridSpec layout : 2D object array The input converted to a 2D numpy array for this level. unique_ids : set The identified scalar labels at this level of nesting. nested : dict[tuple[int, int]], 2D object array The identified nested layouts, if any. Returns ------- dict[label, Axes] A flat dict of all of the Axes created. """ rows, cols = layout.shape output = dict() # create the Axes at this level of nesting for name in unique_ids: indx = np.argwhere(layout == name) start_row, start_col = np.min(indx, axis=0) end_row, end_col = np.max(indx, axis=0) + 1 slc = (slice(start_row, end_row), slice(start_col, end_col)) if (layout[slc] != name).any(): raise ValueError( f"While trying to layout\n{layout!r}\n" f"we found that the label {name!r} specifies a " "non-rectangular or non-contiguous area.") ax = self.add_subplot( gs[slc], **{'label': str(name), **subplot_kw} ) output[name] = ax # do any sub-layouts for (j, k), nested_layout in nested.items(): rows, cols = nested_layout.shape nested_output = _do_layout( gs[j, k].subgridspec(rows, cols, **gridspec_kw), nested_layout, *_identify_keys_and_nested(nested_layout) ) overlap = set(output) & set(nested_output) if overlap: raise ValueError(f"There are duplicate keys {overlap} " f"between the outer layout\n{layout!r}\n" f"and the nested layout\n{nested_layout}") output.update(nested_output) return output layout = _make_array(layout) rows, cols = layout.shape gs = self.add_gridspec(rows, cols, **gridspec_kw) ret = _do_layout(gs, layout, *_identify_keys_and_nested(layout)) for k, ax in ret.items(): if isinstance(k, str): ax.set_label(k) return ret
def _set_artist_props(self, a): if a != self: a.set_figure(self) a.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback a.set_transform(self.transSubfigure)
[docs]class SubFigure(FigureBase): """ Logical figure that can be placed inside a figure. Typically instantiated using `.Figure.add_subfigure` or `.SubFigure.add_subfigure`, or `.SubFigure.subfigures`. A subfigure has the same methods as a figure except for those particularly tied to the size or dpi of the figure, and is confined to a prescribed region of the figure. For example the following puts two subfigures side-by-side:: fig = plt.figure() sfigs = fig.subfigures(1, 2) axsL = sfigs[0].subplots(1, 2) axsR = sfigs[1].subplots(2, 1) See :doc:`/gallery/subplots_axes_and_figures/subfigures` """ def __init__(self, parent, subplotspec, *, facecolor=None, edgecolor=None, linewidth=0.0, frameon=None): """ Parameters ---------- parent : `.figure.Figure` or `.figure.SubFigure` Figure or subfigure that contains the SubFigure. SubFigures can be nested. subplotspec : `.gridspec.SubplotSpec` Defines the region in a parent gridspec where the subfigure will be placed. facecolor : default: :rc:`figure.facecolor` The figure patch face color. edgecolor : default: :rc:`figure.edgecolor` The figure patch edge color. linewidth : float The linewidth of the frame (i.e. the edge linewidth of the figure patch). frameon : bool, default: :rc:`figure.frameon` If ``False``, suppress drawing the figure background patch. """ super().__init__() if facecolor is None: facecolor = mpl.rcParams['figure.facecolor'] if edgecolor is None: edgecolor = mpl.rcParams['figure.edgecolor'] if frameon is None: frameon = mpl.rcParams['figure.frameon'] self._subplotspec = subplotspec self._parent = parent self.figure = parent.figure # subfigures use the parent axstack self._axstack = parent._axstack self.subplotpars = parent.subplotpars self.dpi_scale_trans = parent.dpi_scale_trans self._axobservers = parent._axobservers self.dpi = parent.dpi self.canvas = parent.canvas self.transFigure = parent.transFigure self.bbox_relative = None self._redo_transform_rel_fig() self.figbbox = self._parent.figbbox self.bbox = TransformedBbox(self.bbox_relative, self._parent.transSubfigure) self.transSubfigure = BboxTransformTo(self.bbox) self.patch = Rectangle( xy=(0, 0), width=1, height=1, visible=frameon, facecolor=facecolor, edgecolor=edgecolor, linewidth=linewidth, # Don't let the figure patch influence bbox calculation. in_layout=False, transform=self.transSubfigure) self._set_artist_props(self.patch) self.patch.set_antialiased(False) if parent._layoutgrid is not None: self.init_layoutgrid() def _redo_transform_rel_fig(self, bbox=None): """ Make the transSubfigure bbox relative to Figure transform. Parameters ---------- bbox : bbox or None If not None, then the bbox is used for relative bounding box. Otherwise it is calculated from the subplotspec. """ if bbox is not None: self.bbox_relative.p0 = bbox.p0 self.bbox_relative.p1 = bbox.p1 return gs = self._subplotspec.get_gridspec() # need to figure out *where* this subplotspec is. wr = gs.get_width_ratios() hr = gs.get_height_ratios() nrows, ncols = gs.get_geometry() if wr is None: wr = np.ones(ncols) else: wr = np.array(wr) if hr is None: hr = np.ones(nrows) else: hr = np.array(hr) widthf = np.sum(wr[self._subplotspec.colspan]) / np.sum(wr) heightf = np.sum(hr[self._subplotspec.rowspan]) / np.sum(hr) x0 = 0 if not self._subplotspec.is_first_col(): x0 += np.sum(wr[self._subplotspec.colspan.start - 1]) / np.sum(wr) y0 = 0 if not self._subplotspec.is_last_row(): y0 += 1 - (np.sum(hr[self._subplotspec.rowspan.stop - 1]) / np.sum(hr)) if self.bbox_relative is None: self.bbox_relative = Bbox.from_bounds(x0, y0, widthf, heightf) else: self.bbox_relative.p0 = (x0, y0) self.bbox_relative.p1 = (x0 + widthf, y0 + heightf)
[docs] def get_constrained_layout(self): """ Return whether constrained layout is being used. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. """ return self._parent.get_constrained_layout()
[docs] def get_constrained_layout_pads(self, relative=False): """ Get padding for ``constrained_layout``. Returns a list of ``w_pad, h_pad`` in inches and ``wspace`` and ``hspace`` as fractions of the subplot. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. Parameters ---------- relative : bool If `True`, then convert from inches to figure relative. """ return self._parent.get_constrained_layout_pads(relative=relative)
[docs] def init_layoutgrid(self): """Initialize the layoutgrid for use in constrained_layout.""" if self._layoutgrid is None: gs = self._subplotspec.get_gridspec() parent = gs._layoutgrid if parent is not None: self._layoutgrid = layoutgrid.LayoutGrid( parent=parent, name=(parent.name + '.' + 'panellb' + layoutgrid.seq_id()), parent_inner=True, nrows=1, ncols=1, parent_pos=(self._subplotspec.rowspan, self._subplotspec.colspan))
@property def axes(self): """ List of Axes in the SubFigure. You can access and modify the Axes in the SubFigure through this list. Do not modify the list itself. Instead, use `~.SubFigure.add_axes`, `~.SubFigure.add_subplot` or `~.SubFigure.delaxes` to add or remove an Axes. Note: The `.SubFigure.axes` property and `~.SubFigure.get_axes` method are equivalent. """ return self._localaxes.as_list() get_axes = axes.fget
[docs] def draw(self, renderer): # docstring inherited self._cachedRenderer = renderer # draw the figure bounding box, perhaps none for white figure if not self.get_visible(): return artists = self._get_draw_artists(renderer) try: renderer.open_group('subfigure', gid=self.get_gid()) self.patch.draw(renderer) mimage._draw_list_compositing_images(renderer, self, artists) for sfig in self.subfigs: sfig.draw(renderer) renderer.close_group('subfigure') finally: self.stale = False
[docs]class Figure(FigureBase): """ The top level container for all the plot elements. The Figure instance supports callbacks through a *callbacks* attribute which is a `.CallbackRegistry` instance. The events you can connect to are 'dpi_changed', and the callback will be called with ``func(fig)`` where fig is the `Figure` instance. Attributes ---------- patch The `.Rectangle` instance representing the figure background patch. suppressComposite For multiple figure images, the figure will make composite images depending on the renderer option_image_nocomposite function. If *suppressComposite* is a boolean, this will override the renderer. """ def __str__(self): return "Figure(%gx%g)" % tuple(self.bbox.size) def __repr__(self): return "<{clsname} size {h:g}x{w:g} with {naxes} Axes>".format( clsname=self.__class__.__name__, h=self.bbox.size[0], w=self.bbox.size[1], naxes=len(self.axes), ) def __init__(self, figsize=None, dpi=None, facecolor=None, edgecolor=None, linewidth=0.0, frameon=None, subplotpars=None, # rc figure.subplot.* tight_layout=None, # rc figure.autolayout constrained_layout=None, # rc figure.constrained_layout.use ): """ Parameters ---------- figsize : 2-tuple of floats, default: :rc:`figure.figsize` Figure dimension ``(width, height)`` in inches. dpi : float, default: :rc:`figure.dpi` Dots per inch. facecolor : default: :rc:`figure.facecolor` The figure patch facecolor. edgecolor : default: :rc:`figure.edgecolor` The figure patch edge color. linewidth : float The linewidth of the frame (i.e. the edge linewidth of the figure patch). frameon : bool, default: :rc:`figure.frameon` If ``False``, suppress drawing the figure background patch. subplotpars : `SubplotParams` Subplot parameters. If not given, the default subplot parameters :rc:`figure.subplot.*` are used. tight_layout : bool or dict, default: :rc:`figure.autolayout` If ``False`` use *subplotpars*. If ``True`` adjust subplot parameters using `.tight_layout` with default padding. When providing a dict containing the keys ``pad``, ``w_pad``, ``h_pad``, and ``rect``, the default `.tight_layout` paddings will be overridden. constrained_layout : bool, default: :rc:`figure.constrained_layout.use` If ``True`` use constrained layout to adjust positioning of plot elements. Like ``tight_layout``, but designed to be more flexible. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` for examples. (Note: does not work with `add_subplot` or `~.pyplot.subplot2grid`.) """ super().__init__() self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry() # Callbacks traditionally associated with the canvas (and exposed with # a proxy property), but that actually need to be on the figure for # pickling. self._canvas_callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry() self._button_pick_id = self._canvas_callbacks.connect( 'button_press_event', lambda event: self.canvas.pick(event)) self._scroll_pick_id = self._canvas_callbacks.connect( 'scroll_event', lambda event: self.canvas.pick(event)) if figsize is None: figsize = mpl.rcParams['figure.figsize'] if dpi is None: dpi = mpl.rcParams['figure.dpi'] if facecolor is None: facecolor = mpl.rcParams['figure.facecolor'] if edgecolor is None: edgecolor = mpl.rcParams['figure.edgecolor'] if frameon is None: frameon = mpl.rcParams['figure.frameon'] if not np.isfinite(figsize).all() or (np.array(figsize) < 0).any(): raise ValueError('figure size must be positive finite not ' f'{figsize}') self.bbox_inches = Bbox.from_bounds(0, 0, *figsize) self.dpi_scale_trans = Affine2D().scale(dpi) # do not use property as it will trigger self._dpi = dpi self.bbox = TransformedBbox(self.bbox_inches, self.dpi_scale_trans) self.figbbox = self.bbox self.transFigure = BboxTransformTo(self.bbox) self.transSubfigure = self.transFigure self.patch = Rectangle( xy=(0, 0), width=1, height=1, visible=frameon, facecolor=facecolor, edgecolor=edgecolor, linewidth=linewidth, # Don't let the figure patch influence bbox calculation. in_layout=False) self._set_artist_props(self.patch) self.patch.set_antialiased(False) FigureCanvasBase(self) # Set self.canvas. if subplotpars is None: subplotpars = SubplotParams() self.subplotpars = subplotpars # constrained_layout: self._layoutgrid = None self._constrained = False self.set_tight_layout(tight_layout) self._axstack = cbook.Stack() # track all figure axes and current axes self.clf() self._cachedRenderer = None self.set_constrained_layout(constrained_layout) # list of child gridspecs for this figure self._gridspecs = [] # TODO: I'd like to dynamically add the _repr_html_ method # to the figure in the right context, but then IPython doesn't # use it, for some reason. def _repr_html_(self): # We can't use "isinstance" here, because then we'd end up importing # webagg unconditionally. if 'WebAgg' in type(self.canvas).__name__: from matplotlib.backends import backend_webagg return backend_webagg.ipython_inline_display(self)
[docs] def show(self, warn=True): """ If using a GUI backend with pyplot, display the figure window. If the figure was not created using `~.pyplot.figure`, it will lack a `~.backend_bases.FigureManagerBase`, and this method will raise an AttributeError. .. warning:: This does not manage an GUI event loop. Consequently, the figure may only be shown briefly or not shown at all if you or your environment are not managing an event loop. Proper use cases for `.Figure.show` include running this from a GUI application or an IPython shell. If you're running a pure python shell or executing a non-GUI python script, you should use `matplotlib.pyplot.show` instead, which takes care of managing the event loop for you. Parameters ---------- warn : bool, default: True If ``True`` and we are not running headless (i.e. on Linux with an unset DISPLAY), issue warning when called on a non-GUI backend. """ if self.canvas.manager is None: raise AttributeError( "Figure.show works only for figures managed by pyplot, " "normally created by pyplot.figure()") try: self.canvas.manager.show() except NonGuiException as exc: if warn: _api.warn_external(str(exc))
@property def axes(self): """ List of Axes in the Figure. You can access and modify the Axes in the Figure through this list. Do not modify the list itself. Instead, use `~Figure.add_axes`, `~.Figure.add_subplot` or `~.Figure.delaxes` to add or remove an Axes. Note: The `.Figure.axes` property and `~.Figure.get_axes` method are equivalent. """ return self._axstack.as_list() get_axes = axes.fget def _get_dpi(self): return self._dpi def _set_dpi(self, dpi, forward=True): """ Parameters ---------- dpi : float forward : bool Passed on to `~.Figure.set_size_inches` """ if dpi == self._dpi: # We don't want to cause undue events in backends. return self._dpi = dpi self.dpi_scale_trans.clear().scale(dpi) w, h = self.get_size_inches() self.set_size_inches(w, h, forward=forward) self.callbacks.process('dpi_changed', self) dpi = property(_get_dpi, _set_dpi, doc="The resolution in dots per inch.")
[docs] def get_tight_layout(self): """Return whether `.tight_layout` is called when drawing.""" return self._tight
[docs] def set_tight_layout(self, tight): """ Set whether and how `.tight_layout` is called when drawing. Parameters ---------- tight : bool or dict with keys "pad", "w_pad", "h_pad", "rect" or None If a bool, sets whether to call `.tight_layout` upon drawing. If ``None``, use the ``figure.autolayout`` rcparam instead. If a dict, pass it as kwargs to `.tight_layout`, overriding the default paddings. """ if tight is None: tight = mpl.rcParams['figure.autolayout'] self._tight = bool(tight) self._tight_parameters = tight if isinstance(tight, dict) else {} self.stale = True
[docs] def get_constrained_layout(self): """ Return whether constrained layout is being used. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. """ return self._constrained
[docs] def set_constrained_layout(self, constrained): """ Set whether ``constrained_layout`` is used upon drawing. If None, :rc:`figure.constrained_layout.use` value will be used. When providing a dict containing the keys `w_pad`, `h_pad` the default ``constrained_layout`` paddings will be overridden. These pads are in inches and default to 3.0/72.0. ``w_pad`` is the width padding and ``h_pad`` is the height padding. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. Parameters ---------- constrained : bool or dict or None """ self._constrained_layout_pads = dict() self._constrained_layout_pads['w_pad'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['h_pad'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['wspace'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['hspace'] = None if constrained is None: constrained = mpl.rcParams['figure.constrained_layout.use'] self._constrained = bool(constrained) if isinstance(constrained, dict): self.set_constrained_layout_pads(**constrained) else: self.set_constrained_layout_pads() self.init_layoutgrid() self.stale = True
[docs] def set_constrained_layout_pads(self, **kwargs): """ Set padding for ``constrained_layout``. Note the kwargs can be passed as a dictionary ``fig.set_constrained_layout(**paddict)``. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. Parameters ---------- w_pad : float Width padding in inches. This is the pad around Axes and is meant to make sure there is enough room for fonts to look good. Defaults to 3 pts = 0.04167 inches h_pad : float Height padding in inches. Defaults to 3 pts. wspace : float Width padding between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the subplot width. The total padding ends up being w_pad + wspace. hspace : float Height padding between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the subplot width. The total padding ends up being h_pad + hspace. """ todo = ['w_pad', 'h_pad', 'wspace', 'hspace'] for td in todo: if td in kwargs and kwargs[td] is not None: self._constrained_layout_pads[td] = kwargs[td] else: self._constrained_layout_pads[td] = ( mpl.rcParams['figure.constrained_layout.' + td])
[docs] def get_constrained_layout_pads(self, relative=False): """ Get padding for ``constrained_layout``. Returns a list of ``w_pad, h_pad`` in inches and ``wspace`` and ``hspace`` as fractions of the subplot. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide`. Parameters ---------- relative : bool If `True`, then convert from inches to figure relative. """ w_pad = self._constrained_layout_pads['w_pad'] h_pad = self._constrained_layout_pads['h_pad'] wspace = self._constrained_layout_pads['wspace'] hspace = self._constrained_layout_pads['hspace'] if relative and (w_pad is not None or h_pad is not None): renderer0 = layoutgrid.get_renderer(self) dpi = renderer0.dpi w_pad = w_pad * dpi / renderer0.width h_pad = h_pad * dpi / renderer0.height return w_pad, h_pad, wspace, hspace
[docs] def set_canvas(self, canvas): """ Set the canvas that contains the figure Parameters ---------- canvas : FigureCanvas """ self.canvas = canvas
[docs] def figimage(self, X, xo=0, yo=0, alpha=None, norm=None, cmap=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, origin=None, resize=False, **kwargs): """ Add a non-resampled image to the figure. The image is attached to the lower or upper left corner depending on *origin*. Parameters ---------- X The image data. This is an array of one of the following shapes: - MxN: luminance (grayscale) values - MxNx3: RGB values - MxNx4: RGBA values xo, yo : int The *x*/*y* image offset in pixels. alpha : None or float The alpha blending value. norm : `matplotlib.colors.Normalize` A `.Normalize` instance to map the luminance to the interval [0, 1]. cmap : str or `matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` The colormap to use. vmin, vmax : float If *norm* is not given, these values set the data limits for the colormap. origin : {'upper', 'lower'}, default: :rc:`image.origin` Indicates where the [0, 0] index of the array is in the upper left or lower left corner of the axes. resize : bool If *True*, resize the figure to match the given image size. Returns ------- `matplotlib.image.FigureImage` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Additional kwargs are `.Artist` kwargs passed on to `.FigureImage`. Notes ----- figimage complements the Axes image (`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.imshow`) which will be resampled to fit the current Axes. If you want a resampled image to fill the entire figure, you can define an `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` with extent [0, 0, 1, 1]. Examples -------- :: f = plt.figure() nx = int(f.get_figwidth() * f.dpi) ny = int(f.get_figheight() * f.dpi) data = np.random.random((ny, nx)) f.figimage(data) plt.show() """ if resize: dpi = self.get_dpi() figsize = [x / dpi for x in (X.shape[1], X.shape[0])] self.set_size_inches(figsize, forward=True) im = mimage.FigureImage(self, cmap, norm, xo, yo, origin, **kwargs) im.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback im.set_array(X) im.set_alpha(alpha) if norm is None: im.set_clim(vmin, vmax) self.images.append(im) im._remove_method = self.images.remove self.stale = True return im
[docs] def set_size_inches(self, w, h=None, forward=True): """ Set the figure size in inches. Call signatures:: fig.set_size_inches(w, h) # OR fig.set_size_inches((w, h)) Parameters ---------- w : (float, float) or float Width and height in inches (if height not specified as a separate argument) or width. h : float Height in inches. forward : bool, default: True If ``True``, the canvas size is automatically updated, e.g., you can resize the figure window from the shell. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.get_size_inches matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_figwidth matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_figheight Notes ----- To transform from pixels to inches divide by `Figure.dpi`. """ if h is None: # Got called with a single pair as argument. w, h = w size = np.array([w, h]) if not np.isfinite(size).all() or (size < 0).any(): raise ValueError(f'figure size must be positive finite not {size}') self.bbox_inches.p1 = size if forward: canvas = getattr(self, 'canvas') if canvas is not None: dpi_ratio = getattr(canvas, '_dpi_ratio', 1) manager = getattr(canvas, 'manager', None) if manager is not None: manager.resize(*(size * self.dpi / dpi_ratio).astype(int)) self.stale = True
[docs] def get_size_inches(self): """ Return the current size of the figure in inches. Returns ------- ndarray The size (width, height) of the figure in inches. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_size_inches matplotlib.figure.Figure.get_figwidth matplotlib.figure.Figure.get_figheight Notes ----- The size in pixels can be obtained by multiplying with `Figure.dpi`. """ return np.array(self.bbox_inches.p1)
[docs] def get_figwidth(self): """Return the figure width in inches.""" return self.bbox_inches.width
[docs] def get_figheight(self): """Return the figure height in inches.""" return self.bbox_inches.height
[docs] def get_dpi(self): """Return the resolution in dots per inch as a float.""" return self.dpi
[docs] def set_dpi(self, val): """ Set the resolution of the figure in dots-per-inch. Parameters ---------- val : float """ self.dpi = val self.stale = True
[docs] def set_figwidth(self, val, forward=True): """ Set the width of the figure in inches. Parameters ---------- val : float forward : bool See `set_size_inches`. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_figheight matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_size_inches """ self.set_size_inches(val, self.get_figheight(), forward=forward)
[docs] def set_figheight(self, val, forward=True): """ Set the height of the figure in inches. Parameters ---------- val : float forward : bool See `set_size_inches`. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_figwidth matplotlib.figure.Figure.set_size_inches """ self.set_size_inches(self.get_figwidth(), val, forward=forward)
[docs] def clf(self, keep_observers=False): """ Clear the figure. Set *keep_observers* to True if, for example, a gui widget is tracking the Axes in the figure. """ self.suppressComposite = None self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry() for ax in tuple(self.axes): # Iterate over the copy. ax.cla() self.delaxes(ax) # removes ax from self._axstack toolbar = getattr(self.canvas, 'toolbar', None) if toolbar is not None: toolbar.update() self._axstack.clear() self.artists = [] self.lines = [] self.patches = [] self.texts = [] self.images = [] self.legends = [] if not keep_observers: self._axobservers = cbook.CallbackRegistry() self._suptitle = None self._supxlabel = None self._supylabel = None if self.get_constrained_layout(): self.init_layoutgrid() self.stale = True
[docs] def clear(self, keep_observers=False): """Clear the figure -- synonym for `clf`.""" self.clf(keep_observers=keep_observers)
[docs] @_finalize_rasterization @allow_rasterization def draw(self, renderer): # docstring inherited self._cachedRenderer = renderer # draw the figure bounding box, perhaps none for white figure if not self.get_visible(): return artists = self._get_draw_artists(renderer) try: renderer.open_group('figure', gid=self.get_gid()) if self.get_constrained_layout() and self.axes: self.execute_constrained_layout(renderer) if self.get_tight_layout() and self.axes: try: self.tight_layout(**self._tight_parameters) except ValueError: pass # ValueError can occur when resizing a window. self.patch.draw(renderer) mimage._draw_list_compositing_images( renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite) for sfig in self.subfigs: sfig.draw(renderer) renderer.close_group('figure') finally: self.stale = False self.canvas.draw_event(renderer)
[docs] def draw_artist(self, a): """ Draw `.Artist` *a* only. This method can only be used after an initial draw of the figure, because that creates and caches the renderer needed here. """ if self._cachedRenderer is None: raise AttributeError("draw_artist can only be used after an " "initial draw which caches the renderer") a.draw(self._cachedRenderer)
def __getstate__(self): state = super().__getstate__() # The canvas cannot currently be pickled, but this has the benefit # of meaning that a figure can be detached from one canvas, and # re-attached to another. state.pop("canvas") # Set cached renderer to None -- it can't be pickled. state["_cachedRenderer"] = None # add version information to the state state['__mpl_version__'] = _mpl_version # check whether the figure manager (if any) is registered with pyplot from matplotlib import _pylab_helpers if getattr(self.canvas, 'manager', None) \ in _pylab_helpers.Gcf.figs.values(): state['_restore_to_pylab'] = True # set all the layoutgrid information to None. kiwisolver objects can't # be pickled, so we lose the layout options at this point. state.pop('_layoutgrid', None) return state def __setstate__(self, state): version = state.pop('__mpl_version__') restore_to_pylab = state.pop('_restore_to_pylab', False) if version != _mpl_version: _api.warn_external( f"This figure was saved with matplotlib version {version} and " f"is unlikely to function correctly.") self.__dict__ = state # re-initialise some of the unstored state information FigureCanvasBase(self) # Set self.canvas. self._layoutgrid = None if restore_to_pylab: # lazy import to avoid circularity import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import matplotlib._pylab_helpers as pylab_helpers allnums = plt.get_fignums() num = max(allnums) + 1 if allnums else 1 mgr = plt._backend_mod.new_figure_manager_given_figure(num, self) pylab_helpers.Gcf._set_new_active_manager(mgr) plt.draw_if_interactive() self.stale = True
[docs] def add_axobserver(self, func): """Whenever the Axes state change, ``func(self)`` will be called.""" # Connect a wrapper lambda and not func itself, to avoid it being # weakref-collected. self._axobservers.connect("_axes_change_event", lambda arg: func(arg))
[docs] def savefig(self, fname, *, transparent=None, **kwargs): """ Save the current figure. Call signature:: savefig(fname, dpi=None, facecolor='w', edgecolor='w', orientation='portrait', papertype=None, format=None, transparent=False, bbox_inches=None, pad_inches=0.1, frameon=None, metadata=None) The available output formats depend on the backend being used. Parameters ---------- fname : str or path-like or binary file-like A path, or a Python file-like object, or possibly some backend-dependent object such as `matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfPages`. If *format* is set, it determines the output format, and the file is saved as *fname*. Note that *fname* is used verbatim, and there is no attempt to make the extension, if any, of *fname* match *format*, and no extension is appended. If *format* is not set, then the format is inferred from the extension of *fname*, if there is one. If *format* is not set and *fname* has no extension, then the file is saved with :rc:`savefig.format` and the appropriate extension is appended to *fname*. Other Parameters ---------------- dpi : float or 'figure', default: :rc:`savefig.dpi` The resolution in dots per inch. If 'figure', use the figure's dpi value. quality : int, default: :rc:`savefig.jpeg_quality` Applicable only if *format* is 'jpg' or 'jpeg', ignored otherwise. The image quality, on a scale from 1 (worst) to 95 (best). Values above 95 should be avoided; 100 disables portions of the JPEG compression algorithm, and results in large files with hardly any gain in image quality. This parameter is deprecated. optimize : bool, default: False Applicable only if *format* is 'jpg' or 'jpeg', ignored otherwise. Whether the encoder should make an extra pass over the image in order to select optimal encoder settings. This parameter is deprecated. progressive : bool, default: False Applicable only if *format* is 'jpg' or 'jpeg', ignored otherwise. Whether the image should be stored as a progressive JPEG file. This parameter is deprecated. facecolor : color or 'auto', default: :rc:`savefig.facecolor` The facecolor of the figure. If 'auto', use the current figure facecolor. edgecolor : color or 'auto', default: :rc:`savefig.edgecolor` The edgecolor of the figure. If 'auto', use the current figure edgecolor. orientation : {'landscape', 'portrait'} Currently only supported by the postscript backend. papertype : str One of 'letter', 'legal', 'executive', 'ledger', 'a0' through 'a10', 'b0' through 'b10'. Only supported for postscript output. format : str The file format, e.g. 'png', 'pdf', 'svg', ... The behavior when this is unset is documented under *fname*. transparent : bool If *True*, the Axes patches will all be transparent; the figure patch will also be transparent unless facecolor and/or edgecolor are specified via kwargs. This is useful, for example, for displaying a plot on top of a colored background on a web page. The transparency of these patches will be restored to their original values upon exit of this function. bbox_inches : str or `.Bbox`, default: :rc:`savefig.bbox` Bounding box in inches: only the given portion of the figure is saved. If 'tight', try to figure out the tight bbox of the figure. pad_inches : float, default: :rc:`savefig.pad_inches` Amount of padding around the figure when bbox_inches is 'tight'. bbox_extra_artists : list of `~matplotlib.artist.Artist`, optional A list of extra artists that will be considered when the tight bbox is calculated. backend : str, optional Use a non-default backend to render the file, e.g. to render a png file with the "cairo" backend rather than the default "agg", or a pdf file with the "pgf" backend rather than the default "pdf". Note that the default backend is normally sufficient. See :ref:`the-builtin-backends` for a list of valid backends for each file format. Custom backends can be referenced as "module://...". metadata : dict, optional Key/value pairs to store in the image metadata. The supported keys and defaults depend on the image format and backend: - 'png' with Agg backend: See the parameter ``metadata`` of `~.FigureCanvasAgg.print_png`. - 'pdf' with pdf backend: See the parameter ``metadata`` of `~.backend_pdf.PdfPages`. - 'svg' with svg backend: See the parameter ``metadata`` of `~.FigureCanvasSVG.print_svg`. - 'eps' and 'ps' with PS backend: Only 'Creator' is supported. pil_kwargs : dict, optional Additional keyword arguments that are passed to `PIL.Image.Image.save` when saving the figure. """ kwargs.setdefault('dpi', mpl.rcParams['savefig.dpi']) if transparent is None: transparent = mpl.rcParams['savefig.transparent'] if transparent: kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', 'none') kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', 'none') original_axes_colors = [] for ax in self.axes: patch = ax.patch original_axes_colors.append((patch.get_facecolor(), patch.get_edgecolor())) patch.set_facecolor('none') patch.set_edgecolor('none') self.canvas.print_figure(fname, **kwargs) if transparent: for ax, cc in zip(self.axes, original_axes_colors): ax.patch.set_facecolor(cc[0]) ax.patch.set_edgecolor(cc[1])
[docs] def ginput(self, n=1, timeout=30, show_clicks=True, mouse_add=MouseButton.LEFT, mouse_pop=MouseButton.RIGHT, mouse_stop=MouseButton.MIDDLE): """ Blocking call to interact with a figure. Wait until the user clicks *n* times on the figure, and return the coordinates of each click in a list. There are three possible interactions: - Add a point. - Remove the most recently added point. - Stop the interaction and return the points added so far. The actions are assigned to mouse buttons via the arguments *mouse_add*, *mouse_pop* and *mouse_stop*. Parameters ---------- n : int, default: 1 Number of mouse clicks to accumulate. If negative, accumulate clicks until the input is terminated manually. timeout : float, default: 30 seconds Number of seconds to wait before timing out. If zero or negative will never timeout. show_clicks : bool, default: True If True, show a red cross at the location of each click. mouse_add : `.MouseButton` or None, default: `.MouseButton.LEFT` Mouse button used to add points. mouse_pop : `.MouseButton` or None, default: `.MouseButton.RIGHT` Mouse button used to remove the most recently added point. mouse_stop : `.MouseButton` or None, default: `.MouseButton.MIDDLE` Mouse button used to stop input. Returns ------- list of tuples A list of the clicked (x, y) coordinates. Notes ----- The keyboard can also be used to select points in case your mouse does not have one or more of the buttons. The delete and backspace keys act like right clicking (i.e., remove last point), the enter key terminates input and any other key (not already used by the window manager) selects a point. """ blocking_mouse_input = BlockingMouseInput(self, mouse_add=mouse_add, mouse_pop=mouse_pop, mouse_stop=mouse_stop) return blocking_mouse_input(n=n, timeout=timeout, show_clicks=show_clicks)
[docs] def waitforbuttonpress(self, timeout=-1): """ Blocking call to interact with the figure. Wait for user input and return True if a key was pressed, False if a mouse button was pressed and None if no input was given within *timeout* seconds. Negative values deactivate *timeout*. """ blocking_input = BlockingKeyMouseInput(self) return blocking_input(timeout=timeout)
[docs] def init_layoutgrid(self): """Initialize the layoutgrid for use in constrained_layout.""" del(self._layoutgrid) self._layoutgrid = layoutgrid.LayoutGrid( parent=None, name='figlb')
[docs] def execute_constrained_layout(self, renderer=None): """ Use ``layoutgrid`` to determine pos positions within Axes. See also `.set_constrained_layout_pads`. """ from matplotlib._constrained_layout import do_constrained_layout from matplotlib.tight_layout import get_renderer _log.debug('Executing constrainedlayout') if self._layoutgrid is None: _api.warn_external("Calling figure.constrained_layout, but " "figure not setup to do constrained layout. " "You either called GridSpec without the " "figure keyword, you are using plt.subplot, " "or you need to call figure or subplots " "with the constrained_layout=True kwarg.") return w_pad, h_pad, wspace, hspace = self.get_constrained_layout_pads() # convert to unit-relative lengths fig = self width, height = fig.get_size_inches() w_pad = w_pad / width h_pad = h_pad / height if renderer is None: renderer = get_renderer(fig) do_constrained_layout(fig, renderer, h_pad, w_pad, hspace, wspace)
[docs] def tight_layout(self, *, pad=1.08, h_pad=None, w_pad=None, rect=None): """ Adjust the padding between and around subplots. To exclude an artist on the Axes from the bounding box calculation that determines the subplot parameters (i.e. legend, or annotation), set ``a.set_in_layout(False)`` for that artist. Parameters ---------- pad : float, default: 1.08 Padding between the figure edge and the edges of subplots, as a fraction of the font size. h_pad, w_pad : float, default: *pad* Padding (height/width) between edges of adjacent subplots, as a fraction of the font size. rect : tuple (left, bottom, right, top), default: (0, 0, 1, 1) A rectangle in normalized figure coordinates into which the whole subplots area (including labels) will fit. See Also -------- .Figure.set_tight_layout .pyplot.tight_layout """ from .tight_layout import ( get_renderer, get_subplotspec_list, get_tight_layout_figure) from contextlib import suppress subplotspec_list = get_subplotspec_list(self.axes) if None in subplotspec_list: _api.warn_external("This figure includes Axes that are not " "compatible with tight_layout, so results " "might be incorrect.") renderer = get_renderer(self) ctx = (renderer._draw_disabled() if hasattr(renderer, '_draw_disabled') else suppress()) with ctx: kwargs = get_tight_layout_figure( self, self.axes, subplotspec_list, renderer, pad=pad, h_pad=h_pad, w_pad=w_pad, rect=rect) if kwargs: self.subplots_adjust(**kwargs)
[docs]def figaspect(arg): """ Calculate the width and height for a figure with a specified aspect ratio. While the height is taken from :rc:`figure.figsize`, the width is adjusted to match the desired aspect ratio. Additionally, it is ensured that the width is in the range [4., 16.] and the height is in the range [2., 16.]. If necessary, the default height is adjusted to ensure this. Parameters ---------- arg : float or 2D array If a float, this defines the aspect ratio (i.e. the ratio height / width). In case of an array the aspect ratio is number of rows / number of columns, so that the array could be fitted in the figure undistorted. Returns ------- width, height : float The figure size in inches. Notes ----- If you want to create an Axes within the figure, that still preserves the aspect ratio, be sure to create it with equal width and height. See examples below. Thanks to Fernando Perez for this function. Examples -------- Make a figure twice as tall as it is wide:: w, h = figaspect(2.) fig = Figure(figsize=(w, h)) ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8]) ax.imshow(A, **kwargs) Make a figure with the proper aspect for an array:: A = rand(5, 3) w, h = figaspect(A) fig = Figure(figsize=(w, h)) ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8]) ax.imshow(A, **kwargs) """ isarray = hasattr(arg, 'shape') and not np.isscalar(arg) # min/max sizes to respect when autoscaling. If John likes the idea, they # could become rc parameters, for now they're hardwired. figsize_min = np.array((4.0, 2.0)) # min length for width/height figsize_max = np.array((16.0, 16.0)) # max length for width/height # Extract the aspect ratio of the array if isarray: nr, nc = arg.shape[:2] arr_ratio = nr / nc else: arr_ratio = arg # Height of user figure defaults fig_height = mpl.rcParams['figure.figsize'][1] # New size for the figure, keeping the aspect ratio of the caller newsize = np.array((fig_height / arr_ratio, fig_height)) # Sanity checks, don't drop either dimension below figsize_min newsize /= min(1.0, *(newsize / figsize_min)) # Avoid humongous windows as well newsize /= max(1.0, *(newsize / figsize_max)) # Finally, if we have a really funky aspect ratio, break it but respect # the min/max dimensions (we don't want figures 10 feet tall!) newsize = np.clip(newsize, figsize_min, figsize_max) return newsize
docstring.interpd.update(Figure_kwdoc=martist.kwdoc(Figure))