Source code for matplotlib.axes._axes

import functools
import itertools
import logging
import math
from numbers import Integral, Number

import numpy as np
from numpy import ma

import matplotlib.category  # Register category unit converter as side-effect.
import matplotlib.cbook as cbook
import matplotlib.collections as mcoll
import matplotlib.colors as mcolors
import matplotlib.contour as mcontour
import matplotlib.dates  # Register date unit converter as side-effect.
import matplotlib.docstring as docstring
import matplotlib.image as mimage
import matplotlib.legend as mlegend
import matplotlib.lines as mlines
import matplotlib.markers as mmarkers
import matplotlib.mlab as mlab
import matplotlib.patches as mpatches
import matplotlib.path as mpath
import matplotlib.quiver as mquiver
import matplotlib.stackplot as mstack
import matplotlib.streamplot as mstream
import matplotlib.table as mtable
import matplotlib.text as mtext
import matplotlib.ticker as mticker
import matplotlib.transforms as mtransforms
import matplotlib.tri as mtri
import matplotlib.units as munits
from matplotlib import _api, _preprocess_data, rcParams
from matplotlib.axes._base import (
    _AxesBase, _TransformedBoundsLocator, _process_plot_format)
from matplotlib.axes._secondary_axes import SecondaryAxis
from matplotlib.container import BarContainer, ErrorbarContainer, StemContainer

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)


# The axes module contains all the wrappers to plotting functions.
# All the other methods should go in the _AxesBase class.


[docs]class Axes(_AxesBase): """ The `Axes` contains most of the figure elements: `~.axis.Axis`, `~.axis.Tick`, `~.lines.Line2D`, `~.text.Text`, `~.patches.Polygon`, etc., and sets the coordinate system. The `Axes` instance supports callbacks through a callbacks attribute which is a `~.cbook.CallbackRegistry` instance. The events you can connect to are 'xlim_changed' and 'ylim_changed' and the callback will be called with func(*ax*) where *ax* is the `Axes` instance. Attributes ---------- dataLim : `.Bbox` The bounding box enclosing all data displayed in the Axes. viewLim : `.Bbox` The view limits in data coordinates. """ ### Labelling, legend and texts
[docs] def get_title(self, loc="center"): """ Get an axes title. Get one of the three available axes titles. The available titles are positioned above the axes in the center, flush with the left edge, and flush with the right edge. Parameters ---------- loc : {'center', 'left', 'right'}, str, default: 'center' Which title to return. Returns ------- str The title text string. """ titles = {'left': self._left_title, 'center': self.title, 'right': self._right_title} title = _api.check_getitem(titles, loc=loc.lower()) return title.get_text()
[docs] def set_title(self, label, fontdict=None, loc=None, pad=None, *, y=None, **kwargs): """ Set a title for the axes. Set one of the three available axes titles. The available titles are positioned above the axes in the center, flush with the left edge, and flush with the right edge. Parameters ---------- label : str Text to use for the title fontdict : dict A dictionary controlling the appearance of the title text, the default *fontdict* is:: {'fontsize': rcParams['axes.titlesize'], 'fontweight': rcParams['axes.titleweight'], 'color': rcParams['axes.titlecolor'], 'verticalalignment': 'baseline', 'horizontalalignment': loc} loc : {'center', 'left', 'right'}, default: :rc:`axes.titlelocation` Which title to set. y : float, default: :rc:`axes.titley` Vertical axes loation for the title (1.0 is the top). If None (the default), y is determined automatically to avoid decorators on the axes. pad : float, default: :rc:`axes.titlepad` The offset of the title from the top of the axes, in points. Returns ------- `.Text` The matplotlib text instance representing the title Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `.Text` properties Other keyword arguments are text properties, see `.Text` for a list of valid text properties. """ if loc is None: loc = rcParams['axes.titlelocation'] if y is None: y = rcParams['axes.titley'] if y is None: y = 1.0 else: self._autotitlepos = False kwargs['y'] = y titles = {'left': self._left_title, 'center': self.title, 'right': self._right_title} title = _api.check_getitem(titles, loc=loc.lower()) default = { 'fontsize': rcParams['axes.titlesize'], 'fontweight': rcParams['axes.titleweight'], 'verticalalignment': 'baseline', 'horizontalalignment': loc.lower()} titlecolor = rcParams['axes.titlecolor'] if not cbook._str_lower_equal(titlecolor, 'auto'): default["color"] = titlecolor if pad is None: pad = rcParams['axes.titlepad'] self._set_title_offset_trans(float(pad)) title.set_text(label) title.update(default) if fontdict is not None: title.update(fontdict) title.update(kwargs) return title
[docs] def get_legend_handles_labels(self, legend_handler_map=None): """ Return handles and labels for legend ``ax.legend()`` is equivalent to :: h, l = ax.get_legend_handles_labels() ax.legend(h, l) """ # pass through to legend. handles, labels = mlegend._get_legend_handles_labels( [self], legend_handler_map) return handles, labels
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def legend(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Place a legend on the axes. Call signatures:: legend() legend(labels) legend(handles, labels) The call signatures correspond to these three different ways to use this method: **1. Automatic detection of elements to be shown in the legend** The elements to be added to the legend are automatically determined, when you do not pass in any extra arguments. In this case, the labels are taken from the artist. You can specify them either at artist creation or by calling the :meth:`~.Artist.set_label` method on the artist:: ax.plot([1, 2, 3], label='Inline label') ax.legend() or:: line, = ax.plot([1, 2, 3]) line.set_label('Label via method') ax.legend() Specific lines can be excluded from the automatic legend element selection by defining a label starting with an underscore. This is default for all artists, so calling `.Axes.legend` without any arguments and without setting the labels manually will result in no legend being drawn. **2. Labeling existing plot elements** To make a legend for lines which already exist on the axes (via plot for instance), simply call this function with an iterable of strings, one for each legend item. For example:: ax.plot([1, 2, 3]) ax.legend(['A simple line']) Note: This call signature is discouraged, because the relation between plot elements and labels is only implicit by their order and can easily be mixed up. **3. Explicitly defining the elements in the legend** For full control of which artists have a legend entry, it is possible to pass an iterable of legend artists followed by an iterable of legend labels respectively:: ax.legend([line1, line2, line3], ['label1', 'label2', 'label3']) Parameters ---------- handles : sequence of `.Artist`, optional A list of Artists (lines, patches) to be added to the legend. Use this together with *labels*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. The length of handles and labels should be the same in this case. If they are not, they are truncated to the smaller length. labels : list of str, optional A list of labels to show next to the artists. Use this together with *handles*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.legend.Legend` Other Parameters ---------------- %(_legend_kw_doc)s See Also -------- .Figure.legend Notes ----- Some artists are not supported by this function. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/legend_guide` for details. Examples -------- .. plot:: gallery/text_labels_and_annotations/legend.py """ handles, labels, extra_args, kwargs = mlegend._parse_legend_args( [self], *args, **kwargs) if len(extra_args): raise TypeError('legend only accepts two non-keyword arguments') self.legend_ = mlegend.Legend(self, handles, labels, **kwargs) self.legend_._remove_method = self._remove_legend return self.legend_
def _remove_legend(self, legend): self.legend_ = None
[docs] def inset_axes(self, bounds, *, transform=None, zorder=5, **kwargs): """ Add a child inset axes to this existing axes. Warnings -------- This method is experimental as of 3.0, and the API may change. Parameters ---------- bounds : [x0, y0, width, height] Lower-left corner of inset axes, and its width and height. transform : `.Transform` Defaults to `ax.transAxes`, i.e. the units of *rect* are in axes-relative coordinates. zorder : number Defaults to 5 (same as `.Axes.legend`). Adjust higher or lower to change whether it is above or below data plotted on the parent axes. **kwargs Other keyword arguments are passed on to the child `.Axes`. Returns ------- ax The created `~.axes.Axes` instance. Examples -------- This example makes two inset axes, the first is in axes-relative coordinates, and the second in data-coordinates:: fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.plot(range(10)) axin1 = ax.inset_axes([0.8, 0.1, 0.15, 0.15]) axin2 = ax.inset_axes( [5, 7, 2.3, 2.3], transform=ax.transData) """ if transform is None: transform = self.transAxes kwargs.setdefault('label', 'inset_axes') # This puts the rectangle into figure-relative coordinates. inset_locator = _TransformedBoundsLocator(bounds, transform) bounds = inset_locator(self, None).bounds inset_ax = Axes(self.figure, bounds, zorder=zorder, **kwargs) # this locator lets the axes move if in data coordinates. # it gets called in `ax.apply_aspect() (of all places) inset_ax.set_axes_locator(inset_locator) self.add_child_axes(inset_ax) return inset_ax
[docs] def indicate_inset(self, bounds, inset_ax=None, *, transform=None, facecolor='none', edgecolor='0.5', alpha=0.5, zorder=4.99, **kwargs): """ Add an inset indicator to the axes. This is a rectangle on the plot at the position indicated by *bounds* that optionally has lines that connect the rectangle to an inset axes (`.Axes.inset_axes`). Warnings -------- This method is experimental as of 3.0, and the API may change. Parameters ---------- bounds : [x0, y0, width, height] Lower-left corner of rectangle to be marked, and its width and height. inset_ax : `.Axes` An optional inset axes to draw connecting lines to. Two lines are drawn connecting the indicator box to the inset axes on corners chosen so as to not overlap with the indicator box. transform : `.Transform` Transform for the rectangle coordinates. Defaults to `ax.transAxes`, i.e. the units of *rect* are in axes-relative coordinates. facecolor : color, default: 'none' Facecolor of the rectangle. edgecolor : color, default: '0.5' Color of the rectangle and color of the connecting lines. alpha : float, default: 0.5 Transparency of the rectangle and connector lines. zorder : float, default: 4.99 Drawing order of the rectangle and connector lines. The default, 4.99, is just below the default level of inset axes. **kwargs Other keyword arguments are passed on to the `.Rectangle` patch: %(Rectangle)s Returns ------- rectangle_patch : `.patches.Rectangle` The indicator frame. connector_lines : 4-tuple of `.patches.ConnectionPatch` The four connector lines connecting to (lower_left, upper_left, lower_right upper_right) corners of *inset_ax*. Two lines are set with visibility to *False*, but the user can set the visibility to True if the automatic choice is not deemed correct. """ # to make the axes connectors work, we need to apply the aspect to # the parent axes. self.apply_aspect() if transform is None: transform = self.transData kwargs.setdefault('label', 'indicate_inset') x, y, width, height = bounds rectangle_patch = mpatches.Rectangle( (x, y), width, height, facecolor=facecolor, edgecolor=edgecolor, alpha=alpha, zorder=zorder, transform=transform, **kwargs) self.add_patch(rectangle_patch) connects = [] if inset_ax is not None: # connect the inset_axes to the rectangle for xy_inset_ax in [(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)]: # inset_ax positions are in axes coordinates # The 0, 1 values define the four edges if the inset_ax # lower_left, upper_left, lower_right upper_right. ex, ey = xy_inset_ax if self.xaxis.get_inverted(): ex = 1 - ex if self.yaxis.get_inverted(): ey = 1 - ey xy_data = x + ex * width, y + ey * height p = mpatches.ConnectionPatch( xyA=xy_inset_ax, coordsA=inset_ax.transAxes, xyB=xy_data, coordsB=self.transData, arrowstyle="-", zorder=zorder, edgecolor=edgecolor, alpha=alpha) connects.append(p) self.add_patch(p) # decide which two of the lines to keep visible.... pos = inset_ax.get_position() bboxins = pos.transformed(self.figure.transSubfigure) rectbbox = mtransforms.Bbox.from_bounds( *bounds ).transformed(transform) x0 = rectbbox.x0 < bboxins.x0 x1 = rectbbox.x1 < bboxins.x1 y0 = rectbbox.y0 < bboxins.y0 y1 = rectbbox.y1 < bboxins.y1 connects[0].set_visible(x0 ^ y0) connects[1].set_visible(x0 == y1) connects[2].set_visible(x1 == y0) connects[3].set_visible(x1 ^ y1) return rectangle_patch, tuple(connects) if connects else None
[docs] def indicate_inset_zoom(self, inset_ax, **kwargs): """ Add an inset indicator rectangle to the axes based on the axis limits for an *inset_ax* and draw connectors between *inset_ax* and the rectangle. Warnings -------- This method is experimental as of 3.0, and the API may change. Parameters ---------- inset_ax : `.Axes` Inset axes to draw connecting lines to. Two lines are drawn connecting the indicator box to the inset axes on corners chosen so as to not overlap with the indicator box. **kwargs Other keyword arguments are passed on to `.Axes.indicate_inset` Returns ------- rectangle_patch : `.patches.Rectangle` Rectangle artist. connector_lines : 4-tuple of `.patches.ConnectionPatch` Each of four connector lines coming from the rectangle drawn on this axis, in the order lower left, upper left, lower right, upper right. Two are set with visibility to *False*, but the user can set the visibility to *True* if the automatic choice is not deemed correct. """ xlim = inset_ax.get_xlim() ylim = inset_ax.get_ylim() rect = (xlim[0], ylim[0], xlim[1] - xlim[0], ylim[1] - ylim[0]) return self.indicate_inset(rect, inset_ax, **kwargs)
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def secondary_xaxis(self, location, *, functions=None, **kwargs): """ Add a second x-axis to this axes. For example if we want to have a second scale for the data plotted on the xaxis. %(_secax_docstring)s Examples -------- The main axis shows frequency, and the secondary axis shows period. .. plot:: fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.loglog(range(1, 360, 5), range(1, 360, 5)) ax.set_xlabel('frequency [Hz]') def invert(x): return 1 / x secax = ax.secondary_xaxis('top', functions=(invert, invert)) secax.set_xlabel('Period [s]') plt.show() """ if location in ['top', 'bottom'] or isinstance(location, Number): secondary_ax = SecondaryAxis(self, 'x', location, functions, **kwargs) self.add_child_axes(secondary_ax) return secondary_ax else: raise ValueError('secondary_xaxis location must be either ' 'a float or "top"/"bottom"')
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def secondary_yaxis(self, location, *, functions=None, **kwargs): """ Add a second y-axis to this axes. For example if we want to have a second scale for the data plotted on the yaxis. %(_secax_docstring)s Examples -------- Add a secondary axes that converts from radians to degrees .. plot:: fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.plot(range(1, 360, 5), range(1, 360, 5)) ax.set_ylabel('degrees') secax = ax.secondary_yaxis('right', functions=(np.deg2rad, np.rad2deg)) secax.set_ylabel('radians') """ if location in ['left', 'right'] or isinstance(location, Number): secondary_ax = SecondaryAxis(self, 'y', location, functions, **kwargs) self.add_child_axes(secondary_ax) return secondary_ax else: raise ValueError('secondary_yaxis location must be either ' 'a float or "left"/"right"')
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def text(self, x, y, s, fontdict=None, **kwargs): """ Add text to the axes. Add the text *s* to the axes at location *x*, *y* in data coordinates. Parameters ---------- x, y : float The position to place the text. By default, this is in data coordinates. The coordinate system can be changed using the *transform* parameter. s : str The text. fontdict : dict, default: None A dictionary to override the default text properties. If fontdict is None, the defaults are determined by `.rcParams`. Returns ------- `.Text` The created `.Text` instance. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.text.Text` properties. Other miscellaneous text parameters. %(Text)s Examples -------- Individual keyword arguments can be used to override any given parameter:: >>> text(x, y, s, fontsize=12) The default transform specifies that text is in data coords, alternatively, you can specify text in axis coords ((0, 0) is lower-left and (1, 1) is upper-right). The example below places text in the center of the axes:: >>> text(0.5, 0.5, 'matplotlib', horizontalalignment='center', ... verticalalignment='center', transform=ax.transAxes) You can put a rectangular box around the text instance (e.g., to set a background color) by using the keyword *bbox*. *bbox* is a dictionary of `~matplotlib.patches.Rectangle` properties. For example:: >>> text(x, y, s, bbox=dict(facecolor='red', alpha=0.5)) """ effective_kwargs = { 'verticalalignment': 'baseline', 'horizontalalignment': 'left', 'transform': self.transData, 'clip_on': False, **(fontdict if fontdict is not None else {}), **kwargs, } t = mtext.Text(x, y, text=s, **effective_kwargs) t.set_clip_path(self.patch) self._add_text(t) return t
[docs] @cbook._rename_parameter("3.3", "s", "text") @docstring.dedent_interpd def annotate(self, text, xy, *args, **kwargs): a = mtext.Annotation(text, xy, *args, **kwargs) a.set_transform(mtransforms.IdentityTransform()) if 'clip_on' in kwargs: a.set_clip_path(self.patch) self._add_text(a) return a
annotate.__doc__ = mtext.Annotation.__init__.__doc__ #### Lines and spans
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def axhline(self, y=0, xmin=0, xmax=1, **kwargs): """ Add a horizontal line across the axis. Parameters ---------- y : float, default: 0 y position in data coordinates of the horizontal line. xmin : float, default: 0 Should be between 0 and 1, 0 being the far left of the plot, 1 the far right of the plot. xmax : float, default: 1 Should be between 0 and 1, 0 being the far left of the plot, 1 the far right of the plot. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Valid keyword arguments are `.Line2D` properties, with the exception of 'transform': %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- hlines : Add horizontal lines in data coordinates. axhspan : Add a horizontal span (rectangle) across the axis. axline : Add a line with an arbitrary slope. Examples -------- * draw a thick red hline at 'y' = 0 that spans the xrange:: >>> axhline(linewidth=4, color='r') * draw a default hline at 'y' = 1 that spans the xrange:: >>> axhline(y=1) * draw a default hline at 'y' = .5 that spans the middle half of the xrange:: >>> axhline(y=.5, xmin=0.25, xmax=0.75) """ self._check_no_units([xmin, xmax], ['xmin', 'xmax']) if "transform" in kwargs: raise ValueError("'transform' is not allowed as a keyword " "argument; axhline generates its own transform.") ymin, ymax = self.get_ybound() # Strip away the units for comparison with non-unitized bounds. yy, = self._process_unit_info([("y", y)], kwargs) scaley = (yy < ymin) or (yy > ymax) trans = self.get_yaxis_transform(which='grid') l = mlines.Line2D([xmin, xmax], [y, y], transform=trans, **kwargs) self.add_line(l) self._request_autoscale_view(scalex=False, scaley=scaley) return l
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def axvline(self, x=0, ymin=0, ymax=1, **kwargs): """ Add a vertical line across the axes. Parameters ---------- x : float, default: 0 x position in data coordinates of the vertical line. ymin : float, default: 0 Should be between 0 and 1, 0 being the bottom of the plot, 1 the top of the plot. ymax : float, default: 1 Should be between 0 and 1, 0 being the bottom of the plot, 1 the top of the plot. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Valid keyword arguments are `.Line2D` properties, with the exception of 'transform': %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- vlines : Add vertical lines in data coordinates. axvspan : Add a vertical span (rectangle) across the axis. axline : Add a line with an arbitrary slope. Examples -------- * draw a thick red vline at *x* = 0 that spans the yrange:: >>> axvline(linewidth=4, color='r') * draw a default vline at *x* = 1 that spans the yrange:: >>> axvline(x=1) * draw a default vline at *x* = .5 that spans the middle half of the yrange:: >>> axvline(x=.5, ymin=0.25, ymax=0.75) """ self._check_no_units([ymin, ymax], ['ymin', 'ymax']) if "transform" in kwargs: raise ValueError("'transform' is not allowed as a keyword " "argument; axvline generates its own transform.") xmin, xmax = self.get_xbound() # Strip away the units for comparison with non-unitized bounds. xx, = self._process_unit_info([("x", x)], kwargs) scalex = (xx < xmin) or (xx > xmax) trans = self.get_xaxis_transform(which='grid') l = mlines.Line2D([x, x], [ymin, ymax], transform=trans, **kwargs) self.add_line(l) self._request_autoscale_view(scalex=scalex, scaley=False) return l
@staticmethod def _check_no_units(vals, names): # Helper method to check that vals are not unitized for val, name in zip(vals, names): if not munits._is_natively_supported(val): raise ValueError(f"{name} must be a single scalar value, " f"but got {val}")
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def axline(self, xy1, xy2=None, *, slope=None, **kwargs): """ Add an infinitely long straight line. The line can be defined either by two points *xy1* and *xy2*, or by one point *xy1* and a *slope*. This draws a straight line "on the screen", regardless of the x and y scales, and is thus also suitable for drawing exponential decays in semilog plots, power laws in loglog plots, etc. However, *slope* should only be used with linear scales; It has no clear meaning for all other scales, and thus the behavior is undefined. Please specify the line using the points *xy1*, *xy2* for non-linear scales. Parameters ---------- xy1, xy2 : (float, float) Points for the line to pass through. Either *xy2* or *slope* has to be given. slope : float, optional The slope of the line. Either *xy2* or *slope* has to be given. Returns ------- `.Line2D` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Valid kwargs are `.Line2D` properties, with the exception of 'transform': %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- axhline : for horizontal lines axvline : for vertical lines Examples -------- Draw a thick red line passing through (0, 0) and (1, 1):: >>> axline((0, 0), (1, 1), linewidth=4, color='r') """ def _to_points(xy1, xy2, slope): """ Check for a valid combination of input parameters and convert to two points, if necessary. """ if (xy2 is None and slope is None or xy2 is not None and slope is not None): raise TypeError( "Exactly one of 'xy2' and 'slope' must be given") if xy2 is None: x1, y1 = xy1 xy2 = (x1, y1 + 1) if np.isinf(slope) else (x1 + 1, y1 + slope) return xy1, xy2 if "transform" in kwargs: raise TypeError("'transform' is not allowed as a kwarg; " "axline generates its own transform") if slope is not None and (self.get_xscale() != 'linear' or self.get_yscale() != 'linear'): raise TypeError("'slope' cannot be used with non-linear scales") datalim = [xy1] if xy2 is None else [xy1, xy2] (x1, y1), (x2, y2) = _to_points(xy1, xy2, slope) line = mlines._AxLine([x1, x2], [y1, y2], **kwargs) # Like add_line, but correctly handling data limits. self._set_artist_props(line) if line.get_clip_path() is None: line.set_clip_path(self.patch) if not line.get_label(): line.set_label(f"_line{len(self.lines)}") self.lines.append(line) line._remove_method = self.lines.remove self.update_datalim(datalim) self._request_autoscale_view() return line
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def axhspan(self, ymin, ymax, xmin=0, xmax=1, **kwargs): """ Add a horizontal span (rectangle) across the axis. The rectangle spans from *ymin* to *ymax* vertically, and, by default, the whole x-axis horizontally. The x-span can be set using *xmin* (default: 0) and *xmax* (default: 1) which are in axis units; e.g. ``xmin = 0.5`` always refers to the middle of the x-axis regardless of the limits set by `~.Axes.set_xlim`. Parameters ---------- ymin : float Lower y-coordinate of the span, in data units. ymax : float Upper y-coordinate of the span, in data units. xmin : float, default: 0 Lower x-coordinate of the span, in x-axis (0-1) units. xmax : float, default: 1 Upper x-coordinate of the span, in x-axis (0-1) units. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` Horizontal span (rectangle) from (xmin, ymin) to (xmax, ymax). Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` properties %(Polygon)s See Also -------- axvspan : Add a vertical span across the axes. """ # Strip units away. self._check_no_units([xmin, xmax], ['xmin', 'xmax']) (ymin, ymax), = self._process_unit_info([("y", [ymin, ymax])], kwargs) verts = (xmin, ymin), (xmin, ymax), (xmax, ymax), (xmax, ymin) p = mpatches.Polygon(verts, **kwargs) p.set_transform(self.get_yaxis_transform(which="grid")) self.add_patch(p) self._request_autoscale_view(scalex=False) return p
[docs] def axvspan(self, xmin, xmax, ymin=0, ymax=1, **kwargs): """ Add a vertical span (rectangle) across the axes. The rectangle spans from *xmin* to *xmax* horizontally, and, by default, the whole y-axis vertically. The y-span can be set using *ymin* (default: 0) and *ymax* (default: 1) which are in axis units; e.g. ``ymin = 0.5`` always refers to the middle of the y-axis regardless of the limits set by `~.Axes.set_ylim`. Parameters ---------- xmin : float Lower x-coordinate of the span, in data units. xmax : float Upper x-coordinate of the span, in data units. ymin : float, default: 0 Lower y-coordinate of the span, in y-axis units (0-1). ymax : float, default: 1 Upper y-coordinate of the span, in y-axis units (0-1). Returns ------- `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` Vertical span (rectangle) from (xmin, ymin) to (xmax, ymax). Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` properties %(Polygon)s See Also -------- axhspan : Add a horizontal span across the axes. Examples -------- Draw a vertical, green, translucent rectangle from x = 1.25 to x = 1.55 that spans the yrange of the axes. >>> axvspan(1.25, 1.55, facecolor='g', alpha=0.5) """ # Strip units away. self._check_no_units([ymin, ymax], ['ymin', 'ymax']) (xmin, xmax), = self._process_unit_info([("x", [xmin, xmax])], kwargs) verts = [(xmin, ymin), (xmin, ymax), (xmax, ymax), (xmax, ymin)] p = mpatches.Polygon(verts, **kwargs) p.set_transform(self.get_xaxis_transform(which="grid")) self.add_patch(p) self._request_autoscale_view(scaley=False) return p
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["y", "xmin", "xmax", "colors"], label_namer="y") def hlines(self, y, xmin, xmax, colors=None, linestyles='solid', label='', **kwargs): """ Plot horizontal lines at each *y* from *xmin* to *xmax*. Parameters ---------- y : float or array-like y-indexes where to plot the lines. xmin, xmax : float or array-like Respective beginning and end of each line. If scalars are provided, all lines will have same length. colors : list of colors, default: :rc:`lines.color` linestyles : {'solid', 'dashed', 'dashdot', 'dotted'}, optional label : str, default: '' Returns ------- `~matplotlib.collections.LineCollection` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.collections.LineCollection` properties. See Also -------- vlines : vertical lines axhline: horizontal line across the axes """ # We do the conversion first since not all unitized data is uniform xmin, xmax, y = self._process_unit_info( [("x", xmin), ("x", xmax), ("y", y)], kwargs) if not np.iterable(y): y = [y] if not np.iterable(xmin): xmin = [xmin] if not np.iterable(xmax): xmax = [xmax] # Create and combine masked_arrays from input y, xmin, xmax = cbook._combine_masks(y, xmin, xmax) y = np.ravel(y) xmin = np.ravel(xmin) xmax = np.ravel(xmax) masked_verts = np.ma.empty((len(y), 2, 2)) masked_verts[:, 0, 0] = xmin masked_verts[:, 0, 1] = y masked_verts[:, 1, 0] = xmax masked_verts[:, 1, 1] = y lines = mcoll.LineCollection(masked_verts, colors=colors, linestyles=linestyles, label=label) self.add_collection(lines, autolim=False) lines.update(kwargs) if len(y) > 0: minx = min(xmin.min(), xmax.min()) maxx = max(xmin.max(), xmax.max()) miny = y.min() maxy = y.max() corners = (minx, miny), (maxx, maxy) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view() return lines
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "ymin", "ymax", "colors"], label_namer="x") def vlines(self, x, ymin, ymax, colors=None, linestyles='solid', label='', **kwargs): """ Plot vertical lines at each *x* from *ymin* to *ymax*. Parameters ---------- x : float or array-like x-indexes where to plot the lines. ymin, ymax : float or array-like Respective beginning and end of each line. If scalars are provided, all lines will have same length. colors : list of colors, default: :rc:`lines.color` linestyles : {'solid', 'dashed', 'dashdot', 'dotted'}, optional label : str, default: '' Returns ------- `~matplotlib.collections.LineCollection` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.collections.LineCollection` properties. See Also -------- hlines : horizontal lines axvline: vertical line across the axes """ # We do the conversion first since not all unitized data is uniform x, ymin, ymax = self._process_unit_info( [("x", x), ("y", ymin), ("y", ymax)], kwargs) if not np.iterable(x): x = [x] if not np.iterable(ymin): ymin = [ymin] if not np.iterable(ymax): ymax = [ymax] # Create and combine masked_arrays from input x, ymin, ymax = cbook._combine_masks(x, ymin, ymax) x = np.ravel(x) ymin = np.ravel(ymin) ymax = np.ravel(ymax) masked_verts = np.ma.empty((len(x), 2, 2)) masked_verts[:, 0, 0] = x masked_verts[:, 0, 1] = ymin masked_verts[:, 1, 0] = x masked_verts[:, 1, 1] = ymax lines = mcoll.LineCollection(masked_verts, colors=colors, linestyles=linestyles, label=label) self.add_collection(lines, autolim=False) lines.update(kwargs) if len(x) > 0: minx = x.min() maxx = x.max() miny = min(ymin.min(), ymax.min()) maxy = max(ymin.max(), ymax.max()) corners = (minx, miny), (maxx, maxy) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view() return lines
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["positions", "lineoffsets", "linelengths", "linewidths", "colors", "linestyles"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def eventplot(self, positions, orientation='horizontal', lineoffsets=1, linelengths=1, linewidths=None, colors=None, linestyles='solid', **kwargs): """ Plot identical parallel lines at the given positions. This type of plot is commonly used in neuroscience for representing neural events, where it is usually called a spike raster, dot raster, or raster plot. However, it is useful in any situation where you wish to show the timing or position of multiple sets of discrete events, such as the arrival times of people to a business on each day of the month or the date of hurricanes each year of the last century. Parameters ---------- positions : array-like or list of array-like A 1D array-like defines the positions of one sequence of events. Multiple groups of events may be passed as a list of array-likes. Each group can be styled independently by passing lists of values to *lineoffsets*, *linelengths*, *linewidths*, *colors* and *linestyles*. Note that *positions* can be a 2D array, but in practice different event groups usually have different counts so that one will use a list of different-length arrays rather than a 2D array. orientation : {'horizontal', 'vertical'}, default: 'horizontal' The direction of the event sequence: - 'horizontal': the events are arranged horizontally. The indicator lines are vertical. - 'vertical': the events are arranged vertically. The indicator lines are horizontal. lineoffsets : float or array-like, default: 1 The offset of the center of the lines from the origin, in the direction orthogonal to *orientation*. If *positions* is 2D, this can be a sequence with length matching the length of *positions*. linelengths : float or array-like, default: 1 The total height of the lines (i.e. the lines stretches from ``lineoffset - linelength/2`` to ``lineoffset + linelength/2``). If *positions* is 2D, this can be a sequence with length matching the length of *positions*. linewidths : float or array-like, default: :rc:`lines.linewidth` The line width(s) of the event lines, in points. If *positions* is 2D, this can be a sequence with length matching the length of *positions*. colors : color or list of colors, default: :rc:`lines.color` The color(s) of the event lines. If *positions* is 2D, this can be a sequence with length matching the length of *positions*. linestyles : str or tuple or list of such values, default: 'solid' Default is 'solid'. Valid strings are ['solid', 'dashed', 'dashdot', 'dotted', '-', '--', '-.', ':']. Dash tuples should be of the form:: (offset, onoffseq), where *onoffseq* is an even length tuple of on and off ink in points. If *positions* is 2D, this can be a sequence with length matching the length of *positions*. **kwargs Other keyword arguments are line collection properties. See `.LineCollection` for a list of the valid properties. Returns ------- list of `.EventCollection` The `.EventCollection` that were added. Notes ----- For *linelengths*, *linewidths*, *colors*, and *linestyles*, if only a single value is given, that value is applied to all lines. If an array-like is given, it must have the same length as *positions*, and each value will be applied to the corresponding row of the array. Examples -------- .. plot:: gallery/lines_bars_and_markers/eventplot_demo.py """ # We do the conversion first since not all unitized data is uniform positions, lineoffsets, linelengths = self._process_unit_info( [("x", positions), ("y", lineoffsets), ("y", linelengths)], kwargs) if not np.iterable(positions): positions = [positions] elif any(np.iterable(position) for position in positions): positions = [np.asanyarray(position) for position in positions] else: positions = [np.asanyarray(positions)] if len(positions) == 0: return [] # prevent 'singular' keys from **kwargs dict from overriding the effect # of 'plural' keyword arguments (e.g. 'color' overriding 'colors') colors = cbook._local_over_kwdict(colors, kwargs, 'color') linewidths = cbook._local_over_kwdict(linewidths, kwargs, 'linewidth') linestyles = cbook._local_over_kwdict(linestyles, kwargs, 'linestyle') if not np.iterable(lineoffsets): lineoffsets = [lineoffsets] if not np.iterable(linelengths): linelengths = [linelengths] if not np.iterable(linewidths): linewidths = [linewidths] if not np.iterable(colors): colors = [colors] if hasattr(linestyles, 'lower') or not np.iterable(linestyles): linestyles = [linestyles] lineoffsets = np.asarray(lineoffsets) linelengths = np.asarray(linelengths) linewidths = np.asarray(linewidths) if len(lineoffsets) == 0: lineoffsets = [None] if len(linelengths) == 0: linelengths = [None] if len(linewidths) == 0: lineoffsets = [None] if len(linewidths) == 0: lineoffsets = [None] if len(colors) == 0: colors = [None] try: # Early conversion of the colors into RGBA values to take care # of cases like colors='0.5' or colors='C1'. (Issue #8193) colors = mcolors.to_rgba_array(colors) except ValueError: # Will fail if any element of *colors* is None. But as long # as len(colors) == 1 or len(positions), the rest of the # code should process *colors* properly. pass if len(lineoffsets) == 1 and len(positions) != 1: lineoffsets = np.tile(lineoffsets, len(positions)) lineoffsets[0] = 0 lineoffsets = np.cumsum(lineoffsets) if len(linelengths) == 1: linelengths = np.tile(linelengths, len(positions)) if len(linewidths) == 1: linewidths = np.tile(linewidths, len(positions)) if len(colors) == 1: colors = list(colors) colors = colors * len(positions) if len(linestyles) == 1: linestyles = [linestyles] * len(positions) if len(lineoffsets) != len(positions): raise ValueError('lineoffsets and positions are unequal sized ' 'sequences') if len(linelengths) != len(positions): raise ValueError('linelengths and positions are unequal sized ' 'sequences') if len(linewidths) != len(positions): raise ValueError('linewidths and positions are unequal sized ' 'sequences') if len(colors) != len(positions): raise ValueError('colors and positions are unequal sized ' 'sequences') if len(linestyles) != len(positions): raise ValueError('linestyles and positions are unequal sized ' 'sequences') colls = [] for position, lineoffset, linelength, linewidth, color, linestyle in \ zip(positions, lineoffsets, linelengths, linewidths, colors, linestyles): coll = mcoll.EventCollection(position, orientation=orientation, lineoffset=lineoffset, linelength=linelength, linewidth=linewidth, color=color, linestyle=linestyle) self.add_collection(coll, autolim=False) coll.update(kwargs) colls.append(coll) if len(positions) > 0: # try to get min/max min_max = [(np.min(_p), np.max(_p)) for _p in positions if len(_p) > 0] # if we have any non-empty positions, try to autoscale if len(min_max) > 0: mins, maxes = zip(*min_max) minpos = np.min(mins) maxpos = np.max(maxes) minline = (lineoffsets - linelengths).min() maxline = (lineoffsets + linelengths).max() if (orientation is not None and orientation.lower() == "vertical"): corners = (minline, minpos), (maxline, maxpos) else: # "horizontal", None or "none" (see EventCollection) corners = (minpos, minline), (maxpos, maxline) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view() return colls
#### Basic plotting # Uses a custom implementation of data-kwarg handling in # _process_plot_var_args.
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def plot(self, *args, scalex=True, scaley=True, data=None, **kwargs): """ Plot y versus x as lines and/or markers. Call signatures:: plot([x], y, [fmt], *, data=None, **kwargs) plot([x], y, [fmt], [x2], y2, [fmt2], ..., **kwargs) The coordinates of the points or line nodes are given by *x*, *y*. The optional parameter *fmt* is a convenient way for defining basic formatting like color, marker and linestyle. It's a shortcut string notation described in the *Notes* section below. >>> plot(x, y) # plot x and y using default line style and color >>> plot(x, y, 'bo') # plot x and y using blue circle markers >>> plot(y) # plot y using x as index array 0..N-1 >>> plot(y, 'r+') # ditto, but with red plusses You can use `.Line2D` properties as keyword arguments for more control on the appearance. Line properties and *fmt* can be mixed. The following two calls yield identical results: >>> plot(x, y, 'go--', linewidth=2, markersize=12) >>> plot(x, y, color='green', marker='o', linestyle='dashed', ... linewidth=2, markersize=12) When conflicting with *fmt*, keyword arguments take precedence. **Plotting labelled data** There's a convenient way for plotting objects with labelled data (i.e. data that can be accessed by index ``obj['y']``). Instead of giving the data in *x* and *y*, you can provide the object in the *data* parameter and just give the labels for *x* and *y*:: >>> plot('xlabel', 'ylabel', data=obj) All indexable objects are supported. This could e.g. be a `dict`, a `pandas.DataFrame` or a structured numpy array. **Plotting multiple sets of data** There are various ways to plot multiple sets of data. - The most straight forward way is just to call `plot` multiple times. Example: >>> plot(x1, y1, 'bo') >>> plot(x2, y2, 'go') - If *x* and/or *y* are 2D arrays a separate data set will be drawn for every column. If both *x* and *y* are 2D, they must have the same shape. If only one of them is 2D with shape (N, m) the other must have length N and will be used for every data set m. Example: >>> x = [1, 2, 3] >>> y = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]]) >>> plot(x, y) is equivalent to: >>> for col in range(y.shape[1]): ... plot(x, y[:, col]) - The third way is to specify multiple sets of *[x]*, *y*, *[fmt]* groups:: >>> plot(x1, y1, 'g^', x2, y2, 'g-') In this case, any additional keyword argument applies to all datasets. Also this syntax cannot be combined with the *data* parameter. By default, each line is assigned a different style specified by a 'style cycle'. The *fmt* and line property parameters are only necessary if you want explicit deviations from these defaults. Alternatively, you can also change the style cycle using :rc:`axes.prop_cycle`. Parameters ---------- x, y : array-like or scalar The horizontal / vertical coordinates of the data points. *x* values are optional and default to ``range(len(y))``. Commonly, these parameters are 1D arrays. They can also be scalars, or two-dimensional (in that case, the columns represent separate data sets). These arguments cannot be passed as keywords. fmt : str, optional A format string, e.g. 'ro' for red circles. See the *Notes* section for a full description of the format strings. Format strings are just an abbreviation for quickly setting basic line properties. All of these and more can also be controlled by keyword arguments. This argument cannot be passed as keyword. data : indexable object, optional An object with labelled data. If given, provide the label names to plot in *x* and *y*. .. note:: Technically there's a slight ambiguity in calls where the second label is a valid *fmt*. ``plot('n', 'o', data=obj)`` could be ``plt(x, y)`` or ``plt(y, fmt)``. In such cases, the former interpretation is chosen, but a warning is issued. You may suppress the warning by adding an empty format string ``plot('n', 'o', '', data=obj)``. Returns ------- list of `.Line2D` A list of lines representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- scalex, scaley : bool, default: True These parameters determine if the view limits are adapted to the data limits. The values are passed on to `autoscale_view`. **kwargs : `.Line2D` properties, optional *kwargs* are used to specify properties like a line label (for auto legends), linewidth, antialiasing, marker face color. Example:: >>> plot([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3], 'go-', label='line 1', linewidth=2) >>> plot([1, 2, 3], [1, 4, 9], 'rs', label='line 2') If you make multiple lines with one plot call, the kwargs apply to all those lines. Here is a list of available `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- scatter : XY scatter plot with markers of varying size and/or color ( sometimes also called bubble chart). Notes ----- **Format Strings** A format string consists of a part for color, marker and line:: fmt = '[marker][line][color]' Each of them is optional. If not provided, the value from the style cycle is used. Exception: If ``line`` is given, but no ``marker``, the data will be a line without markers. Other combinations such as ``[color][marker][line]`` are also supported, but note that their parsing may be ambiguous. **Markers** ============= =============================== character description ============= =============================== ``'.'`` point marker ``','`` pixel marker ``'o'`` circle marker ``'v'`` triangle_down marker ``'^'`` triangle_up marker ``'<'`` triangle_left marker ``'>'`` triangle_right marker ``'1'`` tri_down marker ``'2'`` tri_up marker ``'3'`` tri_left marker ``'4'`` tri_right marker ``'s'`` square marker ``'p'`` pentagon marker ``'*'`` star marker ``'h'`` hexagon1 marker ``'H'`` hexagon2 marker ``'+'`` plus marker ``'x'`` x marker ``'D'`` diamond marker ``'d'`` thin_diamond marker ``'|'`` vline marker ``'_'`` hline marker ============= =============================== **Line Styles** ============= =============================== character description ============= =============================== ``'-'`` solid line style ``'--'`` dashed line style ``'-.'`` dash-dot line style ``':'`` dotted line style ============= =============================== Example format strings:: 'b' # blue markers with default shape 'or' # red circles '-g' # green solid line '--' # dashed line with default color '^k:' # black triangle_up markers connected by a dotted line **Colors** The supported color abbreviations are the single letter codes ============= =============================== character color ============= =============================== ``'b'`` blue ``'g'`` green ``'r'`` red ``'c'`` cyan ``'m'`` magenta ``'y'`` yellow ``'k'`` black ``'w'`` white ============= =============================== and the ``'CN'`` colors that index into the default property cycle. If the color is the only part of the format string, you can additionally use any `matplotlib.colors` spec, e.g. full names (``'green'``) or hex strings (``'#008000'``). """ kwargs = cbook.normalize_kwargs(kwargs, mlines.Line2D) lines = [*self._get_lines(*args, data=data, **kwargs)] for line in lines: self.add_line(line) self._request_autoscale_view(scalex=scalex, scaley=scaley) return lines
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y"], label_namer="y") @docstring.dedent_interpd def plot_date(self, x, y, fmt='o', tz=None, xdate=True, ydate=False, **kwargs): """ Plot data that contains dates. Similar to `.plot`, this plots *y* vs. *x* as lines or markers. However, the axis labels are formatted as dates depending on *xdate* and *ydate*. Parameters ---------- x, y : array-like The coordinates of the data points. If *xdate* or *ydate* is *True*, the respective values *x* or *y* are interpreted as :ref:`Matplotlib dates <date-format>`. fmt : str, optional The plot format string. For details, see the corresponding parameter in `.plot`. tz : timezone string or `datetime.tzinfo`, default: :rc:`timezone` The time zone to use in labeling dates. xdate : bool, default: True If *True*, the *x*-axis will be interpreted as Matplotlib dates. ydate : bool, default: False If *True*, the *y*-axis will be interpreted as Matplotlib dates. Returns ------- list of `~.Line2D` Objects representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- matplotlib.dates : Helper functions on dates. matplotlib.dates.date2num : Convert dates to num. matplotlib.dates.num2date : Convert num to dates. matplotlib.dates.drange : Create an equally spaced sequence of dates. Notes ----- If you are using custom date tickers and formatters, it may be necessary to set the formatters/locators after the call to `.plot_date`. `.plot_date` will set the default tick locator to `.AutoDateLocator` (if the tick locator is not already set to a `.DateLocator` instance) and the default tick formatter to `.AutoDateFormatter` (if the tick formatter is not already set to a `.DateFormatter` instance). """ if xdate: self.xaxis_date(tz) if ydate: self.yaxis_date(tz) return self.plot(x, y, fmt, **kwargs)
# @_preprocess_data() # let 'plot' do the unpacking..
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def loglog(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Make a plot with log scaling on both the x and y axis. Call signatures:: loglog([x], y, [fmt], data=None, **kwargs) loglog([x], y, [fmt], [x2], y2, [fmt2], ..., **kwargs) This is just a thin wrapper around `.plot` which additionally changes both the x-axis and the y-axis to log scaling. All of the concepts and parameters of plot can be used here as well. The additional parameters *base*, *subs* and *nonpositive* control the x/y-axis properties. They are just forwarded to `.Axes.set_xscale` and `.Axes.set_yscale`. To use different properties on the x-axis and the y-axis, use e.g. ``ax.set_xscale("log", base=10); ax.set_yscale("log", base=2)``. Parameters ---------- base : float, default: 10 Base of the logarithm. subs : sequence, optional The location of the minor ticks. If *None*, reasonable locations are automatically chosen depending on the number of decades in the plot. See `.Axes.set_xscale`/`.Axes.set_yscale` for details. nonpositive : {'mask', 'clip'}, default: 'mask' Non-positive values can be masked as invalid, or clipped to a very small positive number. Returns ------- list of `~.Line2D` Objects representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs All parameters supported by `.plot`. """ dx = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k in ['base', 'subs', 'nonpositive', 'basex', 'subsx', 'nonposx']} self.set_xscale('log', **dx) dy = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k in ['base', 'subs', 'nonpositive', 'basey', 'subsy', 'nonposy']} self.set_yscale('log', **dy) return self.plot( *args, **{k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k not in {*dx, *dy}})
# @_preprocess_data() # let 'plot' do the unpacking..
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def semilogx(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Make a plot with log scaling on the x axis. Call signatures:: semilogx([x], y, [fmt], data=None, **kwargs) semilogx([x], y, [fmt], [x2], y2, [fmt2], ..., **kwargs) This is just a thin wrapper around `.plot` which additionally changes the x-axis to log scaling. All of the concepts and parameters of plot can be used here as well. The additional parameters *base*, *subs*, and *nonpositive* control the x-axis properties. They are just forwarded to `.Axes.set_xscale`. Parameters ---------- base : float, default: 10 Base of the x logarithm. subs : array-like, optional The location of the minor xticks. If *None*, reasonable locations are automatically chosen depending on the number of decades in the plot. See `.Axes.set_xscale` for details. nonpositive : {'mask', 'clip'}, default: 'mask' Non-positive values in x can be masked as invalid, or clipped to a very small positive number. Returns ------- list of `~.Line2D` Objects representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs All parameters supported by `.plot`. """ d = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k in ['base', 'subs', 'nonpositive', 'basex', 'subsx', 'nonposx']} self.set_xscale('log', **d) return self.plot( *args, **{k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k not in d})
# @_preprocess_data() # let 'plot' do the unpacking..
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def semilogy(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Make a plot with log scaling on the y axis. Call signatures:: semilogy([x], y, [fmt], data=None, **kwargs) semilogy([x], y, [fmt], [x2], y2, [fmt2], ..., **kwargs) This is just a thin wrapper around `.plot` which additionally changes the y-axis to log scaling. All of the concepts and parameters of plot can be used here as well. The additional parameters *base*, *subs*, and *nonpositive* control the y-axis properties. They are just forwarded to `.Axes.set_yscale`. Parameters ---------- base : float, default: 10 Base of the y logarithm. subs : array-like, optional The location of the minor yticks. If *None*, reasonable locations are automatically chosen depending on the number of decades in the plot. See `.Axes.set_yscale` for details. nonpositive : {'mask', 'clip'}, default: 'mask' Non-positive values in y can be masked as invalid, or clipped to a very small positive number. Returns ------- list of `~.Line2D` Objects representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs All parameters supported by `.plot`. """ d = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k in ['base', 'subs', 'nonpositive', 'basey', 'subsy', 'nonposy']} self.set_yscale('log', **d) return self.plot( *args, **{k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if k not in d})
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"], label_namer="x") def acorr(self, x, **kwargs): """ Plot the autocorrelation of *x*. Parameters ---------- x : array-like detrend : callable, default: `.mlab.detrend_none` (no detrending) A detrending function applied to *x*. It must have the signature :: detrend(x: np.ndarray) -> np.ndarray normed : bool, default: True If ``True``, input vectors are normalised to unit length. usevlines : bool, default: True Determines the plot style. If ``True``, vertical lines are plotted from 0 to the acorr value using `.Axes.vlines`. Additionally, a horizontal line is plotted at y=0 using `.Axes.axhline`. If ``False``, markers are plotted at the acorr values using `.Axes.plot`. maxlags : int, default: 10 Number of lags to show. If ``None``, will return all ``2 * len(x) - 1`` lags. Returns ------- lags : array (length ``2*maxlags+1``) The lag vector. c : array (length ``2*maxlags+1``) The auto correlation vector. line : `.LineCollection` or `.Line2D` `.Artist` added to the axes of the correlation: - `.LineCollection` if *usevlines* is True. - `.Line2D` if *usevlines* is False. b : `.Line2D` or None Horizontal line at 0 if *usevlines* is True None *usevlines* is False. Other Parameters ---------------- linestyle : `.Line2D` property, optional The linestyle for plotting the data points. Only used if *usevlines* is ``False``. marker : str, default: 'o' The marker for plotting the data points. Only used if *usevlines* is ``False``. **kwargs Additional parameters are passed to `.Axes.vlines` and `.Axes.axhline` if *usevlines* is ``True``; otherwise they are passed to `.Axes.plot`. Notes ----- The cross correlation is performed with `numpy.correlate` with ``mode = "full"``. """ return self.xcorr(x, x, **kwargs)
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y"], label_namer="y") def xcorr(self, x, y, normed=True, detrend=mlab.detrend_none, usevlines=True, maxlags=10, **kwargs): r""" Plot the cross correlation between *x* and *y*. The correlation with lag k is defined as :math:`\sum_n x[n+k] \cdot y^*[n]`, where :math:`y^*` is the complex conjugate of :math:`y`. Parameters ---------- x, y : array-like of length n detrend : callable, default: `.mlab.detrend_none` (no detrending) A detrending function applied to *x* and *y*. It must have the signature :: detrend(x: np.ndarray) -> np.ndarray normed : bool, default: True If ``True``, input vectors are normalised to unit length. usevlines : bool, default: True Determines the plot style. If ``True``, vertical lines are plotted from 0 to the xcorr value using `.Axes.vlines`. Additionally, a horizontal line is plotted at y=0 using `.Axes.axhline`. If ``False``, markers are plotted at the xcorr values using `.Axes.plot`. maxlags : int, default: 10 Number of lags to show. If None, will return all ``2 * len(x) - 1`` lags. Returns ------- lags : array (length ``2*maxlags+1``) The lag vector. c : array (length ``2*maxlags+1``) The auto correlation vector. line : `.LineCollection` or `.Line2D` `.Artist` added to the axes of the correlation: - `.LineCollection` if *usevlines* is True. - `.Line2D` if *usevlines* is False. b : `.Line2D` or None Horizontal line at 0 if *usevlines* is True None *usevlines* is False. Other Parameters ---------------- linestyle : `.Line2D` property, optional The linestyle for plotting the data points. Only used if *usevlines* is ``False``. marker : str, default: 'o' The marker for plotting the data points. Only used if *usevlines* is ``False``. **kwargs Additional parameters are passed to `.Axes.vlines` and `.Axes.axhline` if *usevlines* is ``True``; otherwise they are passed to `.Axes.plot`. Notes ----- The cross correlation is performed with `numpy.correlate` with ``mode = "full"``. """ Nx = len(x) if Nx != len(y): raise ValueError('x and y must be equal length') x = detrend(np.asarray(x)) y = detrend(np.asarray(y)) correls = np.correlate(x, y, mode="full") if normed: correls /= np.sqrt(np.dot(x, x) * np.dot(y, y)) if maxlags is None: maxlags = Nx - 1 if maxlags >= Nx or maxlags < 1: raise ValueError('maxlags must be None or strictly ' 'positive < %d' % Nx) lags = np.arange(-maxlags, maxlags + 1) correls = correls[Nx - 1 - maxlags:Nx + maxlags] if usevlines: a = self.vlines(lags, [0], correls, **kwargs) # Make label empty so only vertical lines get a legend entry kwargs.pop('label', '') b = self.axhline(**kwargs) else: kwargs.setdefault('marker', 'o') kwargs.setdefault('linestyle', 'None') a, = self.plot(lags, correls, **kwargs) b = None return lags, correls, a, b
#### Specialized plotting # @_preprocess_data() # let 'plot' do the unpacking..
[docs] def step(self, x, y, *args, where='pre', data=None, **kwargs): """ Make a step plot. Call signatures:: step(x, y, [fmt], *, data=None, where='pre', **kwargs) step(x, y, [fmt], x2, y2, [fmt2], ..., *, where='pre', **kwargs) This is just a thin wrapper around `.plot` which changes some formatting options. Most of the concepts and parameters of plot can be used here as well. .. note:: This method uses a standard plot with a step drawstyle: The *x* values are the reference positions and steps extend left/right/both directions depending on *where*. For the common case where you know the values and edges of the steps, use `~.Axes.stairs` instead. Parameters ---------- x : array-like 1D sequence of x positions. It is assumed, but not checked, that it is uniformly increasing. y : array-like 1D sequence of y levels. fmt : str, optional A format string, e.g. 'g' for a green line. See `.plot` for a more detailed description. Note: While full format strings are accepted, it is recommended to only specify the color. Line styles are currently ignored (use the keyword argument *linestyle* instead). Markers are accepted and plotted on the given positions, however, this is a rarely needed feature for step plots. data : indexable object, optional An object with labelled data. If given, provide the label names to plot in *x* and *y*. where : {'pre', 'post', 'mid'}, default: 'pre' Define where the steps should be placed: - 'pre': The y value is continued constantly to the left from every *x* position, i.e. the interval ``(x[i-1], x[i]]`` has the value ``y[i]``. - 'post': The y value is continued constantly to the right from every *x* position, i.e. the interval ``[x[i], x[i+1])`` has the value ``y[i]``. - 'mid': Steps occur half-way between the *x* positions. Returns ------- list of `.Line2D` Objects representing the plotted data. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Additional parameters are the same as those for `.plot`. Notes ----- .. [notes section required to get data note injection right] """ _api.check_in_list(('pre', 'post', 'mid'), where=where) kwargs['drawstyle'] = 'steps-' + where return self.plot(x, y, *args, data=data, **kwargs)
@staticmethod def _convert_dx(dx, x0, xconv, convert): """ Small helper to do logic of width conversion flexibly. *dx* and *x0* have units, but *xconv* has already been converted to unitless (and is an ndarray). This allows the *dx* to have units that are different from *x0*, but are still accepted by the ``__add__`` operator of *x0*. """ # x should be an array... assert type(xconv) is np.ndarray if xconv.size == 0: # xconv has already been converted, but maybe empty... return convert(dx) try: # attempt to add the width to x0; this works for # datetime+timedelta, for instance # only use the first element of x and x0. This saves # having to be sure addition works across the whole # vector. This is particularly an issue if # x0 and dx are lists so x0 + dx just concatenates the lists. # We can't just cast x0 and dx to numpy arrays because that # removes the units from unit packages like `pint` that # wrap numpy arrays. try: x0 = cbook.safe_first_element(x0) except (TypeError, IndexError, KeyError): x0 = x0 try: x = cbook.safe_first_element(xconv) except (TypeError, IndexError, KeyError): x = xconv delist = False if not np.iterable(dx): dx = [dx] delist = True dx = [convert(x0 + ddx) - x for ddx in dx] if delist: dx = dx[0] except (ValueError, TypeError, AttributeError): # if the above fails (for any reason) just fallback to what # we do by default and convert dx by itself. dx = convert(dx) return dx
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def bar(self, x, height, width=0.8, bottom=None, *, align="center", **kwargs): r""" Make a bar plot. The bars are positioned at *x* with the given *align*\ment. Their dimensions are given by *height* and *width*. The vertical baseline is *bottom* (default 0). Many parameters can take either a single value applying to all bars or a sequence of values, one for each bar. Parameters ---------- x : float or array-like The x coordinates of the bars. See also *align* for the alignment of the bars to the coordinates. height : float or array-like The height(s) of the bars. width : float or array-like, default: 0.8 The width(s) of the bars. bottom : float or array-like, default: 0 The y coordinate(s) of the bars bases. align : {'center', 'edge'}, default: 'center' Alignment of the bars to the *x* coordinates: - 'center': Center the base on the *x* positions. - 'edge': Align the left edges of the bars with the *x* positions. To align the bars on the right edge pass a negative *width* and ``align='edge'``. Returns ------- `.BarContainer` Container with all the bars and optionally errorbars. Other Parameters ---------------- color : color or list of color, optional The colors of the bar faces. edgecolor : color or list of color, optional The colors of the bar edges. linewidth : float or array-like, optional Width of the bar edge(s). If 0, don't draw edges. tick_label : str or list of str, optional The tick labels of the bars. Default: None (Use default numeric labels.) xerr, yerr : float or array-like of shape(N,) or shape(2, N), optional If not *None*, add horizontal / vertical errorbars to the bar tips. The values are +/- sizes relative to the data: - scalar: symmetric +/- values for all bars - shape(N,): symmetric +/- values for each bar - shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper errors. - *None*: No errorbar. (Default) See :doc:`/gallery/statistics/errorbar_features` for an example on the usage of ``xerr`` and ``yerr``. ecolor : color or list of color, default: 'black' The line color of the errorbars. capsize : float, default: :rc:`errorbar.capsize` The length of the error bar caps in points. error_kw : dict, optional Dictionary of kwargs to be passed to the `~.Axes.errorbar` method. Values of *ecolor* or *capsize* defined here take precedence over the independent kwargs. log : bool, default: False If *True*, set the y-axis to be log scale. **kwargs : `.Rectangle` properties %(Rectangle)s See Also -------- barh: Plot a horizontal bar plot. Notes ----- Stacked bars can be achieved by passing individual *bottom* values per bar. See :doc:`/gallery/lines_bars_and_markers/bar_stacked`. """ kwargs = cbook.normalize_kwargs(kwargs, mpatches.Patch) color = kwargs.pop('color', None) if color is None: color = self._get_patches_for_fill.get_next_color() edgecolor = kwargs.pop('edgecolor', None) linewidth = kwargs.pop('linewidth', None) hatch = kwargs.pop('hatch', None) # Because xerr and yerr will be passed to errorbar, most dimension # checking and processing will be left to the errorbar method. xerr = kwargs.pop('xerr', None) yerr = kwargs.pop('yerr', None) error_kw = kwargs.pop('error_kw', {}) ezorder = error_kw.pop('zorder', None) if ezorder is None: ezorder = kwargs.get('zorder', None) if ezorder is not None: # If using the bar zorder, increment slightly to make sure # errorbars are drawn on top of bars ezorder += 0.01 error_kw.setdefault('zorder', ezorder) ecolor = kwargs.pop('ecolor', 'k') capsize = kwargs.pop('capsize', rcParams["errorbar.capsize"]) error_kw.setdefault('ecolor', ecolor) error_kw.setdefault('capsize', capsize) # The keyword argument *orientation* is used by barh() to defer all # logic and drawing to bar(). It is considered internal and is # intentionally not mentioned in the docstring. orientation = kwargs.pop('orientation', 'vertical') _api.check_in_list(['vertical', 'horizontal'], orientation=orientation) log = kwargs.pop('log', False) label = kwargs.pop('label', '') tick_labels = kwargs.pop('tick_label', None) y = bottom # Matches barh call signature. if orientation == 'vertical': if y is None: y = 0 elif orientation == 'horizontal': if x is None: x = 0 if orientation == 'vertical': self._process_unit_info( [("x", x), ("y", height)], kwargs, convert=False) if log: self.set_yscale('log', nonpositive='clip') elif orientation == 'horizontal': self._process_unit_info( [("x", width), ("y", y)], kwargs, convert=False) if log: self.set_xscale('log', nonpositive='clip') # lets do some conversions now since some types cannot be # subtracted uniformly if self.xaxis is not None: x0 = x x = np.asarray(self.convert_xunits(x)) width = self._convert_dx(width, x0, x, self.convert_xunits) if xerr is not None: xerr = self._convert_dx(xerr, x0, x, self.convert_xunits) if self.yaxis is not None: y0 = y y = np.asarray(self.convert_yunits(y)) height = self._convert_dx(height, y0, y, self.convert_yunits) if yerr is not None: yerr = self._convert_dx(yerr, y0, y, self.convert_yunits) x, height, width, y, linewidth, hatch = np.broadcast_arrays( # Make args iterable too. np.atleast_1d(x), height, width, y, linewidth, hatch) # Now that units have been converted, set the tick locations. if orientation == 'vertical': tick_label_axis = self.xaxis tick_label_position = x elif orientation == 'horizontal': tick_label_axis = self.yaxis tick_label_position = y linewidth = itertools.cycle(np.atleast_1d(linewidth)) hatch = itertools.cycle(np.atleast_1d(hatch)) color = itertools.chain(itertools.cycle(mcolors.to_rgba_array(color)), # Fallback if color == "none". itertools.repeat('none')) if edgecolor is None: edgecolor = itertools.repeat(None) else: edgecolor = itertools.chain( itertools.cycle(mcolors.to_rgba_array(edgecolor)), # Fallback if edgecolor == "none". itertools.repeat('none')) # We will now resolve the alignment and really have # left, bottom, width, height vectors _api.check_in_list(['center', 'edge'], align=align) if align == 'center': if orientation == 'vertical': try: left = x - width / 2 except TypeError as e: raise TypeError(f'the dtypes of parameters x ({x.dtype}) ' f'and width ({width.dtype}) ' f'are incompatible') from e bottom = y elif orientation == 'horizontal': try: bottom = y - height / 2 except TypeError as e: raise TypeError(f'the dtypes of parameters y ({y.dtype}) ' f'and height ({height.dtype}) ' f'are incompatible') from e left = x elif align == 'edge': left = x bottom = y patches = [] args = zip(left, bottom, width, height, color, edgecolor, linewidth, hatch) for l, b, w, h, c, e, lw, htch in args: r = mpatches.Rectangle( xy=(l, b), width=w, height=h, facecolor=c, edgecolor=e, linewidth=lw, label='_nolegend_', hatch=htch, ) r.update(kwargs) r.get_path()._interpolation_steps = 100 if orientation == 'vertical': r.sticky_edges.y.append(b) elif orientation == 'horizontal': r.sticky_edges.x.append(l) self.add_patch(r) patches.append(r) if xerr is not None or yerr is not None: if orientation == 'vertical': # using list comps rather than arrays to preserve unit info ex = [l + 0.5 * w for l, w in zip(left, width)] ey = [b + h for b, h in zip(bottom, height)] elif orientation == 'horizontal': # using list comps rather than arrays to preserve unit info ex = [l + w for l, w in zip(left, width)] ey = [b + 0.5 * h for b, h in zip(bottom, height)] error_kw.setdefault("label", '_nolegend_') errorbar = self.errorbar(ex, ey, yerr=yerr, xerr=xerr, fmt='none', **error_kw) else: errorbar = None self._request_autoscale_view() bar_container = BarContainer(patches, errorbar, label=label) self.add_container(bar_container) if tick_labels is not None: tick_labels = np.broadcast_to(tick_labels, len(patches)) tick_label_axis.set_ticks(tick_label_position) tick_label_axis.set_ticklabels(tick_labels) return bar_container
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def barh(self, y, width, height=0.8, left=None, *, align="center", **kwargs): r""" Make a horizontal bar plot. The bars are positioned at *y* with the given *align*\ment. Their dimensions are given by *width* and *height*. The horizontal baseline is *left* (default 0). Many parameters can take either a single value applying to all bars or a sequence of values, one for each bar. Parameters ---------- y : float or array-like The y coordinates of the bars. See also *align* for the alignment of the bars to the coordinates. width : float or array-like The width(s) of the bars. height : float or array-like, default: 0.8 The heights of the bars. left : float or array-like, default: 0 The x coordinates of the left sides of the bars. align : {'center', 'edge'}, default: 'center' Alignment of the base to the *y* coordinates*: - 'center': Center the bars on the *y* positions. - 'edge': Align the bottom edges of the bars with the *y* positions. To align the bars on the top edge pass a negative *height* and ``align='edge'``. Returns ------- `.BarContainer` Container with all the bars and optionally errorbars. Other Parameters ---------------- color : color or list of color, optional The colors of the bar faces. edgecolor : color or list of color, optional The colors of the bar edges. linewidth : float or array-like, optional Width of the bar edge(s). If 0, don't draw edges. tick_label : str or list of str, optional The tick labels of the bars. Default: None (Use default numeric labels.) xerr, yerr : float or array-like of shape(N,) or shape(2, N), optional If not ``None``, add horizontal / vertical errorbars to the bar tips. The values are +/- sizes relative to the data: - scalar: symmetric +/- values for all bars - shape(N,): symmetric +/- values for each bar - shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper errors. - *None*: No errorbar. (default) See :doc:`/gallery/statistics/errorbar_features` for an example on the usage of ``xerr`` and ``yerr``. ecolor : color or list of color, default: 'black' The line color of the errorbars. capsize : float, default: :rc:`errorbar.capsize` The length of the error bar caps in points. error_kw : dict, optional Dictionary of kwargs to be passed to the `~.Axes.errorbar` method. Values of *ecolor* or *capsize* defined here take precedence over the independent kwargs. log : bool, default: False If ``True``, set the x-axis to be log scale. **kwargs : `.Rectangle` properties %(Rectangle)s See Also -------- bar: Plot a vertical bar plot. Notes ----- Stacked bars can be achieved by passing individual *left* values per bar. See :doc:`/gallery/lines_bars_and_markers/horizontal_barchart_distribution` . """ kwargs.setdefault('orientation', 'horizontal') patches = self.bar(x=left, height=height, width=width, bottom=y, align=align, **kwargs) return patches
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def broken_barh(self, xranges, yrange, **kwargs): """ Plot a horizontal sequence of rectangles. A rectangle is drawn for each element of *xranges*. All rectangles have the same vertical position and size defined by *yrange*. This is a convenience function for instantiating a `.BrokenBarHCollection`, adding it to the axes and autoscaling the view. Parameters ---------- xranges : sequence of tuples (*xmin*, *xwidth*) The x-positions and extends of the rectangles. For each tuple (*xmin*, *xwidth*) a rectangle is drawn from *xmin* to *xmin* + *xwidth*. yrange : (*ymin*, *yheight*) The y-position and extend for all the rectangles. Returns ------- `~.collections.BrokenBarHCollection` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `.BrokenBarHCollection` properties Each *kwarg* can be either a single argument applying to all rectangles, e.g.:: facecolors='black' or a sequence of arguments over which is cycled, e.g.:: facecolors=('black', 'blue') would create interleaving black and blue rectangles. Supported keywords: %(BrokenBarHCollection)s """ # process the unit information if len(xranges): xdata = cbook.safe_first_element(xranges) else: xdata = None if len(yrange): ydata = cbook.safe_first_element(yrange) else: ydata = None self._process_unit_info( [("x", xdata), ("y", ydata)], kwargs, convert=False) xranges_conv = [] for xr in xranges: if len(xr) != 2: raise ValueError('each range in xrange must be a sequence ' 'with two elements (i.e. an Nx2 array)') # convert the absolute values, not the x and dx... x_conv = np.asarray(self.convert_xunits(xr[0])) x1 = self._convert_dx(xr[1], xr[0], x_conv, self.convert_xunits) xranges_conv.append((x_conv, x1)) yrange_conv = self.convert_yunits(yrange) col = mcoll.BrokenBarHCollection(xranges_conv, yrange_conv, **kwargs) self.add_collection(col, autolim=True) self._request_autoscale_view() return col
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def stem(self, *args, linefmt=None, markerfmt=None, basefmt=None, bottom=0, label=None, use_line_collection=True, orientation='vertical'): """ Create a stem plot. A stem plot draws lines perpendicular to a baseline at each location *locs* from the baseline to *heads*, and places a marker there. For vertical stem plots (the default), the *locs* are *x* positions, and the *heads* are *y* values. For horizontal stem plots, the *locs* are *y* positions, and the *heads* are *x* values. Call signature:: stem([locs,] heads, linefmt=None, markerfmt=None, basefmt=None) The *locs*-positions are optional. The formats may be provided either as positional or as keyword-arguments. Parameters ---------- locs : array-like, default: (0, 1, ..., len(heads) - 1) For vertical stem plots, the x-positions of the stems. For horizontal stem plots, the y-positions of the stems. heads : array-like For vertical stem plots, the y-values of the stem heads. For horizontal stem plots, the x-values of the stem heads. linefmt : str, optional A string defining the properties of the vertical lines. Usually, this will be a color or a color and a linestyle: ========= ============= Character Line Style ========= ============= ``'-'`` solid line ``'--'`` dashed line ``'-.'`` dash-dot line ``':'`` dotted line ========= ============= Default: 'C0-', i.e. solid line with the first color of the color cycle. Note: While it is technically possible to specify valid formats other than color or color and linestyle (e.g. 'rx' or '-.'), this is beyond the intention of the method and will most likely not result in a reasonable plot. markerfmt : str, optional A string defining the properties of the markers at the stem heads. Default: 'C0o', i.e. filled circles with the first color of the color cycle. basefmt : str, default: 'C3-' ('C2-' in classic mode) A format string defining the properties of the baseline. orientation : str, default: 'vertical' If 'vertical', will produce a plot with stems oriented vertically, otherwise the stems will be oriented horizontally. bottom : float, default: 0 The y/x-position of the baseline (depending on orientation). label : str, default: None The label to use for the stems in legends. use_line_collection : bool, default: True If ``True``, store and plot the stem lines as a `~.collections.LineCollection` instead of individual lines, which significantly increases performance. If ``False``, defaults to the old behavior of using a list of `.Line2D` objects. This parameter may be deprecated in the future. Returns ------- `.StemContainer` The container may be treated like a tuple (*markerline*, *stemlines*, *baseline*) Notes ----- .. seealso:: The MATLAB function `stem <https://www.mathworks.com/help/matlab/ref/stem.html>`_ which inspired this method. """ if not 1 <= len(args) <= 5: raise TypeError('stem expected between 1 and 5 positional ' 'arguments, got {}'.format(args)) _api.check_in_list(['horizontal', 'vertical'], orientation=orientation) if len(args) == 1: heads, = args locs = np.arange(len(heads)) args = () else: locs, heads, *args = args if orientation == 'vertical': locs, heads = self._process_unit_info([("x", locs), ("y", heads)]) else: heads, locs = self._process_unit_info([("x", heads), ("y", locs)]) # defaults for formats if linefmt is None: try: # fallback to positional argument linefmt = args[0] except IndexError: linecolor = 'C0' linemarker = 'None' linestyle = '-' else: linestyle, linemarker, linecolor = \ _process_plot_format(linefmt) else: linestyle, linemarker, linecolor = _process_plot_format(linefmt) if markerfmt is None: try: # fallback to positional argument markerfmt = args[1] except IndexError: markercolor = 'C0' markermarker = 'o' markerstyle = 'None' else: markerstyle, markermarker, markercolor = \ _process_plot_format(markerfmt) else: markerstyle, markermarker, markercolor = \ _process_plot_format(markerfmt) if basefmt is None: try: # fallback to positional argument basefmt = args[2] except IndexError: if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode']: basecolor = 'C2' else: basecolor = 'C3' basemarker = 'None' basestyle = '-' else: basestyle, basemarker, basecolor = \ _process_plot_format(basefmt) else: basestyle, basemarker, basecolor = _process_plot_format(basefmt) # New behaviour in 3.1 is to use a LineCollection for the stemlines if use_line_collection: if orientation == 'horizontal': stemlines = [ ((bottom, loc), (head, loc)) for loc, head in zip(locs, heads)] else: stemlines = [ ((loc, bottom), (loc, head)) for loc, head in zip(locs, heads)] if linestyle is None: linestyle = rcParams['lines.linestyle'] stemlines = mcoll.LineCollection(stemlines, linestyles=linestyle, colors=linecolor, label='_nolegend_') self.add_collection(stemlines) # Old behaviour is to plot each of the lines individually else: stemlines = [] for loc, head in zip(locs, heads): if orientation == 'horizontal': xs = [bottom, head] ys = [loc, loc] else: xs = [loc, loc] ys = [bottom, head] l, = self.plot(xs, ys, color=linecolor, linestyle=linestyle, marker=linemarker, label="_nolegend_") stemlines.append(l) if orientation == 'horizontal': marker_x = heads marker_y = locs baseline_x = [bottom, bottom] baseline_y = [np.min(locs), np.max(locs)] else: marker_x = locs marker_y = heads baseline_x = [np.min(locs), np.max(locs)] baseline_y = [bottom, bottom] markerline, = self.plot(marker_x, marker_y, color=markercolor, linestyle=markerstyle, marker=markermarker, label="_nolegend_") baseline, = self.plot(baseline_x, baseline_y, color=basecolor, linestyle=basestyle, marker=basemarker, label="_nolegend_") stem_container = StemContainer((markerline, stemlines, baseline), label=label) self.add_container(stem_container) return stem_container
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "explode", "labels", "colors"]) def pie(self, x, explode=None, labels=None, colors=None, autopct=None, pctdistance=0.6, shadow=False, labeldistance=1.1, startangle=0, radius=1, counterclock=True, wedgeprops=None, textprops=None, center=(0, 0), frame=False, rotatelabels=False, *, normalize=None): """ Plot a pie chart. Make a pie chart of array *x*. The fractional area of each wedge is given by ``x/sum(x)``. If ``sum(x) < 1``, then the values of *x* give the fractional area directly and the array will not be normalized. The resulting pie will have an empty wedge of size ``1 - sum(x)``. The wedges are plotted counterclockwise, by default starting from the x-axis. Parameters ---------- x : 1D array-like The wedge sizes. explode : array-like, default: None If not *None*, is a ``len(x)`` array which specifies the fraction of the radius with which to offset each wedge. labels : list, default: None A sequence of strings providing the labels for each wedge colors : array-like, default: None A sequence of colors through which the pie chart will cycle. If *None*, will use the colors in the currently active cycle. autopct : None or str or callable, default: None If not *None*, is a string or function used to label the wedges with their numeric value. The label will be placed inside the wedge. If it is a format string, the label will be ``fmt % pct``. If it is a function, it will be called. pctdistance : float, default: 0.6 The ratio between the center of each pie slice and the start of the text generated by *autopct*. Ignored if *autopct* is *None*. shadow : bool, default: False Draw a shadow beneath the pie. normalize: None or bool, default: None When *True*, always make a full pie by normalizing x so that ``sum(x) == 1``. *False* makes a partial pie if ``sum(x) <= 1`` and raises a `ValueError` for ``sum(x) > 1``. When *None*, defaults to *True* if ``sum(x) >= 1`` and *False* if ``sum(x) < 1``. Please note that the previous default value of *None* is now deprecated, and the default will change to *True* in the next release. Please pass ``normalize=False`` explicitly if you want to draw a partial pie. labeldistance : float or None, default: 1.1 The radial distance at which the pie labels are drawn. If set to ``None``, label are not drawn, but are stored for use in ``legend()`` startangle : float, default: 0 degrees The angle by which the start of the pie is rotated, counterclockwise from the x-axis. radius : float, default: 1 The radius of the pie. counterclock : bool, default: True Specify fractions direction, clockwise or counterclockwise. wedgeprops : dict, default: None Dict of arguments passed to the wedge objects making the pie. For example, you can pass in ``wedgeprops = {'linewidth': 3}`` to set the width of the wedge border lines equal to 3. For more details, look at the doc/arguments of the wedge object. By default ``clip_on=False``. textprops : dict, default: None Dict of arguments to pass to the text objects. center : (float, float), default: (0, 0) The coordinates of the center of the chart. frame : bool, default: False Plot axes frame with the chart if true. rotatelabels : bool, default: False Rotate each label to the angle of the corresponding slice if true. Returns ------- patches : list A sequence of `matplotlib.patches.Wedge` instances texts : list A list of the label `.Text` instances. autotexts : list A list of `.Text` instances for the numeric labels. This will only be returned if the parameter *autopct* is not *None*. Notes ----- The pie chart will probably look best if the figure and axes are square, or the Axes aspect is equal. This method sets the aspect ratio of the axis to "equal". The axes aspect ratio can be controlled with `.Axes.set_aspect`. """ self.set_aspect('equal') # The use of float32 is "historical", but can't be changed without # regenerating the test baselines. x = np.asarray(x, np.float32) if x.ndim > 1: raise ValueError("x must be 1D") if np.any(x < 0): raise ValueError("Wedge sizes 'x' must be non negative values") sx = x.sum() if normalize is None: if sx < 1: cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="normalize=None does not normalize " "if the sum is less than 1 but this behavior " "is deprecated since %(since)s until %(removal)s. " "After the deprecation " "period the default value will be normalize=True. " "To prevent normalization pass normalize=False ") else: normalize = True if normalize: x = x / sx elif sx > 1: raise ValueError('Cannot plot an unnormalized pie with sum(x) > 1') if labels is None: labels = [''] * len(x) if explode is None: explode = [0] * len(x) if len(x) != len(labels): raise ValueError("'label' must be of length 'x'") if len(x) != len(explode): raise ValueError("'explode' must be of length 'x'") if colors is None: get_next_color = self._get_patches_for_fill.get_next_color else: color_cycle = itertools.cycle(colors) def get_next_color(): return next(color_cycle) if radius is None: cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="Support for passing a radius of None to mean " "1 is deprecated since %(since)s and will be removed " "%(removal)s.") radius = 1 # Starting theta1 is the start fraction of the circle if startangle is None: cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="Support for passing a startangle of None to " "mean 0 is deprecated since %(since)s and will be removed " "%(removal)s.") startangle = 0 theta1 = startangle / 360 if wedgeprops is None: wedgeprops = {} if textprops is None: textprops = {} texts = [] slices = [] autotexts = [] for frac, label, expl in zip(x, labels, explode): x, y = center theta2 = (theta1 + frac) if counterclock else (theta1 - frac) thetam = 2 * np.pi * 0.5 * (theta1 + theta2) x += expl * math.cos(thetam) y += expl * math.sin(thetam) w = mpatches.Wedge((x, y), radius, 360. * min(theta1, theta2), 360. * max(theta1, theta2), facecolor=get_next_color(), clip_on=False, label=label) w.set(**wedgeprops) slices.append(w) self.add_patch(w) if shadow: # Make sure to add a shadow after the call to add_patch so the # figure and transform props will be set. shad = mpatches.Shadow(w, -0.02, -0.02, label='_nolegend_') self.add_patch(shad) if labeldistance is not None: xt = x + labeldistance * radius * math.cos(thetam) yt = y + labeldistance * radius * math.sin(thetam) label_alignment_h = 'left' if xt > 0 else 'right' label_alignment_v = 'center' label_rotation = 'horizontal' if rotatelabels: label_alignment_v = 'bottom' if yt > 0 else 'top' label_rotation = (np.rad2deg(thetam) + (0 if xt > 0 else 180)) t = self.text(xt, yt, label, clip_on=False, horizontalalignment=label_alignment_h, verticalalignment=label_alignment_v, rotation=label_rotation, size=rcParams['xtick.labelsize']) t.set(**textprops) texts.append(t) if autopct is not None: xt = x + pctdistance * radius * math.cos(thetam) yt = y + pctdistance * radius * math.sin(thetam) if isinstance(autopct, str): s = autopct % (100. * frac) elif callable(autopct): s = autopct(100. * frac) else: raise TypeError( 'autopct must be callable or a format string') t = self.text(xt, yt, s, clip_on=False, horizontalalignment='center', verticalalignment='center') t.set(**textprops) autotexts.append(t) theta1 = theta2 if not frame: self.set(frame_on=False, xticks=[], yticks=[], xlim=(-1.25 + center[0], 1.25 + center[0]), ylim=(-1.25 + center[1], 1.25 + center[1])) if autopct is None: return slices, texts else: return slices, texts, autotexts
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y", "xerr", "yerr"], label_namer="y") @docstring.dedent_interpd def errorbar(self, x, y, yerr=None, xerr=None, fmt='', ecolor=None, elinewidth=None, capsize=None, barsabove=False, lolims=False, uplims=False, xlolims=False, xuplims=False, errorevery=1, capthick=None, **kwargs): """ Plot y versus x as lines and/or markers with attached errorbars. *x*, *y* define the data locations, *xerr*, *yerr* define the errorbar sizes. By default, this draws the data markers/lines as well the errorbars. Use fmt='none' to draw errorbars without any data markers. Parameters ---------- x, y : float or array-like The data positions. xerr, yerr : float or array-like, shape(N,) or shape(2, N), optional The errorbar sizes: - scalar: Symmetric +/- values for all data points. - shape(N,): Symmetric +/-values for each data point. - shape(2, N): Separate - and + values for each bar. First row contains the lower errors, the second row contains the upper errors. - *None*: No errorbar. Note that all error arrays should have *positive* values. See :doc:`/gallery/statistics/errorbar_features` for an example on the usage of ``xerr`` and ``yerr``. fmt : str, default: '' The format for the data points / data lines. See `.plot` for details. Use 'none' (case insensitive) to plot errorbars without any data markers. ecolor : color, default: None The color of the errorbar lines. If None, use the color of the line connecting the markers. elinewidth : float, default: None The linewidth of the errorbar lines. If None, the linewidth of the current style is used. capsize : float, default: :rc:`errorbar.capsize` The length of the error bar caps in points. capthick : float, default: None An alias to the keyword argument *markeredgewidth* (a.k.a. *mew*). This setting is a more sensible name for the property that controls the thickness of the error bar cap in points. For backwards compatibility, if *mew* or *markeredgewidth* are given, then they will over-ride *capthick*. This may change in future releases. barsabove : bool, default: False If True, will plot the errorbars above the plot symbols. Default is below. lolims, uplims, xlolims, xuplims : bool, default: False These arguments can be used to indicate that a value gives only upper/lower limits. In that case a caret symbol is used to indicate this. *lims*-arguments may be scalars, or array-likes of the same length as *xerr* and *yerr*. To use limits with inverted axes, `~.Axes.set_xlim` or `~.Axes.set_ylim` must be called before :meth:`errorbar`. Note the tricky parameter names: setting e.g. *lolims* to True means that the y-value is a *lower* limit of the True value, so, only an *upward*-pointing arrow will be drawn! errorevery : int or (int, int), default: 1 draws error bars on a subset of the data. *errorevery* =N draws error bars on the points (x[::N], y[::N]). *errorevery* =(start, N) draws error bars on the points (x[start::N], y[start::N]). e.g. errorevery=(6, 3) adds error bars to the data at (x[6], x[9], x[12], x[15], ...). Used to avoid overlapping error bars when two series share x-axis values. Returns ------- `.ErrorbarContainer` The container contains: - plotline: `.Line2D` instance of x, y plot markers and/or line. - caplines: A tuple of `.Line2D` instances of the error bar caps. - barlinecols: A tuple of `.LineCollection` with the horizontal and vertical error ranges. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs All other keyword arguments are passed on to the `~.Axes.plot` call drawing the markers. For example, this code makes big red squares with thick green edges:: x, y, yerr = rand(3, 10) errorbar(x, y, yerr, marker='s', mfc='red', mec='green', ms=20, mew=4) where *mfc*, *mec*, *ms* and *mew* are aliases for the longer property names, *markerfacecolor*, *markeredgecolor*, *markersize* and *markeredgewidth*. Valid kwargs for the marker properties are `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s """ kwargs = cbook.normalize_kwargs(kwargs, mlines.Line2D) # anything that comes in as 'None', drop so the default thing # happens down stream kwargs = {k: v for k, v in kwargs.items() if v is not None} kwargs.setdefault('zorder', 2) self._process_unit_info([("x", x), ("y", y)], kwargs, convert=False) # Make sure all the args are iterable; use lists not arrays to preserve # units. if not np.iterable(x): x = [x] if not np.iterable(y): y = [y] if len(x) != len(y): raise ValueError("'x' and 'y' must have the same size") if xerr is not None: if not np.iterable(xerr): xerr = [xerr] * len(x) if yerr is not None: if not np.iterable(yerr): yerr = [yerr] * len(y) if isinstance(errorevery, Integral): errorevery = (0, errorevery) if isinstance(errorevery, tuple): if (len(errorevery) == 2 and isinstance(errorevery[0], Integral) and isinstance(errorevery[1], Integral)): errorevery = slice(errorevery[0], None, errorevery[1]) else: raise ValueError( f'errorevery={errorevery!r} is a not a tuple of two ' f'integers') elif isinstance(errorevery, slice): pass elif not isinstance(errorevery, str) and np.iterable(errorevery): # fancy indexing try: x[errorevery] except (ValueError, IndexError) as err: raise ValueError( f"errorevery={errorevery!r} is iterable but not a valid " f"NumPy fancy index to match 'xerr'/'yerr'") from err else: raise ValueError( f"errorevery={errorevery!r} is not a recognized value") label = kwargs.pop("label", None) kwargs['label'] = '_nolegend_' # Create the main line and determine overall kwargs for child artists. # We avoid calling self.plot() directly, or self._get_lines(), because # that would call self._process_unit_info again, and do other indirect # data processing. (data_line, base_style), = self._get_lines._plot_args( (x, y) if fmt == '' else (x, y, fmt), kwargs, return_kwargs=True) # Do this after creating `data_line` to avoid modifying `base_style`. if barsabove: data_line.set_zorder(kwargs['zorder'] - .1) else: data_line.set_zorder(kwargs['zorder'] + .1) # Add line to plot, or throw it away and use it to determine kwargs. if fmt.lower() != 'none': self.add_line(data_line) else: data_line = None # Remove alpha=0 color that _get_lines._plot_args returns for # 'none' format, and replace it with user-specified color, if # supplied. base_style.pop('color') if 'color' in kwargs: base_style['color'] = kwargs.pop('color') if 'color' not in base_style: base_style['color'] = 'C0' if ecolor is None: ecolor = base_style['color'] # Eject any marker information from line format string, as it's not # needed for bars or caps. base_style.pop('marker', None) base_style.pop('markersize', None) base_style.pop('markerfacecolor', None) base_style.pop('markeredgewidth', None) base_style.pop('markeredgecolor', None) base_style.pop('markevery', None) base_style.pop('linestyle', None) # Make the style dict for the line collections (the bars). eb_lines_style = {**base_style, 'color': ecolor} if elinewidth: eb_lines_style['linewidth'] = elinewidth elif 'linewidth' in kwargs: eb_lines_style['linewidth'] = kwargs['linewidth'] for key in ('transform', 'alpha', 'zorder', 'rasterized'): if key in kwargs: eb_lines_style[key] = kwargs[key] # Make the style dict for the caps. eb_cap_style = {**base_style, 'linestyle': 'none'} if capsize is None: capsize = rcParams["errorbar.capsize"] if capsize > 0: eb_cap_style['markersize'] = 2. * capsize if capthick is not None: eb_cap_style['markeredgewidth'] = capthick # For backwards-compat, allow explicit setting of # 'markeredgewidth' to over-ride capthick. for key in ('markeredgewidth', 'transform', 'alpha', 'zorder', 'rasterized'): if key in kwargs: eb_cap_style[key] = kwargs[key] eb_cap_style['color'] = ecolor barcols = [] caplines = [] # arrays fine here, they are booleans and hence not units lolims = np.broadcast_to(lolims, len(x)).astype(bool) uplims = np.broadcast_to(uplims, len(x)).astype(bool) xlolims = np.broadcast_to(xlolims, len(x)).astype(bool) xuplims = np.broadcast_to(xuplims, len(x)).astype(bool) everymask = np.zeros(len(x), bool) everymask[errorevery] = True def apply_mask(arrays, mask): # Return, for each array in *arrays*, the elements for which *mask* # is True, without using fancy indexing. return [[*itertools.compress(array, mask)] for array in arrays] def extract_err(name, err, data, lolims, uplims): """ Private function to compute error bars. Parameters ---------- name : {'x', 'y'} Name used in the error message. err : array-like xerr or yerr from errorbar(). data : array-like x or y from errorbar(). lolims : array-like Error is only applied on **upper** side when this is True. See the note in the main docstring about this parameter's name. uplims : array-like Error is only applied on **lower** side when this is True. See the note in the main docstring about this parameter's name. """ try: # Asymmetric error: pair of 1D iterables. a, b = err iter(a) iter(b) except (TypeError, ValueError): a = b = err # Symmetric error: 1D iterable. if np.ndim(a) > 1 or np.ndim(b) > 1: raise ValueError( f"{name}err must be a scalar or a 1D or (2, n) array-like") # Using list comprehensions rather than arrays to preserve units. for e in [a, b]: if len(data) != len(e): raise ValueError( f"The lengths of the data ({len(data)}) and the " f"error {len(e)} do not match") low = [v if lo else v - e for v, e, lo in zip(data, a, lolims)] high = [v if up else v + e for v, e, up in zip(data, b, uplims)] return low, high if xerr is not None: left, right = extract_err('x', xerr, x, xlolims, xuplims) barcols.append(self.hlines( *apply_mask([y, left, right], everymask), **eb_lines_style)) # select points without upper/lower limits in x and # draw normal errorbars for these points noxlims = ~(xlolims | xuplims) if noxlims.any() and capsize > 0: yo, lo, ro = apply_mask([y, left, right], noxlims & everymask) caplines.extend([ mlines.Line2D(lo, yo, marker='|', **eb_cap_style), mlines.Line2D(ro, yo, marker='|', **eb_cap_style)]) if xlolims.any(): xo, yo, lo, ro = apply_mask([x, y, left, right], xlolims & everymask) if self.xaxis_inverted(): marker = mlines.CARETLEFTBASE else: marker = mlines.CARETRIGHTBASE caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( ro, yo, ls='None', marker=marker, **eb_cap_style)) if capsize > 0: caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, yo, marker='|', **eb_cap_style)) if xuplims.any(): xo, yo, lo, ro = apply_mask([x, y, left, right], xuplims & everymask) if self.xaxis_inverted(): marker = mlines.CARETRIGHTBASE else: marker = mlines.CARETLEFTBASE caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( lo, yo, ls='None', marker=marker, **eb_cap_style)) if capsize > 0: caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, yo, marker='|', **eb_cap_style)) if yerr is not None: lower, upper = extract_err('y', yerr, y, lolims, uplims) barcols.append(self.vlines( *apply_mask([x, lower, upper], everymask), **eb_lines_style)) # select points without upper/lower limits in y and # draw normal errorbars for these points noylims = ~(lolims | uplims) if noylims.any() and capsize > 0: xo, lo, uo = apply_mask([x, lower, upper], noylims & everymask) caplines.extend([ mlines.Line2D(xo, lo, marker='_', **eb_cap_style), mlines.Line2D(xo, uo, marker='_', **eb_cap_style)]) if lolims.any(): xo, yo, lo, uo = apply_mask([x, y, lower, upper], lolims & everymask) if self.yaxis_inverted(): marker = mlines.CARETDOWNBASE else: marker = mlines.CARETUPBASE caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, uo, ls='None', marker=marker, **eb_cap_style)) if capsize > 0: caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, yo, marker='_', **eb_cap_style)) if uplims.any(): xo, yo, lo, uo = apply_mask([x, y, lower, upper], uplims & everymask) if self.yaxis_inverted(): marker = mlines.CARETUPBASE else: marker = mlines.CARETDOWNBASE caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, lo, ls='None', marker=marker, **eb_cap_style)) if capsize > 0: caplines.append(mlines.Line2D( xo, yo, marker='_', **eb_cap_style)) for l in caplines: self.add_line(l) self._request_autoscale_view() errorbar_container = ErrorbarContainer( (data_line, tuple(caplines), tuple(barcols)), has_xerr=(xerr is not None), has_yerr=(yerr is not None), label=label) self.containers.append(errorbar_container) return errorbar_container # (l0, caplines, barcols)
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def boxplot(self, x, notch=None, sym=None, vert=None, whis=None, positions=None, widths=None, patch_artist=None, bootstrap=None, usermedians=None, conf_intervals=None, meanline=None, showmeans=None, showcaps=None, showbox=None, showfliers=None, boxprops=None, labels=None, flierprops=None, medianprops=None, meanprops=None, capprops=None, whiskerprops=None, manage_ticks=True, autorange=False, zorder=None): """ Make a box and whisker plot. Make a box and whisker plot for each column of *x* or each vector in sequence *x*. The box extends from the lower to upper quartile values of the data, with a line at the median. The whiskers extend from the box to show the range of the data. Flier points are those past the end of the whiskers. Parameters ---------- x : Array or a sequence of vectors. The input data. notch : bool, default: False Whether to draw a notched box plot (`True`), or a rectangular box plot (`False`). The notches represent the confidence interval (CI) around the median. The documentation for *bootstrap* describes how the locations of the notches are computed by default, but their locations may also be overridden by setting the *conf_intervals* parameter. .. note:: In cases where the values of the CI are less than the lower quartile or greater than the upper quartile, the notches will extend beyond the box, giving it a distinctive "flipped" appearance. This is expected behavior and consistent with other statistical visualization packages. sym : str, optional The default symbol for flier points. An empty string ('') hides the fliers. If `None`, then the fliers default to 'b+'. More control is provided by the *flierprops* parameter. vert : bool, default: True If `True`, draws vertical boxes. If `False`, draw horizontal boxes. whis : float or (float, float), default: 1.5 The position of the whiskers. If a float, the lower whisker is at the lowest datum above ``Q1 - whis*(Q3-Q1)``, and the upper whisker at the highest datum below ``Q3 + whis*(Q3-Q1)``, where Q1 and Q3 are the first and third quartiles. The default value of ``whis = 1.5`` corresponds to Tukey's original definition of boxplots. If a pair of floats, they indicate the percentiles at which to draw the whiskers (e.g., (5, 95)). In particular, setting this to (0, 100) results in whiskers covering the whole range of the data. "range" is a deprecated synonym for (0, 100). In the edge case where ``Q1 == Q3``, *whis* is automatically set to (0, 100) (cover the whole range of the data) if *autorange* is True. Beyond the whiskers, data are considered outliers and are plotted as individual points. bootstrap : int, optional Specifies whether to bootstrap the confidence intervals around the median for notched boxplots. If *bootstrap* is None, no bootstrapping is performed, and notches are calculated using a Gaussian-based asymptotic approximation (see McGill, R., Tukey, J.W., and Larsen, W.A., 1978, and Kendall and Stuart, 1967). Otherwise, bootstrap specifies the number of times to bootstrap the median to determine its 95% confidence intervals. Values between 1000 and 10000 are recommended. usermedians : array-like, optional A 1D array-like of length ``len(x)``. Each entry that is not `None` forces the value of the median for the corresponding dataset. For entries that are `None`, the medians are computed by Matplotlib as normal. conf_intervals : array-like, optional A 2D array-like of shape ``(len(x), 2)``. Each entry that is not None forces the location of the corresponding notch (which is only drawn if *notch* is `True`). For entries that are `None`, the notches are computed by the method specified by the other parameters (e.g., *bootstrap*). positions : array-like, optional The positions of the boxes. The ticks and limits are automatically set to match the positions. Defaults to ``range(1, N+1)`` where N is the number of boxes to be drawn. widths : float or array-like The widths of the boxes. The default is 0.5, or ``0.15*(distance between extreme positions)``, if that is smaller. patch_artist : bool, default: False If `False` produces boxes with the Line2D artist. Otherwise, boxes and drawn with Patch artists. labels : sequence, optional Labels for each dataset (one per dataset). manage_ticks : bool, default: True If True, the tick locations and labels will be adjusted to match the boxplot positions. autorange : bool, default: False When `True` and the data are distributed such that the 25th and 75th percentiles are equal, *whis* is set to (0, 100) such that the whisker ends are at the minimum and maximum of the data. meanline : bool, default: False If `True` (and *showmeans* is `True`), will try to render the mean as a line spanning the full width of the box according to *meanprops* (see below). Not recommended if *shownotches* is also True. Otherwise, means will be shown as points. zorder : float, default: ``Line2D.zorder = 2`` The zorder of the boxplot. Returns ------- dict A dictionary mapping each component of the boxplot to a list of the `.Line2D` instances created. That dictionary has the following keys (assuming vertical boxplots): - ``boxes``: the main body of the boxplot showing the quartiles and the median's confidence intervals if enabled. - ``medians``: horizontal lines at the median of each box. - ``whiskers``: the vertical lines extending to the most extreme, non-outlier data points. - ``caps``: the horizontal lines at the ends of the whiskers. - ``fliers``: points representing data that extend beyond the whiskers (fliers). - ``means``: points or lines representing the means. Other Parameters ---------------- showcaps : bool, default: True Show the caps on the ends of whiskers. showbox : bool, default: True Show the central box. showfliers : bool, default: True Show the outliers beyond the caps. showmeans : bool, default: False Show the arithmetic means. capprops : dict, default: None The style of the caps. boxprops : dict, default: None The style of the box. whiskerprops : dict, default: None The style of the whiskers. flierprops : dict, default: None The style of the fliers. medianprops : dict, default: None The style of the median. meanprops : dict, default: None The style of the mean. """ # Missing arguments default to rcParams. if whis is None: whis = rcParams['boxplot.whiskers'] if bootstrap is None: bootstrap = rcParams['boxplot.bootstrap'] bxpstats = cbook.boxplot_stats(x, whis=whis, bootstrap=bootstrap, labels=labels, autorange=autorange) if notch is None: notch = rcParams['boxplot.notch'] if vert is None: vert = rcParams['boxplot.vertical'] if patch_artist is None: patch_artist = rcParams['boxplot.patchartist'] if meanline is None: meanline = rcParams['boxplot.meanline'] if showmeans is None: showmeans = rcParams['boxplot.showmeans'] if showcaps is None: showcaps = rcParams['boxplot.showcaps'] if showbox is None: showbox = rcParams['boxplot.showbox'] if showfliers is None: showfliers = rcParams['boxplot.showfliers'] if boxprops is None: boxprops = {} if whiskerprops is None: whiskerprops = {} if capprops is None: capprops = {} if medianprops is None: medianprops = {} if meanprops is None: meanprops = {} if flierprops is None: flierprops = {} if patch_artist: boxprops['linestyle'] = 'solid' # Not consistent with bxp. if 'color' in boxprops: boxprops['edgecolor'] = boxprops.pop('color') # if non-default sym value, put it into the flier dictionary # the logic for providing the default symbol ('b+') now lives # in bxp in the initial value of final_flierprops # handle all of the *sym* related logic here so we only have to pass # on the flierprops dict. if sym is not None: # no-flier case, which should really be done with # 'showfliers=False' but none-the-less deal with it to keep back # compatibility if sym == '': # blow away existing dict and make one for invisible markers flierprops = dict(linestyle='none', marker='', color='none') # turn the fliers off just to be safe showfliers = False # now process the symbol string else: # process the symbol string # discarded linestyle _, marker, color = _process_plot_format(sym) # if we have a marker, use it if marker is not None: flierprops['marker'] = marker # if we have a color, use it if color is not None: # assume that if color is passed in the user want # filled symbol, if the users want more control use # flierprops flierprops['color'] = color flierprops['markerfacecolor'] = color flierprops['markeredgecolor'] = color # replace medians if necessary: if usermedians is not None: if (len(np.ravel(usermedians)) != len(bxpstats) or np.shape(usermedians)[0] != len(bxpstats)): raise ValueError( "'usermedians' and 'x' have different lengths") else: # reassign medians as necessary for stats, med in zip(bxpstats, usermedians): if med is not None: stats['med'] = med if conf_intervals is not None: if len(conf_intervals) != len(bxpstats): raise ValueError( "'conf_intervals' and 'x' have different lengths") else: for stats, ci in zip(bxpstats, conf_intervals): if ci is not None: if len(ci) != 2: raise ValueError('each confidence interval must ' 'have two values') else: if ci[0] is not None: stats['cilo'] = ci[0] if ci[1] is not None: stats['cihi'] = ci[1] artists = self.bxp(bxpstats, positions=positions, widths=widths, vert=vert, patch_artist=patch_artist, shownotches=notch, showmeans=showmeans, showcaps=showcaps, showbox=showbox, boxprops=boxprops, flierprops=flierprops, medianprops=medianprops, meanprops=meanprops, meanline=meanline, showfliers=showfliers, capprops=capprops, whiskerprops=whiskerprops, manage_ticks=manage_ticks, zorder=zorder) return artists
[docs] def bxp(self, bxpstats, positions=None, widths=None, vert=True, patch_artist=False, shownotches=False, showmeans=False, showcaps=True, showbox=True, showfliers=True, boxprops=None, whiskerprops=None, flierprops=None, medianprops=None, capprops=None, meanprops=None, meanline=False, manage_ticks=True, zorder=None): """ Drawing function for box and whisker plots. Make a box and whisker plot for each column of *x* or each vector in sequence *x*. The box extends from the lower to upper quartile values of the data, with a line at the median. The whiskers extend from the box to show the range of the data. Flier points are those past the end of the whiskers. Parameters ---------- bxpstats : list of dicts A list of dictionaries containing stats for each boxplot. Required keys are: - ``med``: The median (scalar float). - ``q1``: The first quartile (25th percentile) (scalar float). - ``q3``: The third quartile (75th percentile) (scalar float). - ``whislo``: Lower bound of the lower whisker (scalar float). - ``whishi``: Upper bound of the upper whisker (scalar float). Optional keys are: - ``mean``: The mean (scalar float). Needed if ``showmeans=True``. - ``fliers``: Data beyond the whiskers (sequence of floats). Needed if ``showfliers=True``. - ``cilo`` & ``cihi``: Lower and upper confidence intervals about the median. Needed if ``shownotches=True``. - ``label``: Name of the dataset (string). If available, this will be used a tick label for the boxplot positions : array-like, default: [1, 2, ..., n] The positions of the boxes. The ticks and limits are automatically set to match the positions. widths : array-like, default: None Either a scalar or a vector and sets the width of each box. The default is ``0.15*(distance between extreme positions)``, clipped to no less than 0.15 and no more than 0.5. vert : bool, default: True If `True` (default), makes the boxes vertical. If `False`, makes horizontal boxes. patch_artist : bool, default: False If `False` produces boxes with the `.Line2D` artist. If `True` produces boxes with the `~matplotlib.patches.Patch` artist. shownotches : bool, default: False If `False` (default), produces a rectangular box plot. If `True`, will produce a notched box plot showmeans : bool, default: False If `True`, will toggle on the rendering of the means showcaps : bool, default: True If `True`, will toggle on the rendering of the caps showbox : bool, default: True If `True`, will toggle on the rendering of the box showfliers : bool, default: True If `True`, will toggle on the rendering of the fliers boxprops : dict or None (default) If provided, will set the plotting style of the boxes whiskerprops : dict or None (default) If provided, will set the plotting style of the whiskers capprops : dict or None (default) If provided, will set the plotting style of the caps flierprops : dict or None (default) If provided will set the plotting style of the fliers medianprops : dict or None (default) If provided, will set the plotting style of the medians meanprops : dict or None (default) If provided, will set the plotting style of the means meanline : bool, default: False If `True` (and *showmeans* is `True`), will try to render the mean as a line spanning the full width of the box according to *meanprops*. Not recommended if *shownotches* is also True. Otherwise, means will be shown as points. manage_ticks : bool, default: True If True, the tick locations and labels will be adjusted to match the boxplot positions. zorder : float, default: ``Line2D.zorder = 2`` The zorder of the resulting boxplot. Returns ------- dict A dictionary mapping each component of the boxplot to a list of the `.Line2D` instances created. That dictionary has the following keys (assuming vertical boxplots): - ``boxes``: the main body of the boxplot showing the quartiles and the median's confidence intervals if enabled. - ``medians``: horizontal lines at the median of each box. - ``whiskers``: the vertical lines extending to the most extreme, non-outlier data points. - ``caps``: the horizontal lines at the ends of the whiskers. - ``fliers``: points representing data that extend beyond the whiskers (fliers). - ``means``: points or lines representing the means. Examples -------- .. plot:: gallery/statistics/bxp.py """ # lists of artists to be output whiskers = [] caps = [] boxes = [] medians = [] means = [] fliers = [] # empty list of xticklabels datalabels = [] # Use default zorder if none specified if zorder is None: zorder = mlines.Line2D.zorder zdelta = 0.1 def line_props_with_rcdefaults(subkey, explicit, zdelta=0, use_marker=True): d = {k.split('.')[-1]: v for k, v in rcParams.items() if k.startswith(f'boxplot.{subkey}')} d['zorder'] = zorder + zdelta if not use_marker: d['marker'] = '' if explicit is not None: d.update(cbook.normalize_kwargs(explicit, mlines.Line2D)) return d # box properties if patch_artist: final_boxprops = dict( linestyle=rcParams['boxplot.boxprops.linestyle'], linewidth=rcParams['boxplot.boxprops.linewidth'], edgecolor=rcParams['boxplot.boxprops.color'], facecolor=('white' if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode'] else rcParams['patch.facecolor']), zorder=zorder, ) if boxprops is not None: final_boxprops.update( cbook.normalize_kwargs(boxprops, mpatches.PathPatch)) else: final_boxprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults('boxprops', boxprops, use_marker=False) final_whiskerprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults( 'whiskerprops', whiskerprops, use_marker=False) final_capprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults( 'capprops', capprops, use_marker=False) final_flierprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults( 'flierprops', flierprops) final_medianprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults( 'medianprops', medianprops, zdelta, use_marker=False) final_meanprops = line_props_with_rcdefaults( 'meanprops', meanprops, zdelta) removed_prop = 'marker' if meanline else 'linestyle' # Only remove the property if it's not set explicitly as a parameter. if meanprops is None or removed_prop not in meanprops: final_meanprops[removed_prop] = '' def patch_list(xs, ys, **kwargs): path = mpath.Path( # Last vertex will have a CLOSEPOLY code and thus be ignored. np.append(np.column_stack([xs, ys]), [(0, 0)], 0), closed=True) patch = mpatches.PathPatch(path, **kwargs) self.add_artist(patch) return [patch] # vertical or horizontal plot? if vert: def doplot(*args, **kwargs): return self.plot(*args, **kwargs) def dopatch(xs, ys, **kwargs): return patch_list(xs, ys, **kwargs) else: def doplot(*args, **kwargs): shuffled = [] for i in range(0, len(args), 2): shuffled.extend([args[i + 1], args[i]]) return self.plot(*shuffled, **kwargs) def dopatch(xs, ys, **kwargs): xs, ys = ys, xs # flip X, Y return patch_list(xs, ys, **kwargs) # input validation N = len(bxpstats) datashape_message = ("List of boxplot statistics and `{0}` " "values must have same the length") # check position if positions is None: positions = list(range(1, N + 1)) elif len(positions) != N: raise ValueError(datashape_message.format("positions")) positions = np.array(positions) if len(positions) > 0 and not isinstance(positions[0], Number): raise TypeError("positions should be an iterable of numbers") # width if widths is None: widths = [np.clip(0.15 * np.ptp(positions), 0.15, 0.5)] * N elif np.isscalar(widths): widths = [widths] * N elif len(widths) != N: raise ValueError(datashape_message.format("widths")) for pos, width, stats in zip(positions, widths, bxpstats): # try to find a new label datalabels.append(stats.get('label', pos)) # whisker coords whisker_x = np.ones(2) * pos whiskerlo_y = np.array([stats['q1'], stats['whislo']]) whiskerhi_y = np.array([stats['q3'], stats['whishi']]) # cap coords cap_left = pos - width * 0.25 cap_right = pos + width * 0.25 cap_x = np.array([cap_left, cap_right]) cap_lo = np.ones(2) * stats['whislo'] cap_hi = np.ones(2) * stats['whishi'] # box and median coords box_left = pos - width * 0.5 box_right = pos + width * 0.5 med_y = [stats['med'], stats['med']] # notched boxes if shownotches: box_x = [box_left, box_right, box_right, cap_right, box_right, box_right, box_left, box_left, cap_left, box_left, box_left] box_y = [stats['q1'], stats['q1'], stats['cilo'], stats['med'], stats['cihi'], stats['q3'], stats['q3'], stats['cihi'], stats['med'], stats['cilo'], stats['q1']] med_x = cap_x # plain boxes else: box_x = [box_left, box_right, box_right, box_left, box_left] box_y = [stats['q1'], stats['q1'], stats['q3'], stats['q3'], stats['q1']] med_x = [box_left, box_right] # maybe draw the box: if showbox: if patch_artist: boxes.extend(dopatch(box_x, box_y, **final_boxprops)) else: boxes.extend(doplot(box_x, box_y, **final_boxprops)) # draw the whiskers whiskers.extend(doplot( whisker_x, whiskerlo_y, **final_whiskerprops )) whiskers.extend(doplot( whisker_x, whiskerhi_y, **final_whiskerprops )) # maybe draw the caps: if showcaps: caps.extend(doplot(cap_x, cap_lo, **final_capprops)) caps.extend(doplot(cap_x, cap_hi, **final_capprops)) # draw the medians medians.extend(doplot(med_x, med_y, **final_medianprops)) # maybe draw the means if showmeans: if meanline: means.extend(doplot( [box_left, box_right], [stats['mean'], stats['mean']], **final_meanprops )) else: means.extend(doplot( [pos], [stats['mean']], **final_meanprops )) # maybe draw the fliers if showfliers: # fliers coords flier_x = np.full(len(stats['fliers']), pos, dtype=np.float64) flier_y = stats['fliers'] fliers.extend(doplot( flier_x, flier_y, **final_flierprops )) if manage_ticks: axis_name = "x" if vert else "y" interval = getattr(self.dataLim, f"interval{axis_name}") axis = getattr(self, f"{axis_name}axis") positions = axis.convert_units(positions) # The 0.5 additional padding ensures reasonable-looking boxes # even when drawing a single box. We set the sticky edge to # prevent margins expansion, in order to match old behavior (back # when separate calls to boxplot() would completely reset the axis # limits regardless of what was drawn before). The sticky edges # are attached to the median lines, as they are always present. interval[:] = (min(interval[0], min(positions) - .5), max(interval[1], max(positions) + .5)) for median, position in zip(medians, positions): getattr(median.sticky_edges, axis_name).extend( [position - .5, position + .5]) # Modified from Axis.set_ticks and Axis.set_ticklabels. locator = axis.get_major_locator() if not isinstance(axis.get_major_locator(), mticker.FixedLocator): locator = mticker.FixedLocator([]) axis.set_major_locator(locator) locator.locs = np.array([*locator.locs, *positions]) formatter = axis.get_major_formatter() if not isinstance(axis.get_major_formatter(), mticker.FixedFormatter): formatter = mticker.FixedFormatter([]) axis.set_major_formatter(formatter) formatter.seq = [*formatter.seq, *datalabels] self._request_autoscale_view( scalex=self._autoscaleXon, scaley=self._autoscaleYon) return dict(whiskers=whiskers, caps=caps, boxes=boxes, medians=medians, fliers=fliers, means=means)
@staticmethod def _parse_scatter_color_args(c, edgecolors, kwargs, xsize, get_next_color_func): """ Helper function to process color related arguments of `.Axes.scatter`. Argument precedence for facecolors: - c (if not None) - kwargs['facecolor'] - kwargs['facecolors'] - kwargs['color'] (==kwcolor) - 'b' if in classic mode else the result of ``get_next_color_func()`` Argument precedence for edgecolors: - kwargs['edgecolor'] - edgecolors (is an explicit kw argument in scatter()) - kwargs['color'] (==kwcolor) - 'face' if not in classic mode else None Parameters ---------- c : color or sequence or sequence of color or None See argument description of `.Axes.scatter`. edgecolors : color or sequence of color or {'face', 'none'} or None See argument description of `.Axes.scatter`. kwargs : dict Additional kwargs. If these keys exist, we pop and process them: 'facecolors', 'facecolor', 'edgecolor', 'color' Note: The dict is modified by this function. xsize : int The size of the x and y arrays passed to `.Axes.scatter`. get_next_color_func : callable A callable that returns a color. This color is used as facecolor if no other color is provided. Note, that this is a function rather than a fixed color value to support conditional evaluation of the next color. As of the current implementation obtaining the next color from the property cycle advances the cycle. This must only happen if we actually use the color, which will only be decided within this method. Returns ------- c The input *c* if it was not *None*, else a color derived from the other inputs or defaults. colors : array(N, 4) or None The facecolors as RGBA values, or *None* if a colormap is used. edgecolors The edgecolor. """ facecolors = kwargs.pop('facecolors', None) facecolors = kwargs.pop('facecolor', facecolors) edgecolors = kwargs.pop('edgecolor', edgecolors) kwcolor = kwargs.pop('color', None) if kwcolor is not None and c is not None: raise ValueError("Supply a 'c' argument or a 'color'" " kwarg but not both; they differ but" " their functionalities overlap.") if kwcolor is not None: try: mcolors.to_rgba_array(kwcolor) except ValueError as err: raise ValueError( "'color' kwarg must be an color or sequence of color " "specs. For a sequence of values to be color-mapped, use " "the 'c' argument instead.") from err if edgecolors is None: edgecolors = kwcolor if facecolors is None: facecolors = kwcolor if edgecolors is None and not rcParams['_internal.classic_mode']: edgecolors = rcParams['scatter.edgecolors'] c_was_none = c is None if c is None: c = (facecolors if facecolors is not None else "b" if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode'] else get_next_color_func()) c_is_string_or_strings = ( isinstance(c, str) or (np.iterable(c) and len(c) > 0 and isinstance(cbook.safe_first_element(c), str))) def invalid_shape_exception(csize, xsize): return ValueError( f"'c' argument has {csize} elements, which is inconsistent " f"with 'x' and 'y' with size {xsize}.") c_is_mapped = False # Unless proven otherwise below. valid_shape = True # Unless proven otherwise below. if not c_was_none and kwcolor is None and not c_is_string_or_strings: try: # First, does 'c' look suitable for value-mapping? c = np.asanyarray(c, dtype=float) except ValueError: pass # Failed to convert to float array; must be color specs. else: # handle the documented special case of a 2D array with 1 # row which as RGB(A) to broadcast. if c.shape == (1, 4) or c.shape == (1, 3): c_is_mapped = False if c.size != xsize: valid_shape = False # If c can be either mapped values or a RGB(A) color, prefer # the former if shapes match, the latter otherwise. elif c.size == xsize: c = c.ravel() c_is_mapped = True else: # Wrong size; it must not be intended for mapping. if c.shape in ((3,), (4,)): _log.warning( "*c* argument looks like a single numeric RGB or " "RGBA sequence, which should be avoided as value-" "mapping will have precedence in case its length " "matches with *x* & *y*. Please use the *color* " "keyword-argument or provide a 2D array " "with a single row if you intend to specify " "the same RGB or RGBA value for all points.") valid_shape = False if not c_is_mapped: try: # Is 'c' acceptable as PathCollection facecolors? colors = mcolors.to_rgba_array(c) except (TypeError, ValueError) as err: if "RGBA values should be within 0-1 range" in str(err): raise else: if not valid_shape: raise invalid_shape_exception(c.size, xsize) from err # Both the mapping *and* the RGBA conversion failed: pretty # severe failure => one may appreciate a verbose feedback. raise ValueError( f"'c' argument must be a color, a sequence of colors, " f"or a sequence of numbers, not {c}") from err else: if len(colors) not in (0, 1, xsize): # NB: remember that a single color is also acceptable. # Besides *colors* will be an empty array if c == 'none'. raise invalid_shape_exception(len(colors), xsize) else: colors = None # use cmap, norm after collection is created return c, colors, edgecolors
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y", "s", "linewidths", "edgecolors", "c", "facecolor", "facecolors", "color"], label_namer="y") @cbook._delete_parameter("3.2", "verts") def scatter(self, x, y, s=None, c=None, marker=None, cmap=None, norm=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, alpha=None, linewidths=None, verts=None, edgecolors=None, *, plotnonfinite=False, **kwargs): """ A scatter plot of *y* vs. *x* with varying marker size and/or color. Parameters ---------- x, y : float or array-like, shape (n, ) The data positions. s : float or array-like, shape (n, ), optional The marker size in points**2. Default is ``rcParams['lines.markersize'] ** 2``. c : array-like or list of colors or color, optional The marker colors. Possible values: - A scalar or sequence of n numbers to be mapped to colors using *cmap* and *norm*. - A 2D array in which the rows are RGB or RGBA. - A sequence of colors of length n. - A single color format string. Note that *c* should not be a single numeric RGB or RGBA sequence because that is indistinguishable from an array of values to be colormapped. If you want to specify the same RGB or RGBA value for all points, use a 2D array with a single row. Otherwise, value- matching will have precedence in case of a size matching with *x* and *y*. If you wish to specify a single color for all points prefer the *color* keyword argument. Defaults to `None`. In that case the marker color is determined by the value of *color*, *facecolor* or *facecolors*. In case those are not specified or `None`, the marker color is determined by the next color of the ``Axes``' current "shape and fill" color cycle. This cycle defaults to :rc:`axes.prop_cycle`. marker : `~.markers.MarkerStyle`, default: :rc:`scatter.marker` The marker style. *marker* can be either an instance of the class or the text shorthand for a particular marker. See :mod:`matplotlib.markers` for more information about marker styles. cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` A `.Colormap` instance or registered colormap name. *cmap* is only used if *c* is an array of floats. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, default: None If *c* is an array of floats, *norm* is used to scale the color data, *c*, in the range 0 to 1, in order to map into the colormap *cmap*. If *None*, use the default `.colors.Normalize`. vmin, vmax : float, default: None *vmin* and *vmax* are used in conjunction with the default norm to map the color array *c* to the colormap *cmap*. If None, the respective min and max of the color array is used. It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. alpha : float, default: None The alpha blending value, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). linewidths : float or array-like, default: :rc:`lines.linewidth` The linewidth of the marker edges. Note: The default *edgecolors* is 'face'. You may want to change this as well. edgecolors : {'face', 'none', *None*} or color or sequence of color, \ default: :rc:`scatter.edgecolors` The edge color of the marker. Possible values: - 'face': The edge color will always be the same as the face color. - 'none': No patch boundary will be drawn. - A color or sequence of colors. For non-filled markers, *edgecolors* is ignored. Instead, the color is determined like with 'face', i.e. from *c*, *colors*, or *facecolors*. plotnonfinite : bool, default: False Whether to plot points with nonfinite *c* (i.e. ``inf``, ``-inf`` or ``nan``). If ``True`` the points are drawn with the *bad* colormap color (see `.Colormap.set_bad`). Returns ------- `~matplotlib.collections.PathCollection` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.collections.Collection` properties See Also -------- plot : To plot scatter plots when markers are identical in size and color. Notes ----- * The `.plot` function will be faster for scatterplots where markers don't vary in size or color. * Any or all of *x*, *y*, *s*, and *c* may be masked arrays, in which case all masks will be combined and only unmasked points will be plotted. * Fundamentally, scatter works with 1D arrays; *x*, *y*, *s*, and *c* may be input as N-D arrays, but within scatter they will be flattened. The exception is *c*, which will be flattened only if its size matches the size of *x* and *y*. """ # Process **kwargs to handle aliases, conflicts with explicit kwargs: x, y = self._process_unit_info([("x", x), ("y", y)], kwargs) # np.ma.ravel yields an ndarray, not a masked array, # unless its argument is a masked array. x = np.ma.ravel(x) y = np.ma.ravel(y) if x.size != y.size: raise ValueError("x and y must be the same size") if s is None: s = (20 if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode'] else rcParams['lines.markersize'] ** 2.0) s = np.ma.ravel(s) if (len(s) not in (1, x.size) or (not np.issubdtype(s.dtype, np.floating) and not np.issubdtype(s.dtype, np.integer))): raise ValueError( "s must be a scalar, " "or float array-like with the same size as x and y") c, colors, edgecolors = \ self._parse_scatter_color_args( c, edgecolors, kwargs, x.size, get_next_color_func=self._get_patches_for_fill.get_next_color) if plotnonfinite and colors is None: c = np.ma.masked_invalid(c) x, y, s, edgecolors, linewidths = \ cbook._combine_masks(x, y, s, edgecolors, linewidths) else: x, y, s, c, colors, edgecolors, linewidths = \ cbook._combine_masks( x, y, s, c, colors, edgecolors, linewidths) scales = s # Renamed for readability below. # load default marker from rcParams if marker is None: marker = rcParams['scatter.marker'] if isinstance(marker, mmarkers.MarkerStyle): marker_obj = marker else: marker_obj = mmarkers.MarkerStyle(marker) path = marker_obj.get_path().transformed( marker_obj.get_transform()) if not marker_obj.is_filled(): if linewidths is None: linewidths = rcParams['lines.linewidth'] elif np.iterable(linewidths): linewidths = [ lw if lw is not None else rcParams['lines.linewidth'] for lw in linewidths] offsets = np.ma.column_stack([x, y]) collection = mcoll.PathCollection( (path,), scales, facecolors=colors if marker_obj.is_filled() else 'none', edgecolors=edgecolors if marker_obj.is_filled() else colors, linewidths=linewidths, offsets=offsets, transOffset=kwargs.pop('transform', self.transData), alpha=alpha ) collection.set_transform(mtransforms.IdentityTransform()) collection.update(kwargs) if colors is None: collection.set_array(c) collection.set_cmap(cmap) collection.set_norm(norm) collection._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) # Classic mode only: # ensure there are margins to allow for the # finite size of the symbols. In v2.x, margins # are present by default, so we disable this # scatter-specific override. if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode']: if self._xmargin < 0.05 and x.size > 0: self.set_xmargin(0.05) if self._ymargin < 0.05 and x.size > 0: self.set_ymargin(0.05) self.add_collection(collection) self._request_autoscale_view() return collection
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y", "C"], label_namer="y") @docstring.dedent_interpd def hexbin(self, x, y, C=None, gridsize=100, bins=None, xscale='linear', yscale='linear', extent=None, cmap=None, norm=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, alpha=None, linewidths=None, edgecolors='face', reduce_C_function=np.mean, mincnt=None, marginals=False, **kwargs): """ Make a 2D hexagonal binning plot of points *x*, *y*. If *C* is *None*, the value of the hexagon is determined by the number of points in the hexagon. Otherwise, *C* specifies values at the coordinate (x[i], y[i]). For each hexagon, these values are reduced using *reduce_C_function*. Parameters ---------- x, y : array-like The data positions. *x* and *y* must be of the same length. C : array-like, optional If given, these values are accumulated in the bins. Otherwise, every point has a value of 1. Must be of the same length as *x* and *y*. gridsize : int or (int, int), default: 100 If a single int, the number of hexagons in the *x*-direction. The number of hexagons in the *y*-direction is chosen such that the hexagons are approximately regular. Alternatively, if a tuple (*nx*, *ny*), the number of hexagons in the *x*-direction and the *y*-direction. bins : 'log' or int or sequence, default: None Discretization of the hexagon values. - If *None*, no binning is applied; the color of each hexagon directly corresponds to its count value. - If 'log', use a logarithmic scale for the colormap. Internally, :math:`log_{10}(i+1)` is used to determine the hexagon color. This is equivalent to ``norm=LogNorm()``. - If an integer, divide the counts in the specified number of bins, and color the hexagons accordingly. - If a sequence of values, the values of the lower bound of the bins to be used. xscale : {'linear', 'log'}, default: 'linear' Use a linear or log10 scale on the horizontal axis. yscale : {'linear', 'log'}, default: 'linear' Use a linear or log10 scale on the vertical axis. mincnt : int > 0, default: *None* If not *None*, only display cells with more than *mincnt* number of points in the cell. marginals : bool, default: *False* If marginals is *True*, plot the marginal density as colormapped rectangles along the bottom of the x-axis and left of the y-axis. extent : float, default: *None* The limits of the bins. The default assigns the limits based on *gridsize*, *x*, *y*, *xscale* and *yscale*. If *xscale* or *yscale* is set to 'log', the limits are expected to be the exponent for a power of 10. E.g. for x-limits of 1 and 50 in 'linear' scale and y-limits of 10 and 1000 in 'log' scale, enter (1, 50, 1, 3). Order of scalars is (left, right, bottom, top). Returns ------- `~matplotlib.collections.PolyCollection` A `.PolyCollection` defining the hexagonal bins. - `.PolyCollection.get_offsets` contains a Mx2 array containing the x, y positions of the M hexagon centers. - `.PolyCollection.get_array` contains the values of the M hexagons. If *marginals* is *True*, horizontal bar and vertical bar (both PolyCollections) will be attached to the return collection as attributes *hbar* and *vbar*. Other Parameters ---------------- cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` The Colormap instance or registered colormap name used to map the bin values to colors. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, optional The Normalize instance scales the bin values to the canonical colormap range [0, 1] for mapping to colors. By default, the data range is mapped to the colorbar range using linear scaling. vmin, vmax : float, default: None The colorbar range. If *None*, suitable min/max values are automatically chosen by the `~.Normalize` instance (defaults to the respective min/max values of the bins in case of the default linear scaling). It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. alpha : float between 0 and 1, optional The alpha blending value, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). linewidths : float, default: *None* If *None*, defaults to 1.0. edgecolors : {'face', 'none', *None*} or color, default: 'face' The color of the hexagon edges. Possible values are: - 'face': Draw the edges in the same color as the fill color. - 'none': No edges are drawn. This can sometimes lead to unsightly unpainted pixels between the hexagons. - *None*: Draw outlines in the default color. - An explicit color. reduce_C_function : callable, default: `numpy.mean` The function to aggregate *C* within the bins. It is ignored if *C* is not given. This must have the signature:: def reduce_C_function(C: array) -> float Commonly used functions are: - `numpy.mean`: average of the points - `numpy.sum`: integral of the point values - `numpy.amax`: value taken from the largest point **kwargs : `~matplotlib.collections.PolyCollection` properties All other keyword arguments are passed on to `.PolyCollection`: %(PolyCollection)s """ self._process_unit_info([("x", x), ("y", y)], kwargs, convert=False) x, y, C = cbook.delete_masked_points(x, y, C) # Set the size of the hexagon grid if np.iterable(gridsize): nx, ny = gridsize else: nx = gridsize ny = int(nx / math.sqrt(3)) # Count the number of data in each hexagon x = np.array(x, float) y = np.array(y, float) if xscale == 'log': if np.any(x <= 0.0): raise ValueError("x contains non-positive values, so can not" " be log-scaled") x = np.log10(x) if yscale == 'log': if np.any(y <= 0.0): raise ValueError("y contains non-positive values, so can not" " be log-scaled") y = np.log10(y) if extent is not None: xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax = extent else: xmin, xmax = (np.min(x), np.max(x)) if len(x) else (0, 1) ymin, ymax = (np.min(y), np.max(y)) if len(y) else (0, 1) # to avoid issues with singular data, expand the min/max pairs xmin, xmax = mtransforms.nonsingular(xmin, xmax, expander=0.1) ymin, ymax = mtransforms.nonsingular(ymin, ymax, expander=0.1) # In the x-direction, the hexagons exactly cover the region from # xmin to xmax. Need some padding to avoid roundoff errors. padding = 1.e-9 * (xmax - xmin) xmin -= padding xmax += padding sx = (xmax - xmin) / nx sy = (ymax - ymin) / ny if marginals: xorig = x.copy() yorig = y.copy() x = (x - xmin) / sx y = (y - ymin) / sy ix1 = np.round(x).astype(int) iy1 = np.round(y).astype(int) ix2 = np.floor(x).astype(int) iy2 = np.floor(y).astype(int) nx1 = nx + 1 ny1 = ny + 1 nx2 = nx ny2 = ny n = nx1 * ny1 + nx2 * ny2 d1 = (x - ix1) ** 2 + 3.0 * (y - iy1) ** 2 d2 = (x - ix2 - 0.5) ** 2 + 3.0 * (y - iy2 - 0.5) ** 2 bdist = (d1 < d2) if C is None: lattice1 = np.zeros((nx1, ny1)) lattice2 = np.zeros((nx2, ny2)) c1 = (0 <= ix1) & (ix1 < nx1) & (0 <= iy1) & (iy1 < ny1) & bdist c2 = (0 <= ix2) & (ix2 < nx2) & (0 <= iy2) & (iy2 < ny2) & ~bdist np.add.at(lattice1, (ix1[c1], iy1[c1]), 1) np.add.at(lattice2, (ix2[c2], iy2[c2]), 1) if mincnt is not None: lattice1[lattice1 < mincnt] = np.nan lattice2[lattice2 < mincnt] = np.nan accum = np.concatenate([lattice1.ravel(), lattice2.ravel()]) good_idxs = ~np.isnan(accum) else: if mincnt is None: mincnt = 0 # create accumulation arrays lattice1 = np.empty((nx1, ny1), dtype=object) for i in range(nx1): for j in range(ny1): lattice1[i, j] = [] lattice2 = np.empty((nx2, ny2), dtype=object) for i in range(nx2): for j in range(ny2): lattice2[i, j] = [] for i in range(len(x)): if bdist[i]: if 0 <= ix1[i] < nx1 and 0 <= iy1[i] < ny1: lattice1[ix1[i], iy1[i]].append(C[i]) else: if 0 <= ix2[i] < nx2 and 0 <= iy2[i] < ny2: lattice2[ix2[i], iy2[i]].append(C[i]) for i in range(nx1): for j in range(ny1): vals = lattice1[i, j] if len(vals) > mincnt: lattice1[i, j] = reduce_C_function(vals) else: lattice1[i, j] = np.nan for i in range(nx2): for j in range(ny2): vals = lattice2[i, j] if len(vals) > mincnt: lattice2[i, j] = reduce_C_function(vals) else: lattice2[i, j] = np.nan accum = np.hstack((lattice1.astype(float).ravel(), lattice2.astype(float).ravel())) good_idxs = ~np.isnan(accum) offsets = np.zeros((n, 2), float) offsets[:nx1 * ny1, 0] = np.repeat(np.arange(nx1), ny1) offsets[:nx1 * ny1, 1] = np.tile(np.arange(ny1), nx1) offsets[nx1 * ny1:, 0] = np.repeat(np.arange(nx2) + 0.5, ny2) offsets[nx1 * ny1:, 1] = np.tile(np.arange(ny2), nx2) + 0.5 offsets[:, 0] *= sx offsets[:, 1] *= sy offsets[:, 0] += xmin offsets[:, 1] += ymin # remove accumulation bins with no data offsets = offsets[good_idxs, :] accum = accum[good_idxs] polygon = [sx, sy / 3] * np.array( [[.5, -.5], [.5, .5], [0., 1.], [-.5, .5], [-.5, -.5], [0., -1.]]) if linewidths is None: linewidths = [1.0] if xscale == 'log' or yscale == 'log': polygons = np.expand_dims(polygon, 0) + np.expand_dims(offsets, 1) if xscale == 'log': polygons[:, :, 0] = 10.0 ** polygons[:, :, 0] xmin = 10.0 ** xmin xmax = 10.0 ** xmax self.set_xscale(xscale) if yscale == 'log': polygons[:, :, 1] = 10.0 ** polygons[:, :, 1] ymin = 10.0 ** ymin ymax = 10.0 ** ymax self.set_yscale(yscale) collection = mcoll.PolyCollection( polygons, edgecolors=edgecolors, linewidths=linewidths, ) else: collection = mcoll.PolyCollection( [polygon], edgecolors=edgecolors, linewidths=linewidths, offsets=offsets, transOffset=mtransforms.AffineDeltaTransform(self.transData), ) # Set normalizer if bins is 'log' if bins == 'log': if norm is not None: cbook._warn_external("Only one of 'bins' and 'norm' " "arguments can be supplied, ignoring " "bins={}".format(bins)) else: norm = mcolors.LogNorm() bins = None if isinstance(norm, mcolors.LogNorm): if (accum == 0).any(): # make sure we have no zeros accum += 1 # autoscale the norm with curren accum values if it hasn't # been set if norm is not None: if norm.vmin is None and norm.vmax is None: norm.autoscale(accum) if bins is not None: if not np.iterable(bins): minimum, maximum = min(accum), max(accum) bins -= 1 # one less edge than bins bins = minimum + (maximum - minimum) * np.arange(bins) / bins bins = np.sort(bins) accum = bins.searchsorted(accum) collection.set_array(accum) collection.set_cmap(cmap) collection.set_norm(norm) collection.set_alpha(alpha) collection.update(kwargs) collection._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) corners = ((xmin, ymin), (xmax, ymax)) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view(tight=True) # add the collection last self.add_collection(collection, autolim=False) if not marginals: return collection if C is None: C = np.ones(len(x)) def coarse_bin(x, y, coarse): ind = coarse.searchsorted(x).clip(0, len(coarse) - 1) mus = np.zeros(len(coarse)) for i in range(len(coarse)): yi = y[ind == i] if len(yi) > 0: mu = reduce_C_function(yi) else: mu = np.nan mus[i] = mu return mus coarse = np.linspace(xmin, xmax, gridsize) xcoarse = coarse_bin(xorig, C, coarse) valid = ~np.isnan(xcoarse) verts, values = [], [] for i, val in enumerate(xcoarse): thismin = coarse[i] if i < len(coarse) - 1: thismax = coarse[i + 1] else: thismax = thismin + np.diff(coarse)[-1] if not valid[i]: continue verts.append([(thismin, 0), (thismin, 0.05), (thismax, 0.05), (thismax, 0)]) values.append(val) values = np.array(values) trans = self.get_xaxis_transform(which='grid') hbar = mcoll.PolyCollection(verts, transform=trans, edgecolors='face') hbar.set_array(values) hbar.set_cmap(cmap) hbar.set_norm(norm) hbar.set_alpha(alpha) hbar.update(kwargs) self.add_collection(hbar, autolim=False) coarse = np.linspace(ymin, ymax, gridsize) ycoarse = coarse_bin(yorig, C, coarse) valid = ~np.isnan(ycoarse) verts, values = [], [] for i, val in enumerate(ycoarse): thismin = coarse[i] if i < len(coarse) - 1: thismax = coarse[i + 1] else: thismax = thismin + np.diff(coarse)[-1] if not valid[i]: continue verts.append([(0, thismin), (0.0, thismax), (0.05, thismax), (0.05, thismin)]) values.append(val) values = np.array(values) trans = self.get_yaxis_transform(which='grid') vbar = mcoll.PolyCollection(verts, transform=trans, edgecolors='face') vbar.set_array(values) vbar.set_cmap(cmap) vbar.set_norm(norm) vbar.set_alpha(alpha) vbar.update(kwargs) self.add_collection(vbar, autolim=False) collection.hbar = hbar collection.vbar = vbar def on_changed(collection): hbar.set_cmap(collection.get_cmap()) hbar.set_clim(collection.get_clim()) vbar.set_cmap(collection.get_cmap()) vbar.set_clim(collection.get_clim()) collection.callbacksSM.connect('changed', on_changed) return collection
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def arrow(self, x, y, dx, dy, **kwargs): """ Add an arrow to the axes. This draws an arrow from ``(x, y)`` to ``(x+dx, y+dy)``. Parameters ---------- x, y : float The x and y coordinates of the arrow base. dx, dy : float The length of the arrow along x and y direction. %(FancyArrow)s Returns ------- `.FancyArrow` The created `.FancyArrow` object. Notes ----- The resulting arrow is affected by the axes aspect ratio and limits. This may produce an arrow whose head is not square with its stem. To create an arrow whose head is square with its stem, use :meth:`annotate` for example: >>> ax.annotate("", xy=(0.5, 0.5), xytext=(0, 0), ... arrowprops=dict(arrowstyle="->")) """ # Strip away units for the underlying patch since units # do not make sense to most patch-like code x = self.convert_xunits(x) y = self.convert_yunits(y) dx = self.convert_xunits(dx) dy = self.convert_yunits(dy) a = mpatches.FancyArrow(x, y, dx, dy, **kwargs) self.add_patch(a) self._request_autoscale_view() return a
[docs] @docstring.copy(mquiver.QuiverKey.__init__) def quiverkey(self, Q, X, Y, U, label, **kw): qk = mquiver.QuiverKey(Q, X, Y, U, label, **kw) self.add_artist(qk) return qk
# Handle units for x and y, if they've been passed def _quiver_units(self, args, kw): if len(args) > 3: x, y = args[0:2] x, y = self._process_unit_info([("x", x), ("y", y)], kw) return (x, y) + args[2:] return args # args can by a combination if X, Y, U, V, C and all should be replaced
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def quiver(self, *args, **kw): # Make sure units are handled for x and y values args = self._quiver_units(args, kw) q = mquiver.Quiver(self, *args, **kw) self.add_collection(q, autolim=True) self._request_autoscale_view() return q
quiver.__doc__ = mquiver.Quiver.quiver_doc # args can be some combination of X, Y, U, V, C and all should be replaced
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def barbs(self, *args, **kw): """ %(barbs_doc)s """ # Make sure units are handled for x and y values args = self._quiver_units(args, kw) b = mquiver.Barbs(self, *args, **kw) self.add_collection(b, autolim=True) self._request_autoscale_view() return b
# Uses a custom implementation of data-kwarg handling in # _process_plot_var_args.
[docs] def fill(self, *args, data=None, **kwargs): """ Plot filled polygons. Parameters ---------- *args : sequence of x, y, [color] Each polygon is defined by the lists of *x* and *y* positions of its nodes, optionally followed by a *color* specifier. See :mod:`matplotlib.colors` for supported color specifiers. The standard color cycle is used for polygons without a color specifier. You can plot multiple polygons by providing multiple *x*, *y*, *[color]* groups. For example, each of the following is legal:: ax.fill(x, y) # a polygon with default color ax.fill(x, y, "b") # a blue polygon ax.fill(x, y, x2, y2) # two polygons ax.fill(x, y, "b", x2, y2, "r") # a blue and a red polygon data : indexable object, optional An object with labelled data. If given, provide the label names to plot in *x* and *y*, e.g.:: ax.fill("time", "signal", data={"time": [0, 1, 2], "signal": [0, 1, 0]}) Returns ------- list of `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.patches.Polygon` properties Notes ----- Use :meth:`fill_between` if you would like to fill the region between two curves. """ # For compatibility(!), get aliases from Line2D rather than Patch. kwargs = cbook.normalize_kwargs(kwargs, mlines.Line2D) # _get_patches_for_fill returns a generator, convert it to a list. patches = [*self._get_patches_for_fill(*args, data=data, **kwargs)] for poly in patches: self.add_patch(poly) self._request_autoscale_view() return patches
def _fill_between_x_or_y( self, ind_dir, ind, dep1, dep2=0, *, where=None, interpolate=False, step=None, **kwargs): # Common implementation between fill_between (*ind_dir*="x") and # fill_betweenx (*ind_dir*="y"). *ind* is the independent variable, # *dep* the dependent variable. The docstring below is interpolated # to generate both methods' docstrings. """ Fill the area between two {dir} curves. The curves are defined by the points (*{ind}*, *{dep}1*) and (*{ind}*, *{dep}2*). This creates one or multiple polygons describing the filled area. You may exclude some {dir} sections from filling using *where*. By default, the edges connect the given points directly. Use *step* if the filling should be a step function, i.e. constant in between *{ind}*. Parameters ---------- {ind} : array (length N) The {ind} coordinates of the nodes defining the curves. {dep}1 : array (length N) or scalar The {dep} coordinates of the nodes defining the first curve. {dep}2 : array (length N) or scalar, default: 0 The {dep} coordinates of the nodes defining the second curve. where : array of bool (length N), optional Define *where* to exclude some {dir} regions from being filled. The filled regions are defined by the coordinates ``{ind}[where]``. More precisely, fill between ``{ind}[i]`` and ``{ind}[i+1]`` if ``where[i] and where[i+1]``. Note that this definition implies that an isolated *True* value between two *False* values in *where* will not result in filling. Both sides of the *True* position remain unfilled due to the adjacent *False* values. interpolate : bool, default: False This option is only relevant if *where* is used and the two curves are crossing each other. Semantically, *where* is often used for *{dep}1* > *{dep}2* or similar. By default, the nodes of the polygon defining the filled region will only be placed at the positions in the *{ind}* array. Such a polygon cannot describe the above semantics close to the intersection. The {ind}-sections containing the intersection are simply clipped. Setting *interpolate* to *True* will calculate the actual intersection point and extend the filled region up to this point. step : {{'pre', 'post', 'mid'}}, optional Define *step* if the filling should be a step function, i.e. constant in between *{ind}*. The value determines where the step will occur: - 'pre': The y value is continued constantly to the left from every *x* position, i.e. the interval ``(x[i-1], x[i]]`` has the value ``y[i]``. - 'post': The y value is continued constantly to the right from every *x* position, i.e. the interval ``[x[i], x[i+1])`` has the value ``y[i]``. - 'mid': Steps occur half-way between the *x* positions. Returns ------- `.PolyCollection` A `.PolyCollection` containing the plotted polygons. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs All other keyword arguments are passed on to `.PolyCollection`. They control the `.Polygon` properties: %(PolyCollection)s See Also -------- fill_between : Fill between two sets of y-values. fill_betweenx : Fill between two sets of x-values. Notes ----- .. [notes section required to get data note injection right] """ dep_dir = {"x": "y", "y": "x"}[ind_dir] func_name = {"x": "fill_between", "y": "fill_betweenx"}[dep_dir] if not rcParams["_internal.classic_mode"]: kwargs = cbook.normalize_kwargs(kwargs, mcoll.Collection) if not any(c in kwargs for c in ("color", "facecolor")): kwargs["facecolor"] = \ self._get_patches_for_fill.get_next_color() # Handle united data, such as dates ind, dep1, dep2 = map( ma.masked_invalid, self._process_unit_info( [(ind_dir, ind), (dep_dir, dep1), (dep_dir, dep2)], kwargs)) for name, array in [ (ind_dir, ind), (f"{dep_dir}1", dep1), (f"{dep_dir}2", dep2)]: if array.ndim > 1: raise ValueError(f"{name!r} is not 1-dimensional") if where is None: where = True else: where = np.asarray(where, dtype=bool) if where.size != ind.size: cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.2", message=f"Since %(since)s, the parameter *where* " f"must have the same size as {ind} in {func_name}(). This " "will become an error %(removal)s.") where = where & ~functools.reduce( np.logical_or, map(np.ma.getmask, [ind, dep1, dep2])) ind, dep1, dep2 = np.broadcast_arrays(np.atleast_1d(ind), dep1, dep2) polys = [] for idx0, idx1 in cbook.contiguous_regions(where): indslice = ind[idx0:idx1] dep1slice = dep1[idx0:idx1] dep2slice = dep2[idx0:idx1] if step is not None: step_func = cbook.STEP_LOOKUP_MAP["steps-" + step] indslice, dep1slice, dep2slice = \ step_func(indslice, dep1slice, dep2slice) if not len(indslice): continue N = len(indslice) pts = np.zeros((2 * N + 2, 2)) if interpolate: def get_interp_point(idx): im1 = max(idx - 1, 0) ind_values = ind[im1:idx+1] diff_values = dep1[im1:idx+1] - dep2[im1:idx+1] dep1_values = dep1[im1:idx+1] if len(diff_values) == 2: if np.ma.is_masked(diff_values[1]): return ind[im1], dep1[im1] elif np.ma.is_masked(diff_values[0]): return ind[idx], dep1[idx] diff_order = diff_values.argsort() diff_root_ind = np.interp( 0, diff_values[diff_order], ind_values[diff_order]) ind_order = ind_values.argsort() diff_root_dep = np.interp( diff_root_ind, ind_values[ind_order], dep1_values[ind_order]) return diff_root_ind, diff_root_dep start = get_interp_point(idx0) end = get_interp_point(idx1) else: # Handle scalar dep2 (e.g. 0): the fill should go all # the way down to 0 even if none of the dep1 sample points do. start = indslice[0], dep2slice[0] end = indslice[-1], dep2slice[-1] pts[0] = start pts[N + 1] = end pts[1:N+1, 0] = indslice pts[1:N+1, 1] = dep1slice pts[N+2:, 0] = indslice[::-1] pts[N+2:, 1] = dep2slice[::-1] if ind_dir == "y": pts = pts[:, ::-1] polys.append(pts) collection = mcoll.PolyCollection(polys, **kwargs) # now update the datalim and autoscale pts = np.row_stack([np.column_stack([ind[where], dep1[where]]), np.column_stack([ind[where], dep2[where]])]) if ind_dir == "y": pts = pts[:, ::-1] self.update_datalim(pts, updatex=True, updatey=True) self.add_collection(collection, autolim=False) self._request_autoscale_view() return collection
[docs] def fill_between(self, x, y1, y2=0, where=None, interpolate=False, step=None, **kwargs): return self._fill_between_x_or_y( "x", x, y1, y2, where=where, interpolate=interpolate, step=step, **kwargs)
if _fill_between_x_or_y.__doc__: fill_between.__doc__ = _fill_between_x_or_y.__doc__.format( dir="horizontal", ind="x", dep="y" ) fill_between = _preprocess_data( docstring.dedent_interpd(fill_between), replace_names=["x", "y1", "y2", "where"])
[docs] def fill_betweenx(self, y, x1, x2=0, where=None, step=None, interpolate=False, **kwargs): return self._fill_between_x_or_y( "y", y, x1, x2, where=where, interpolate=interpolate, step=step, **kwargs)
if _fill_between_x_or_y.__doc__: fill_betweenx.__doc__ = _fill_between_x_or_y.__doc__.format( dir="vertical", ind="y", dep="x" ) fill_betweenx = _preprocess_data( docstring.dedent_interpd(fill_betweenx), replace_names=["y", "x1", "x2", "where"]) #### plotting z(x, y): imshow, pcolor and relatives, contour
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def imshow(self, X, cmap=None, norm=None, aspect=None, interpolation=None, alpha=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, origin=None, extent=None, *, filternorm=True, filterrad=4.0, resample=None, url=None, **kwargs): """ Display data as an image, i.e., on a 2D regular raster. The input may either be actual RGB(A) data, or 2D scalar data, which will be rendered as a pseudocolor image. For displaying a grayscale image set up the colormapping using the parameters ``cmap='gray', vmin=0, vmax=255``. The number of pixels used to render an image is set by the axes size and the *dpi* of the figure. This can lead to aliasing artifacts when the image is resampled because the displayed image size will usually not match the size of *X* (see :doc:`/gallery/images_contours_and_fields/image_antialiasing`). The resampling can be controlled via the *interpolation* parameter and/or :rc:`image.interpolation`. Parameters ---------- X : array-like or PIL image The image data. Supported array shapes are: - (M, N): an image with scalar data. The values are mapped to colors using normalization and a colormap. See parameters *norm*, *cmap*, *vmin*, *vmax*. - (M, N, 3): an image with RGB values (0-1 float or 0-255 int). - (M, N, 4): an image with RGBA values (0-1 float or 0-255 int), i.e. including transparency. The first two dimensions (M, N) define the rows and columns of the image. Out-of-range RGB(A) values are clipped. cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` The Colormap instance or registered colormap name used to map scalar data to colors. This parameter is ignored for RGB(A) data. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, optional The `.Normalize` instance used to scale scalar data to the [0, 1] range before mapping to colors using *cmap*. By default, a linear scaling mapping the lowest value to 0 and the highest to 1 is used. This parameter is ignored for RGB(A) data. aspect : {'equal', 'auto'} or float, default: :rc:`image.aspect` The aspect ratio of the axes. This parameter is particularly relevant for images since it determines whether data pixels are square. This parameter is a shortcut for explicitly calling `.Axes.set_aspect`. See there for further details. - 'equal': Ensures an aspect ratio of 1. Pixels will be square (unless pixel sizes are explicitly made non-square in data coordinates using *extent*). - 'auto': The axes is kept fixed and the aspect is adjusted so that the data fit in the axes. In general, this will result in non-square pixels. interpolation : str, default: :rc:`image.interpolation` The interpolation method used. Supported values are 'none', 'antialiased', 'nearest', 'bilinear', 'bicubic', 'spline16', 'spline36', 'hanning', 'hamming', 'hermite', 'kaiser', 'quadric', 'catrom', 'gaussian', 'bessel', 'mitchell', 'sinc', 'lanczos'. If *interpolation* is 'none', then no interpolation is performed on the Agg, ps, pdf and svg backends. Other backends will fall back to 'nearest'. Note that most SVG renderers perform interpolation at rendering and that the default interpolation method they implement may differ. If *interpolation* is the default 'antialiased', then 'nearest' interpolation is used if the image is upsampled by more than a factor of three (i.e. the number of display pixels is at least three times the size of the data array). If the upsampling rate is smaller than 3, or the image is downsampled, then 'hanning' interpolation is used to act as an anti-aliasing filter, unless the image happens to be upsampled by exactly a factor of two or one. See :doc:`/gallery/images_contours_and_fields/interpolation_methods` for an overview of the supported interpolation methods, and :doc:`/gallery/images_contours_and_fields/image_antialiasing` for a discussion of image antialiasing. Some interpolation methods require an additional radius parameter, which can be set by *filterrad*. Additionally, the antigrain image resize filter is controlled by the parameter *filternorm*. alpha : float or array-like, optional The alpha blending value, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). If *alpha* is an array, the alpha blending values are applied pixel by pixel, and *alpha* must have the same shape as *X*. vmin, vmax : float, optional When using scalar data and no explicit *norm*, *vmin* and *vmax* define the data range that the colormap covers. By default, the colormap covers the complete value range of the supplied data. It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. When using RGB(A) data, parameters *vmin*/*vmax* are ignored. origin : {'upper', 'lower'}, default: :rc:`image.origin` Place the [0, 0] index of the array in the upper left or lower left corner of the axes. The convention (the default) 'upper' is typically used for matrices and images. Note that the vertical axes points upward for 'lower' but downward for 'upper'. See the :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/imshow_extent` tutorial for examples and a more detailed description. extent : floats (left, right, bottom, top), optional The bounding box in data coordinates that the image will fill. The image is stretched individually along x and y to fill the box. The default extent is determined by the following conditions. Pixels have unit size in data coordinates. Their centers are on integer coordinates, and their center coordinates range from 0 to columns-1 horizontally and from 0 to rows-1 vertically. Note that the direction of the vertical axis and thus the default values for top and bottom depend on *origin*: - For ``origin == 'upper'`` the default is ``(-0.5, numcols-0.5, numrows-0.5, -0.5)``. - For ``origin == 'lower'`` the default is ``(-0.5, numcols-0.5, -0.5, numrows-0.5)``. See the :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/imshow_extent` tutorial for examples and a more detailed description. filternorm : bool, default: True A parameter for the antigrain image resize filter (see the antigrain documentation). If *filternorm* is set, the filter normalizes integer values and corrects the rounding errors. It doesn't do anything with the source floating point values, it corrects only integers according to the rule of 1.0 which means that any sum of pixel weights must be equal to 1.0. So, the filter function must produce a graph of the proper shape. filterrad : float > 0, default: 4.0 The filter radius for filters that have a radius parameter, i.e. when interpolation is one of: 'sinc', 'lanczos' or 'blackman'. resample : bool, default: :rc:`image.resample` When *True*, use a full resampling method. When *False*, only resample when the output image is larger than the input image. url : str, optional Set the url of the created `.AxesImage`. See `.Artist.set_url`. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.artist.Artist` properties These parameters are passed on to the constructor of the `.AxesImage` artist. See Also -------- matshow : Plot a matrix or an array as an image. Notes ----- Unless *extent* is used, pixel centers will be located at integer coordinates. In other words: the origin will coincide with the center of pixel (0, 0). There are two common representations for RGB images with an alpha channel: - Straight (unassociated) alpha: R, G, and B channels represent the color of the pixel, disregarding its opacity. - Premultiplied (associated) alpha: R, G, and B channels represent the color of the pixel, adjusted for its opacity by multiplication. `~matplotlib.pyplot.imshow` expects RGB images adopting the straight (unassociated) alpha representation. """ if aspect is None: aspect = rcParams['image.aspect'] self.set_aspect(aspect) im = mimage.AxesImage(self, cmap, norm, interpolation, origin, extent, filternorm=filternorm, filterrad=filterrad, resample=resample, **kwargs) im.set_data(X) im.set_alpha(alpha) if im.get_clip_path() is None: # image does not already have clipping set, clip to axes patch im.set_clip_path(self.patch) im._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) im.set_url(url) # update ax.dataLim, and, if autoscaling, set viewLim # to tightly fit the image, regardless of dataLim. im.set_extent(im.get_extent()) self.add_image(im) return im
def _pcolorargs(self, funcname, *args, shading='flat', **kwargs): # - create X and Y if not present; # - reshape X and Y as needed if they are 1-D; # - check for proper sizes based on `shading` kwarg; # - reset shading if shading='auto' to flat or nearest # depending on size; _valid_shading = ['gouraud', 'nearest', 'flat', 'auto'] try: _api.check_in_list(_valid_shading, shading=shading) except ValueError as err: cbook._warn_external(f"shading value '{shading}' not in list of " f"valid values {_valid_shading}. Setting " "shading='auto'.") shading = 'auto' if len(args) == 1: C = np.asanyarray(args[0]) nrows, ncols = C.shape if shading in ['gouraud', 'nearest']: X, Y = np.meshgrid(np.arange(ncols), np.arange(nrows)) else: X, Y = np.meshgrid(np.arange(ncols + 1), np.arange(nrows + 1)) shading = 'flat' C = cbook.safe_masked_invalid(C) return X, Y, C, shading if len(args) == 3: # Check x and y for bad data... C = np.asanyarray(args[2]) X, Y = [cbook.safe_masked_invalid(a) for a in args[:2]] # unit conversion allows e.g. datetime objects as axis values X, Y = self._process_unit_info([("x", X), ("y", Y)], kwargs) if funcname == 'pcolormesh': if np.ma.is_masked(X) or np.ma.is_masked(Y): raise ValueError( 'x and y arguments to pcolormesh cannot have ' 'non-finite values or be of type ' 'numpy.ma.core.MaskedArray with masked values') # safe_masked_invalid() returns an ndarray for dtypes other # than floating point. if isinstance(X, np.ma.core.MaskedArray): X = X.data # strip mask as downstream doesn't like it... if isinstance(Y, np.ma.core.MaskedArray): Y = Y.data nrows, ncols = C.shape else: raise TypeError(f'{funcname}() takes 1 or 3 positional arguments ' f'but {len(args)} were given') Nx = X.shape[-1] Ny = Y.shape[0] if X.ndim != 2 or X.shape[0] == 1: x = X.reshape(1, Nx) X = x.repeat(Ny, axis=0) if Y.ndim != 2 or Y.shape[1] == 1: y = Y.reshape(Ny, 1) Y = y.repeat(Nx, axis=1) if X.shape != Y.shape: raise TypeError( 'Incompatible X, Y inputs to %s; see help(%s)' % ( funcname, funcname)) if shading == 'auto': if ncols == Nx and nrows == Ny: shading = 'nearest' else: shading = 'flat' if shading == 'flat': if not (ncols in (Nx, Nx - 1) and nrows in (Ny, Ny - 1)): raise TypeError('Dimensions of C %s are incompatible with' ' X (%d) and/or Y (%d); see help(%s)' % ( C.shape, Nx, Ny, funcname)) if (ncols == Nx or nrows == Ny): cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.3", message="shading='flat' when X and Y have the same " "dimensions as C is deprecated since %(since)s. Either " "specify the corners of the quadrilaterals with X and Y, " "or pass shading='auto', 'nearest' or 'gouraud', or set " "rcParams['pcolor.shading']. This will become an error " "%(removal)s.") C = C[:Ny - 1, :Nx - 1] else: # ['nearest', 'gouraud']: if (Nx, Ny) != (ncols, nrows): raise TypeError('Dimensions of C %s are incompatible with' ' X (%d) and/or Y (%d); see help(%s)' % ( C.shape, Nx, Ny, funcname)) if shading in ['nearest', 'auto']: # grid is specified at the center, so define corners # at the midpoints between the grid centers and then use the # flat algorithm. def _interp_grid(X): # helper for below if np.shape(X)[1] > 1: dX = np.diff(X, axis=1)/2. if not (np.all(dX >= 0) or np.all(dX <= 0)): cbook._warn_external( f"The input coordinates to {funcname} are " "interpreted as cell centers, but are not " "monotonically increasing or decreasing. " "This may lead to incorrectly calculated cell " "edges, in which case, please supply " f"explicit cell edges to {funcname}.") X = np.hstack((X[:, [0]] - dX[:, [0]], X[:, :-1] + dX, X[:, [-1]] + dX[:, [-1]])) else: # This is just degenerate, but we can't reliably guess # a dX if there is just one value. X = np.hstack((X, X)) return X if ncols == Nx: X = _interp_grid(X) Y = _interp_grid(Y) if nrows == Ny: X = _interp_grid(X.T).T Y = _interp_grid(Y.T).T shading = 'flat' C = cbook.safe_masked_invalid(C) return X, Y, C, shading
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def pcolor(self, *args, shading=None, alpha=None, norm=None, cmap=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, **kwargs): r""" Create a pseudocolor plot with a non-regular rectangular grid. Call signature:: pcolor([X, Y,] C, **kwargs) *X* and *Y* can be used to specify the corners of the quadrilaterals. .. hint:: ``pcolor()`` can be very slow for large arrays. In most cases you should use the similar but much faster `~.Axes.pcolormesh` instead. See :ref:`Differences between pcolor() and pcolormesh() <differences-pcolor-pcolormesh>` for a discussion of the differences. Parameters ---------- C : array-like A scalar 2D array. The values will be color-mapped. X, Y : array-like, optional The coordinates of the corners of quadrilaterals of a pcolormesh:: (X[i+1, j], Y[i+1, j]) (X[i+1, j+1], Y[i+1, j+1]) +-----+ | | +-----+ (X[i, j], Y[i, j]) (X[i, j+1], Y[i, j+1]) Note that the column index corresponds to the x-coordinate, and the row index corresponds to y. For details, see the :ref:`Notes <axes-pcolormesh-grid-orientation>` section below. If ``shading='flat'`` the dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be one greater than those of *C*, and the quadrilateral is colored due to the value at ``C[i, j]``. If *X*, *Y* and *C* have equal dimensions, a warning will be raised and the last row and column of *C* will be ignored. If ``shading='nearest'``, the dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be the same as those of *C* (if not, a ValueError will be raised). The color ``C[i, j]`` will be centered on ``(X[i, j], Y[i, j])``. If *X* and/or *Y* are 1-D arrays or column vectors they will be expanded as needed into the appropriate 2D arrays, making a rectangular grid. shading : {'flat', 'nearest', 'auto'}, optional The fill style for the quadrilateral; defaults to 'flat' or :rc:`pcolor.shading`. Possible values: - 'flat': A solid color is used for each quad. The color of the quad (i, j), (i+1, j), (i, j+1), (i+1, j+1) is given by ``C[i, j]``. The dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be one greater than those of *C*; if they are the same as *C*, then a deprecation warning is raised, and the last row and column of *C* are dropped. - 'nearest': Each grid point will have a color centered on it, extending halfway between the adjacent grid centers. The dimensions of *X* and *Y* must be the same as *C*. - 'auto': Choose 'flat' if dimensions of *X* and *Y* are one larger than *C*. Choose 'nearest' if dimensions are the same. See :doc:`/gallery/images_contours_and_fields/pcolormesh_grids` for more description. cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` A Colormap instance or registered colormap name. The colormap maps the *C* values to colors. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, optional The Normalize instance scales the data values to the canonical colormap range [0, 1] for mapping to colors. By default, the data range is mapped to the colorbar range using linear scaling. vmin, vmax : float, default: None The colorbar range. If *None*, suitable min/max values are automatically chosen by the `~.Normalize` instance (defaults to the respective min/max values of *C* in case of the default linear scaling). It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. edgecolors : {'none', None, 'face', color, color sequence}, optional The color of the edges. Defaults to 'none'. Possible values: - 'none' or '': No edge. - *None*: :rc:`patch.edgecolor` will be used. Note that currently :rc:`patch.force_edgecolor` has to be True for this to work. - 'face': Use the adjacent face color. - A color or sequence of colors will set the edge color. The singular form *edgecolor* works as an alias. alpha : float, default: None The alpha blending value of the face color, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). Note: The edgecolor is currently not affected by this. snap : bool, default: False Whether to snap the mesh to pixel boundaries. Returns ------- `matplotlib.collections.Collection` Other Parameters ---------------- antialiaseds : bool, default: False The default *antialiaseds* is False if the default *edgecolors*\ ="none" is used. This eliminates artificial lines at patch boundaries, and works regardless of the value of alpha. If *edgecolors* is not "none", then the default *antialiaseds* is taken from :rc:`patch.antialiased`. Stroking the edges may be preferred if *alpha* is 1, but will cause artifacts otherwise. **kwargs Additionally, the following arguments are allowed. They are passed along to the `~matplotlib.collections.PolyCollection` constructor: %(PolyCollection)s See Also -------- pcolormesh : for an explanation of the differences between pcolor and pcolormesh. imshow : If *X* and *Y* are each equidistant, `~.Axes.imshow` can be a faster alternative. Notes ----- **Masked arrays** *X*, *Y* and *C* may be masked arrays. If either ``C[i, j]``, or one of the vertices surrounding ``C[i, j]`` (*X* or *Y* at ``[i, j], [i+1, j], [i, j+1], [i+1, j+1]``) is masked, nothing is plotted. .. _axes-pcolor-grid-orientation: **Grid orientation** The grid orientation follows the standard matrix convention: An array *C* with shape (nrows, ncolumns) is plotted with the column number as *X* and the row number as *Y*. """ if shading is None: shading = rcParams['pcolor.shading'] shading = shading.lower() X, Y, C, shading = self._pcolorargs('pcolor', *args, shading=shading, kwargs=kwargs) Ny, Nx = X.shape # convert to MA, if necessary. C = ma.asarray(C) X = ma.asarray(X) Y = ma.asarray(Y) mask = ma.getmaskarray(X) + ma.getmaskarray(Y) xymask = (mask[0:-1, 0:-1] + mask[1:, 1:] + mask[0:-1, 1:] + mask[1:, 0:-1]) # don't plot if C or any of the surrounding vertices are masked. mask = ma.getmaskarray(C) + xymask unmask = ~mask X1 = ma.filled(X[:-1, :-1])[unmask] Y1 = ma.filled(Y[:-1, :-1])[unmask] X2 = ma.filled(X[1:, :-1])[unmask] Y2 = ma.filled(Y[1:, :-1])[unmask] X3 = ma.filled(X[1:, 1:])[unmask] Y3 = ma.filled(Y[1:, 1:])[unmask] X4 = ma.filled(X[:-1, 1:])[unmask] Y4 = ma.filled(Y[:-1, 1:])[unmask] npoly = len(X1) xy = np.stack([X1, Y1, X2, Y2, X3, Y3, X4, Y4, X1, Y1], axis=-1) verts = xy.reshape((npoly, 5, 2)) C = ma.filled(C[:Ny - 1, :Nx - 1])[unmask] linewidths = (0.25,) if 'linewidth' in kwargs: kwargs['linewidths'] = kwargs.pop('linewidth') kwargs.setdefault('linewidths', linewidths) if 'edgecolor' in kwargs: kwargs['edgecolors'] = kwargs.pop('edgecolor') ec = kwargs.setdefault('edgecolors', 'none') # aa setting will default via collections to patch.antialiased # unless the boundary is not stroked, in which case the # default will be False; with unstroked boundaries, aa # makes artifacts that are often disturbing. if 'antialiased' in kwargs: kwargs['antialiaseds'] = kwargs.pop('antialiased') if 'antialiaseds' not in kwargs and cbook._str_lower_equal(ec, "none"): kwargs['antialiaseds'] = False kwargs.setdefault('snap', False) collection = mcoll.PolyCollection(verts, **kwargs) collection.set_alpha(alpha) collection.set_array(C) collection.set_cmap(cmap) collection.set_norm(norm) collection._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) self.grid(False) x = X.compressed() y = Y.compressed() # Transform from native to data coordinates? t = collection._transform if (not isinstance(t, mtransforms.Transform) and hasattr(t, '_as_mpl_transform')): t = t._as_mpl_transform(self.axes) if t and any(t.contains_branch_seperately(self.transData)): trans_to_data = t - self.transData pts = np.vstack([x, y]).T.astype(float) transformed_pts = trans_to_data.transform(pts) x = transformed_pts[..., 0] y = transformed_pts[..., 1] self.add_collection(collection, autolim=False) minx = np.min(x) maxx = np.max(x) miny = np.min(y) maxy = np.max(y) collection.sticky_edges.x[:] = [minx, maxx] collection.sticky_edges.y[:] = [miny, maxy] corners = (minx, miny), (maxx, maxy) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view() return collection
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def pcolormesh(self, *args, alpha=None, norm=None, cmap=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, shading=None, antialiased=False, **kwargs): """ Create a pseudocolor plot with a non-regular rectangular grid. Call signature:: pcolormesh([X, Y,] C, **kwargs) *X* and *Y* can be used to specify the corners of the quadrilaterals. .. hint:: `~.Axes.pcolormesh` is similar to `~.Axes.pcolor`. It is much faster and preferred in most cases. For a detailed discussion on the differences see :ref:`Differences between pcolor() and pcolormesh() <differences-pcolor-pcolormesh>`. Parameters ---------- C : array-like A scalar 2D array. The values will be color-mapped. X, Y : array-like, optional The coordinates of the corners of quadrilaterals of a pcolormesh:: (X[i+1, j], Y[i+1, j]) (X[i+1, j+1], Y[i+1, j+1]) +-----+ | | +-----+ (X[i, j], Y[i, j]) (X[i, j+1], Y[i, j+1]) Note that the column index corresponds to the x-coordinate, and the row index corresponds to y. For details, see the :ref:`Notes <axes-pcolormesh-grid-orientation>` section below. If ``shading='flat'`` the dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be one greater than those of *C*, and the quadrilateral is colored due to the value at ``C[i, j]``. If *X*, *Y* and *C* have equal dimensions, a warning will be raised and the last row and column of *C* will be ignored. If ``shading='nearest'`` or ``'gouraud'``, the dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be the same as those of *C* (if not, a ValueError will be raised). For ``'nearest'`` the color ``C[i, j]`` is centered on ``(X[i, j], Y[i, j])``. For ``'gouraud'``, a smooth interpolation is caried out between the quadrilateral corners. If *X* and/or *Y* are 1-D arrays or column vectors they will be expanded as needed into the appropriate 2D arrays, making a rectangular grid. cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` A Colormap instance or registered colormap name. The colormap maps the *C* values to colors. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, optional The Normalize instance scales the data values to the canonical colormap range [0, 1] for mapping to colors. By default, the data range is mapped to the colorbar range using linear scaling. vmin, vmax : float, default: None The colorbar range. If *None*, suitable min/max values are automatically chosen by the `~.Normalize` instance (defaults to the respective min/max values of *C* in case of the default linear scaling). It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. edgecolors : {'none', None, 'face', color, color sequence}, optional The color of the edges. Defaults to 'none'. Possible values: - 'none' or '': No edge. - *None*: :rc:`patch.edgecolor` will be used. Note that currently :rc:`patch.force_edgecolor` has to be True for this to work. - 'face': Use the adjacent face color. - A color or sequence of colors will set the edge color. The singular form *edgecolor* works as an alias. alpha : float, default: None The alpha blending value, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). shading : {'flat', 'nearest', 'gouraud', 'auto'}, optional The fill style for the quadrilateral; defaults to 'flat' or :rc:`pcolor.shading`. Possible values: - 'flat': A solid color is used for each quad. The color of the quad (i, j), (i+1, j), (i, j+1), (i+1, j+1) is given by ``C[i, j]``. The dimensions of *X* and *Y* should be one greater than those of *C*; if they are the same as *C*, then a deprecation warning is raised, and the last row and column of *C* are dropped. - 'nearest': Each grid point will have a color centered on it, extending halfway between the adjacent grid centers. The dimensions of *X* and *Y* must be the same as *C*. - 'gouraud': Each quad will be Gouraud shaded: The color of the corners (i', j') are given by ``C[i', j']``. The color values of the area in between is interpolated from the corner values. The dimensions of *X* and *Y* must be the same as *C*. When Gouraud shading is used, *edgecolors* is ignored. - 'auto': Choose 'flat' if dimensions of *X* and *Y* are one larger than *C*. Choose 'nearest' if dimensions are the same. See :doc:`/gallery/images_contours_and_fields/pcolormesh_grids` for more description. snap : bool, default: False Whether to snap the mesh to pixel boundaries. Returns ------- `matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Additionally, the following arguments are allowed. They are passed along to the `~matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh` constructor: %(QuadMesh)s See Also -------- pcolor : An alternative implementation with slightly different features. For a detailed discussion on the differences see :ref:`Differences between pcolor() and pcolormesh() <differences-pcolor-pcolormesh>`. imshow : If *X* and *Y* are each equidistant, `~.Axes.imshow` can be a faster alternative. Notes ----- **Masked arrays** *C* may be a masked array. If ``C[i, j]`` is masked, the corresponding quadrilateral will be transparent. Masking of *X* and *Y* is not supported. Use `~.Axes.pcolor` if you need this functionality. .. _axes-pcolormesh-grid-orientation: **Grid orientation** The grid orientation follows the standard matrix convention: An array *C* with shape (nrows, ncolumns) is plotted with the column number as *X* and the row number as *Y*. .. _differences-pcolor-pcolormesh: **Differences between pcolor() and pcolormesh()** Both methods are used to create a pseudocolor plot of a 2D array using quadrilaterals. The main difference lies in the created object and internal data handling: While `~.Axes.pcolor` returns a `.PolyCollection`, `~.Axes.pcolormesh` returns a `.QuadMesh`. The latter is more specialized for the given purpose and thus is faster. It should almost always be preferred. There is also a slight difference in the handling of masked arrays. Both `~.Axes.pcolor` and `~.Axes.pcolormesh` support masked arrays for *C*. However, only `~.Axes.pcolor` supports masked arrays for *X* and *Y*. The reason lies in the internal handling of the masked values. `~.Axes.pcolor` leaves out the respective polygons from the PolyCollection. `~.Axes.pcolormesh` sets the facecolor of the masked elements to transparent. You can see the difference when using edgecolors. While all edges are drawn irrespective of masking in a QuadMesh, the edge between two adjacent masked quadrilaterals in `~.Axes.pcolor` is not drawn as the corresponding polygons do not exist in the PolyCollection. Another difference is the support of Gouraud shading in `~.Axes.pcolormesh`, which is not available with `~.Axes.pcolor`. """ if shading is None: shading = rcParams['pcolor.shading'] shading = shading.lower() kwargs.setdefault('edgecolors', 'None') X, Y, C, shading = self._pcolorargs('pcolormesh', *args, shading=shading, kwargs=kwargs) Ny, Nx = X.shape X = X.ravel() Y = Y.ravel() # convert to one dimensional arrays C = C.ravel() coords = np.column_stack((X, Y)).astype(float, copy=False) collection = mcoll.QuadMesh(Nx - 1, Ny - 1, coords, antialiased=antialiased, shading=shading, **kwargs) snap = kwargs.get('snap', rcParams['pcolormesh.snap']) collection.set_snap(snap) collection.set_alpha(alpha) collection.set_array(C) collection.set_cmap(cmap) collection.set_norm(norm) collection._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) self.grid(False) # Transform from native to data coordinates? t = collection._transform if (not isinstance(t, mtransforms.Transform) and hasattr(t, '_as_mpl_transform')): t = t._as_mpl_transform(self.axes) if t and any(t.contains_branch_seperately(self.transData)): trans_to_data = t - self.transData coords = trans_to_data.transform(coords) self.add_collection(collection, autolim=False) minx, miny = np.min(coords, axis=0) maxx, maxy = np.max(coords, axis=0) collection.sticky_edges.x[:] = [minx, maxx] collection.sticky_edges.y[:] = [miny, maxy] corners = (minx, miny), (maxx, maxy) self.update_datalim(corners) self._request_autoscale_view() return collection
[docs] @_preprocess_data() @docstring.dedent_interpd def pcolorfast(self, *args, alpha=None, norm=None, cmap=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, **kwargs): """ Create a pseudocolor plot with a non-regular rectangular grid. Call signature:: ax.pcolorfast([X, Y], C, /, **kwargs) This method is similar to `~.Axes.pcolor` and `~.Axes.pcolormesh`. It's designed to provide the fastest pcolor-type plotting with the Agg backend. To achieve this, it uses different algorithms internally depending on the complexity of the input grid (regular rectangular, non-regular rectangular or arbitrary quadrilateral). .. warning:: This method is experimental. Compared to `~.Axes.pcolor` or `~.Axes.pcolormesh` it has some limitations: - It supports only flat shading (no outlines) - It lacks support for log scaling of the axes. - It does not have a have a pyplot wrapper. Parameters ---------- C : array-like(M, N) The image data. Supported array shapes are: - (M, N): an image with scalar data. The data is visualized using a colormap. - (M, N, 3): an image with RGB values (0-1 float or 0-255 int). - (M, N, 4): an image with RGBA values (0-1 float or 0-255 int), i.e. including transparency. The first two dimensions (M, N) define the rows and columns of the image. This parameter can only be passed positionally. X, Y : tuple or array-like, default: ``(0, N)``, ``(0, M)`` *X* and *Y* are used to specify the coordinates of the quadrilaterals. There are different ways to do this: - Use tuples ``X=(xmin, xmax)`` and ``Y=(ymin, ymax)`` to define a *uniform rectangular grid*. The tuples define the outer edges of the grid. All individual quadrilaterals will be of the same size. This is the fastest version. - Use 1D arrays *X*, *Y* to specify a *non-uniform rectangular grid*. In this case *X* and *Y* have to be monotonic 1D arrays of length *N+1* and *M+1*, specifying the x and y boundaries of the cells. The speed is intermediate. Note: The grid is checked, and if found to be uniform the fast version is used. - Use 2D arrays *X*, *Y* if you need an *arbitrary quadrilateral grid* (i.e. if the quadrilaterals are not rectangular). In this case *X* and *Y* are 2D arrays with shape (M + 1, N + 1), specifying the x and y coordinates of the corners of the colored quadrilaterals. This is the most general, but the slowest to render. It may produce faster and more compact output using ps, pdf, and svg backends, however. These arguments can only be passed positionally. cmap : str or `~matplotlib.colors.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` A Colormap instance or registered colormap name. The colormap maps the *C* values to colors. norm : `~matplotlib.colors.Normalize`, optional The Normalize instance scales the data values to the canonical colormap range [0, 1] for mapping to colors. By default, the data range is mapped to the colorbar range using linear scaling. vmin, vmax : float, default: None The colorbar range. If *None*, suitable min/max values are automatically chosen by the `~.Normalize` instance (defaults to the respective min/max values of *C* in case of the default linear scaling). It is deprecated to use *vmin*/*vmax* when *norm* is given. alpha : float, default: None The alpha blending value, between 0 (transparent) and 1 (opaque). snap : bool, default: False Whether to snap the mesh to pixel boundaries. Returns ------- `.AxesImage` or `.PcolorImage` or `.QuadMesh` The return type depends on the type of grid: - `.AxesImage` for a regular rectangular grid. - `.PcolorImage` for a non-regular rectangular grid. - `.QuadMesh` for a non-rectangular grid. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Supported additional parameters depend on the type of grid. See return types of *image* for further description. Notes ----- .. [notes section required to get data note injection right] """ C = args[-1] nr, nc = np.shape(C)[:2] if len(args) == 1: style = "image" x = [0, nc] y = [0, nr] elif len(args) == 3: x, y = args[:2] x = np.asarray(x) y = np.asarray(y) if x.ndim == 1 and y.ndim == 1: if x.size == 2 and y.size == 2: style = "image" else: dx = np.diff(x) dy = np.diff(y) if (np.ptp(dx) < 0.01 * abs(dx.mean()) and np.ptp(dy) < 0.01 * abs(dy.mean())): style = "image" else: style = "pcolorimage" elif x.ndim == 2 and y.ndim == 2: style = "quadmesh" else: raise TypeError("arguments do not match valid signatures") else: raise TypeError("need 1 argument or 3 arguments") if style == "quadmesh": # data point in each cell is value at lower left corner coords = np.stack([x, y], axis=-1) if np.ndim(C) == 2: qm_kwargs = {"array": np.ma.ravel(C)} elif np.ndim(C) == 3: qm_kwargs = {"color": np.ma.reshape(C, (-1, C.shape[-1]))} else: raise ValueError("C must be 2D or 3D") collection = mcoll.QuadMesh( nc, nr, coords, **qm_kwargs, alpha=alpha, cmap=cmap, norm=norm, antialiased=False, edgecolors="none") self.add_collection(collection, autolim=False) xl, xr, yb, yt = x.min(), x.max(), y.min(), y.max() ret = collection else: # It's one of the two image styles. extent = xl, xr, yb, yt = x[0], x[-1], y[0], y[-1] if style == "image": im = mimage.AxesImage( self, cmap, norm, data=C, alpha=alpha, extent=extent, interpolation='nearest', origin='lower', **kwargs) elif style == "pcolorimage": im = mimage.PcolorImage( self, x, y, C, cmap=cmap, norm=norm, alpha=alpha, extent=extent, **kwargs) self.add_image(im) ret = im if np.ndim(C) == 2: # C.ndim == 3 is RGB(A) so doesn't need scaling. ret._scale_norm(norm, vmin, vmax) if ret.get_clip_path() is None: # image does not already have clipping set, clip to axes patch ret.set_clip_path(self.patch) ret.sticky_edges.x[:] = [xl, xr] ret.sticky_edges.y[:] = [yb, yt] self.update_datalim(np.array([[xl, yb], [xr, yt]])) self._request_autoscale_view(tight=True) return ret
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def contour(self, *args, **kwargs): kwargs['filled'] = False contours = mcontour.QuadContourSet(self, *args, **kwargs) self._request_autoscale_view() return contours
contour.__doc__ = """ Plot contour lines. Call signature:: contour([X, Y,] Z, [levels], **kwargs) """ + mcontour.QuadContourSet._contour_doc
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def contourf(self, *args, **kwargs): kwargs['filled'] = True contours = mcontour.QuadContourSet(self, *args, **kwargs) self._request_autoscale_view() return contours
contourf.__doc__ = """ Plot filled contours. Call signature:: contourf([X, Y,] Z, [levels], **kwargs) """ + mcontour.QuadContourSet._contour_doc
[docs] def clabel(self, CS, levels=None, **kwargs): """ Label a contour plot. Adds labels to line contours in given `.ContourSet`. Parameters ---------- CS : `~.ContourSet` instance Line contours to label. levels : array-like, optional A list of level values, that should be labeled. The list must be a subset of ``CS.levels``. If not given, all levels are labeled. **kwargs All other parameters are documented in `~.ContourLabeler.clabel`. """ return CS.clabel(levels, **kwargs)
#### Data analysis
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", 'weights'], label_namer="x") def hist(self, x, bins=None, range=None, density=False, weights=None, cumulative=False, bottom=None, histtype='bar', align='mid', orientation='vertical', rwidth=None, log=False, color=None, label=None, stacked=False, **kwargs): """ Plot a histogram. Compute and draw the histogram of *x*. The return value is a tuple (*n*, *bins*, *patches*) or ([*n0*, *n1*, ...], *bins*, [*patches0*, *patches1*, ...]) if the input contains multiple data. See the documentation of the *weights* parameter to draw a histogram of already-binned data. Multiple data can be provided via *x* as a list of datasets of potentially different length ([*x0*, *x1*, ...]), or as a 2D ndarray in which each column is a dataset. Note that the ndarray form is transposed relative to the list form. Masked arrays are not supported. The *bins*, *range*, *weights*, and *density* parameters behave as in `numpy.histogram`. Parameters ---------- x : (n,) array or sequence of (n,) arrays Input values, this takes either a single array or a sequence of arrays which are not required to be of the same length. bins : int or sequence or str, default: :rc:`hist.bins` If *bins* is an integer, it defines the number of equal-width bins in the range. If *bins* is a sequence, it defines the bin edges, including the left edge of the first bin and the right edge of the last bin; in this case, bins may be unequally spaced. All but the last (righthand-most) bin is half-open. In other words, if *bins* is:: [1, 2, 3, 4] then the first bin is ``[1, 2)`` (including 1, but excluding 2) and the second ``[2, 3)``. The last bin, however, is ``[3, 4]``, which *includes* 4. If *bins* is a string, it is one of the binning strategies supported by `numpy.histogram_bin_edges`: 'auto', 'fd', 'doane', 'scott', 'stone', 'rice', 'sturges', or 'sqrt'. range : tuple or None, default: None The lower and upper range of the bins. Lower and upper outliers are ignored. If not provided, *range* is ``(x.min(), x.max())``. Range has no effect if *bins* is a sequence. If *bins* is a sequence or *range* is specified, autoscaling is based on the specified bin range instead of the range of x. density : bool, default: False If ``True``, draw and return a probability density: each bin will display the bin's raw count divided by the total number of counts *and the bin width* (``density = counts / (sum(counts) * np.diff(bins))``), so that the area under the histogram integrates to 1 (``np.sum(density * np.diff(bins)) == 1``). If *stacked* is also ``True``, the sum of the histograms is normalized to 1. weights : (n,) array-like or None, default: None An array of weights, of the same shape as *x*. Each value in *x* only contributes its associated weight towards the bin count (instead of 1). If *density* is ``True``, the weights are normalized, so that the integral of the density over the range remains 1. This parameter can be used to draw a histogram of data that has already been binned, e.g. using `numpy.histogram` (by treating each bin as a single point with a weight equal to its count) :: counts, bins = np.histogram(data) plt.hist(bins[:-1], bins, weights=counts) (or you may alternatively use `~.bar()`). cumulative : bool or -1, default: False If ``True``, then a histogram is computed where each bin gives the counts in that bin plus all bins for smaller values. The last bin gives the total number of datapoints. If *density* is also ``True`` then the histogram is normalized such that the last bin equals 1. If *cumulative* is a number less than 0 (e.g., -1), the direction of accumulation is reversed. In this case, if *density* is also ``True``, then the histogram is normalized such that the first bin equals 1. bottom : array-like, scalar, or None, default: None Location of the bottom of each bin, ie. bins are drawn from ``bottom`` to ``bottom + hist(x, bins)`` If a scalar, the bottom of each bin is shifted by the same amount. If an array, each bin is shifted independently and the length of bottom must match the number of bins. If None, defaults to 0. histtype : {'bar', 'barstacked', 'step', 'stepfilled'}, default: 'bar' The type of histogram to draw. - 'bar' is a traditional bar-type histogram. If multiple data are given the bars are arranged side by side. - 'barstacked' is a bar-type histogram where multiple data are stacked on top of each other. - 'step' generates a lineplot that is by default unfilled. - 'stepfilled' generates a lineplot that is by default filled. align : {'left', 'mid', 'right'}, default: 'mid' The horizontal alignment of the histogram bars. - 'left': bars are centered on the left bin edges. - 'mid': bars are centered between the bin edges. - 'right': bars are centered on the right bin edges. orientation : {'vertical', 'horizontal'}, default: 'vertical' If 'horizontal', `~.Axes.barh` will be used for bar-type histograms and the *bottom* kwarg will be the left edges. rwidth : float or None, default: None The relative width of the bars as a fraction of the bin width. If ``None``, automatically compute the width. Ignored if *histtype* is 'step' or 'stepfilled'. log : bool, default: False If ``True``, the histogram axis will be set to a log scale. If *log* is ``True`` and *x* is a 1D array, empty bins will be filtered out and only the non-empty ``(n, bins, patches)`` will be returned. color : color or array-like of colors or None, default: None Color or sequence of colors, one per dataset. Default (``None``) uses the standard line color sequence. label : str or None, default: None String, or sequence of strings to match multiple datasets. Bar charts yield multiple patches per dataset, but only the first gets the label, so that `~.Axes.legend` will work as expected. stacked : bool, default: False If ``True``, multiple data are stacked on top of each other If ``False`` multiple data are arranged side by side if histtype is 'bar' or on top of each other if histtype is 'step' Returns ------- n : array or list of arrays The values of the histogram bins. See *density* and *weights* for a description of the possible semantics. If input *x* is an array, then this is an array of length *nbins*. If input is a sequence of arrays ``[data1, data2, ...]``, then this is a list of arrays with the values of the histograms for each of the arrays in the same order. The dtype of the array *n* (or of its element arrays) will always be float even if no weighting or normalization is used. bins : array The edges of the bins. Length nbins + 1 (nbins left edges and right edge of last bin). Always a single array even when multiple data sets are passed in. patches : `.BarContainer` or list of a single `.Polygon` or list of \ such objects Container of individual artists used to create the histogram or list of such containers if there are multiple input datasets. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs `~matplotlib.patches.Patch` properties See Also -------- hist2d : 2D histograms Notes ----- For large numbers of bins (>1000), 'step' and 'stepfilled' can be significantly faster than 'bar' and 'barstacked'. """ # Avoid shadowing the builtin. bin_range = range from builtins import range if np.isscalar(x): x = [x] if bins is None: bins = rcParams['hist.bins'] # Validate string inputs here to avoid cluttering subsequent code. _api.check_in_list(['bar', 'barstacked', 'step', 'stepfilled'], histtype=histtype) _api.check_in_list(['left', 'mid', 'right'], align=align) _api.check_in_list(['horizontal', 'vertical'], orientation=orientation) if histtype == 'barstacked' and not stacked: stacked = True # Massage 'x' for processing. x = cbook._reshape_2D(x, 'x') nx = len(x) # number of datasets # Process unit information. _process_unit_info sets the unit and # converts the first dataset; then we convert each following dataset # one at a time. if orientation == "vertical": convert_units = self.convert_xunits x = [*self._process_unit_info([("x", x[0])], kwargs), *map(convert_units, x[1:])] else: # horizontal convert_units = self.convert_yunits x = [*self._process_unit_info([("y", x[0])], kwargs), *map(convert_units, x[1:])] if bin_range is not None: bin_range = convert_units(bin_range) if not cbook.is_scalar_or_string(bins): bins = convert_units(bins) # We need to do to 'weights' what was done to 'x' if weights is not None: w = cbook._reshape_2D(weights, 'weights') else: w = [None] * nx if len(w) != nx: raise ValueError('weights should have the same shape as x') input_empty = True for xi, wi in zip(x, w): len_xi = len(xi) if wi is not None and len(wi) != len_xi: raise ValueError('weights should have the same shape as x') if len_xi: input_empty = False if color is None: color = [self._get_lines.get_next_color() for i in range(nx)] else: color = mcolors.to_rgba_array(color) if len(color) != nx: raise ValueError(f"The 'color' keyword argument must have one " f"color per dataset, but {nx} datasets and " f"{len(color)} colors were provided") hist_kwargs = dict() # if the bin_range is not given, compute without nan numpy # does not do this for us when guessing the range (but will # happily ignore nans when computing the histogram). if bin_range is None: xmin = np.inf xmax = -np.inf for xi in x: if len(xi): # python's min/max ignore nan, # np.minnan returns nan for all nan input xmin = min(xmin, np.nanmin(xi)) xmax = max(xmax, np.nanmax(xi)) if xmin <= xmax: # Only happens if we have seen a finite value. bin_range = (xmin, xmax) # If bins are not specified either explicitly or via range, # we need to figure out the range required for all datasets, # and supply that to np.histogram. if not input_empty and len(x) > 1: if weights is not None: _w = np.concatenate(w) else: _w = None bins = np.histogram_bin_edges( np.concatenate(x), bins, bin_range, _w) else: hist_kwargs['range'] = bin_range density = bool(density) if density and not stacked: hist_kwargs['density'] = density # List to store all the top coordinates of the histograms tops = [] # Will have shape (n_datasets, n_bins). # Loop through datasets for i in range(nx): # this will automatically overwrite bins, # so that each histogram uses the same bins m, bins = np.histogram(x[i], bins, weights=w[i], **hist_kwargs) tops.append(m) tops = np.array(tops, float) # causes problems later if it's an int if stacked: tops = tops.cumsum(axis=0) # If a stacked density plot, normalize so the area of all the # stacked histograms together is 1 if density: tops = (tops / np.diff(bins)) / tops[-1].sum() if cumulative: slc = slice(None) if isinstance(cumulative, Number) and cumulative < 0: slc = slice(None, None, -1) if density: tops = (tops * np.diff(bins))[:, slc].cumsum(axis=1)[:, slc] else: tops = tops[:, slc].cumsum(axis=1)[:, slc] patches = [] if histtype.startswith('bar'): totwidth = np.diff(bins) if rwidth is not None: dr = np.clip(rwidth, 0, 1) elif (len(tops) > 1 and ((not stacked) or rcParams['_internal.classic_mode'])): dr = 0.8 else: dr = 1.0 if histtype == 'bar' and not stacked: width = dr * totwidth / nx dw = width boffset = -0.5 * dr * totwidth * (1 - 1 / nx) elif histtype == 'barstacked' or stacked: width = dr * totwidth boffset, dw = 0.0, 0.0 if align == 'mid': boffset += 0.5 * totwidth elif align == 'right': boffset += totwidth if orientation == 'horizontal': _barfunc = self.barh bottom_kwarg = 'left' else: # orientation == 'vertical' _barfunc = self.bar bottom_kwarg = 'bottom' for m, c in zip(tops, color): if bottom is None: bottom = np.zeros(len(m)) if stacked: height = m - bottom else: height = m bars = _barfunc(bins[:-1]+boffset, height, width, align='center', log=log, color=c, **{bottom_kwarg: bottom}) patches.append(bars) if stacked: bottom = m boffset += dw # Remove stickies from all bars but the lowest ones, as otherwise # margin expansion would be unable to cross the stickies in the # middle of the bars. for bars in patches[1:]: for patch in bars: patch.sticky_edges.x[:] = patch.sticky_edges.y[:] = [] elif histtype.startswith('step'): # these define the perimeter of the polygon x = np.zeros(4 * len(bins) - 3) y = np.zeros(4 * len(bins) - 3) x[0:2*len(bins)-1:2], x[1:2*len(bins)-1:2] = bins, bins[:-1] x[2*len(bins)-1:] = x[1:2*len(bins)-1][::-1] if bottom is None: bottom = 0 y[1:2*len(bins)-1:2] = y[2:2*len(bins):2] = bottom y[2*len(bins)-1:] = y[1:2*len(bins)-1][::-1] if log: if orientation == 'horizontal': self.set_xscale('log', nonpositive='clip') else: # orientation == 'vertical' self.set_yscale('log', nonpositive='clip') if align == 'left': x -= 0.5*(bins[1]-bins[0]) elif align == 'right': x += 0.5*(bins[1]-bins[0]) # If fill kwarg is set, it will be passed to the patch collection, # overriding this fill = (histtype == 'stepfilled') xvals, yvals = [], [] for m in tops: if stacked: # top of the previous polygon becomes the bottom y[2*len(bins)-1:] = y[1:2*len(bins)-1][::-1] # set the top of this polygon y[1:2*len(bins)-1:2] = y[2:2*len(bins):2] = m + bottom # The starting point of the polygon has not yet been # updated. So far only the endpoint was adjusted. This # assignment closes the polygon. The redundant endpoint is # later discarded (for step and stepfilled). y[0] = y[-1] if orientation == 'horizontal': xvals.append(y.copy()) yvals.append(x.copy()) else: xvals.append(x.copy()) yvals.append(y.copy()) # stepfill is closed, step is not split = -1 if fill else 2 * len(bins) # add patches in reverse order so that when stacking, # items lower in the stack are plotted on top of # items higher in the stack for x, y, c in reversed(list(zip(xvals, yvals, color))): patches.append(self.fill( x[:split], y[:split], closed=True if fill else None, facecolor=c, edgecolor=None if fill else c, fill=fill if fill else None, zorder=None if fill else mlines.Line2D.zorder)) for patch_list in patches: for patch in patch_list: if orientation == 'vertical': patch.sticky_edges.y.append(0) elif orientation == 'horizontal': patch.sticky_edges.x.append(0) # we return patches, so put it back in the expected order patches.reverse() # If None, make all labels None (via zip_longest below); otherwise, # cast each element to str, but keep a single str as it. labels = [] if label is None else np.atleast_1d(np.asarray(label, str)) for patch, lbl in itertools.zip_longest(patches, labels): if patch: p = patch[0] p.update(kwargs) if lbl is not None: p.set_label(lbl) for p in patch[1:]: p.update(kwargs) p.set_label('_nolegend_') if nx == 1: return tops[0], bins, patches[0] else: patch_type = ("BarContainer" if histtype.startswith("bar") else "List[Polygon]") return tops, bins, cbook.silent_list(patch_type, patches)
[docs] @_preprocess_data() def stairs(self, values, edges=None, *, orientation='vertical', baseline=0, fill=False, **kwargs): """ A stepwise constant function as a line with bounding edges or a filled plot. Parameters ---------- values : array-like The step heights. edges : array-like The edge positions, with ``len(edges) == len(vals) + 1``, between which the curve takes on vals values. orientation : {'vertical', 'horizontal'}, default: 'vertical' The direction of the steps. Vertical means that *values* are along the y-axis, and edges are along the x-axis. baseline : float, array-like or None, default: 0 The bottom value of the bounding edges or when ``fill=True``, position of lower edge. If *fill* is True or an array is passed to *baseline*, a closed path is drawn. fill : bool, default: False Whether the area under the step curve should be filled. Returns ------- StepPatch : `matplotlib.patches.StepPatch` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs `~matplotlib.patches.StepPatch` properties """ if 'color' in kwargs: _color = kwargs.pop('color') else: _color = self._get_lines.get_next_color() if fill: kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', 'none') kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', _color) else: kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', _color) if edges is None: edges = np.arange(len(values) + 1) edges, values, baseline = self._process_unit_info( [("x", edges), ("y", values), ("y", baseline)], kwargs) patch = mpatches.StepPatch(values, edges, baseline=baseline, orientation=orientation, fill=fill, **kwargs) self.add_patch(patch) if baseline is None: baseline = 0 if orientation == 'vertical': patch.sticky_edges.y.append(np.min(baseline)) self.update_datalim([(edges[0], np.min(baseline))]) else: patch.sticky_edges.x.append(np.min(baseline)) self.update_datalim([(np.min(baseline), edges[0])]) self._request_autoscale_view() return patch
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y", "weights"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def hist2d(self, x, y, bins=10, range=None, density=False, weights=None, cmin=None, cmax=None, **kwargs): """ Make a 2D histogram plot. Parameters ---------- x, y : array-like, shape (n, ) Input values bins : None or int or [int, int] or array-like or [array, array] The bin specification: - If int, the number of bins for the two dimensions (nx=ny=bins). - If ``[int, int]``, the number of bins in each dimension (nx, ny = bins). - If array-like, the bin edges for the two dimensions (x_edges=y_edges=bins). - If ``[array, array]``, the bin edges in each dimension (x_edges, y_edges = bins). The default value is 10. range : array-like shape(2, 2), optional The leftmost and rightmost edges of the bins along each dimension (if not specified explicitly in the bins parameters): ``[[xmin, xmax], [ymin, ymax]]``. All values outside of this range will be considered outliers and not tallied in the histogram. density : bool, default: False Normalize histogram. See the documentation for the *density* parameter of `~.Axes.hist` for more details. weights : array-like, shape (n, ), optional An array of values w_i weighing each sample (x_i, y_i). cmin, cmax : float, default: None All bins that has count less than *cmin* or more than *cmax* will not be displayed (set to NaN before passing to imshow) and these count values in the return value count histogram will also be set to nan upon return. Returns ------- h : 2D array The bi-dimensional histogram of samples x and y. Values in x are histogrammed along the first dimension and values in y are histogrammed along the second dimension. xedges : 1D array The bin edges along the x axis. yedges : 1D array The bin edges along the y axis. image : `~.matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh` Other Parameters ---------------- cmap : Colormap or str, optional A `.colors.Colormap` instance. If not set, use rc settings. norm : Normalize, optional A `.colors.Normalize` instance is used to scale luminance data to ``[0, 1]``. If not set, defaults to `.colors.Normalize()`. vmin/vmax : None or scalar, optional Arguments passed to the `~.colors.Normalize` instance. alpha : ``0 <= scalar <= 1`` or ``None``, optional The alpha blending value. **kwargs Additional parameters are passed along to the `~.Axes.pcolormesh` method and `~matplotlib.collections.QuadMesh` constructor. See Also -------- hist : 1D histogram plotting Notes ----- - Currently ``hist2d`` calculates its own axis limits, and any limits previously set are ignored. - Rendering the histogram with a logarithmic color scale is accomplished by passing a `.colors.LogNorm` instance to the *norm* keyword argument. Likewise, power-law normalization (similar in effect to gamma correction) can be accomplished with `.colors.PowerNorm`. """ h, xedges, yedges = np.histogram2d(x, y, bins=bins, range=range, density=density, weights=weights) if cmin is not None: h[h < cmin] = None if cmax is not None: h[h > cmax] = None pc = self.pcolormesh(xedges, yedges, h.T, **kwargs) self.set_xlim(xedges[0], xedges[-1]) self.set_ylim(yedges[0], yedges[-1]) return h, xedges, yedges, pc
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def psd(self, x, NFFT=None, Fs=None, Fc=None, detrend=None, window=None, noverlap=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, scale_by_freq=None, return_line=None, **kwargs): r""" Plot the power spectral density. The power spectral density :math:`P_{xx}` by Welch's average periodogram method. The vector *x* is divided into *NFFT* length segments. Each segment is detrended by function *detrend* and windowed by function *window*. *noverlap* gives the length of the overlap between segments. The :math:`|\mathrm{fft}(i)|^2` of each segment :math:`i` are averaged to compute :math:`P_{xx}`, with a scaling to correct for power loss due to windowing. If len(*x*) < *NFFT*, it will be zero padded to *NFFT*. Parameters ---------- x : 1-D array or sequence Array or sequence containing the data %(Spectral)s %(PSD)s noverlap : int, default: 0 (no overlap) The number of points of overlap between segments. Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. return_line : bool, default: False Whether to include the line object plotted in the returned values. Returns ------- Pxx : 1-D array The values for the power spectrum :math:`P_{xx}` before scaling (real valued). freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the elements in *Pxx*. line : `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` The line created by this function. Only returned if *return_line* is True. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- specgram Differs in the default overlap; in not returning the mean of the segment periodograms; in returning the times of the segments; and in plotting a colormap instead of a line. magnitude_spectrum Plots the magnitude spectrum. csd Plots the spectral density between two signals. Notes ----- For plotting, the power is plotted as :math:`10\log_{10}(P_{xx})` for decibels, though *Pxx* itself is returned. References ---------- Bendat & Piersol -- Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, John Wiley & Sons (1986) """ if Fc is None: Fc = 0 pxx, freqs = mlab.psd(x=x, NFFT=NFFT, Fs=Fs, detrend=detrend, window=window, noverlap=noverlap, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides, scale_by_freq=scale_by_freq) freqs += Fc if scale_by_freq in (None, True): psd_units = 'dB/Hz' else: psd_units = 'dB' line = self.plot(freqs, 10 * np.log10(pxx), **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Power Spectral Density (%s)' % psd_units) self.grid(True) vmin, vmax = self.viewLim.intervaly intv = vmax - vmin logi = int(np.log10(intv)) if logi == 0: logi = .1 step = 10 * logi ticks = np.arange(math.floor(vmin), math.ceil(vmax) + 1, step) self.set_yticks(ticks) if return_line is None or not return_line: return pxx, freqs else: return pxx, freqs, line
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y"], label_namer="y") @docstring.dedent_interpd def csd(self, x, y, NFFT=None, Fs=None, Fc=None, detrend=None, window=None, noverlap=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, scale_by_freq=None, return_line=None, **kwargs): r""" Plot the cross-spectral density. The cross spectral density :math:`P_{xy}` by Welch's average periodogram method. The vectors *x* and *y* are divided into *NFFT* length segments. Each segment is detrended by function *detrend* and windowed by function *window*. *noverlap* gives the length of the overlap between segments. The product of the direct FFTs of *x* and *y* are averaged over each segment to compute :math:`P_{xy}`, with a scaling to correct for power loss due to windowing. If len(*x*) < *NFFT* or len(*y*) < *NFFT*, they will be zero padded to *NFFT*. Parameters ---------- x, y : 1-D arrays or sequences Arrays or sequences containing the data. %(Spectral)s %(PSD)s noverlap : int, default: 0 (no overlap) The number of points of overlap between segments. Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. return_line : bool, default: False Whether to include the line object plotted in the returned values. Returns ------- Pxy : 1-D array The values for the cross spectrum :math:`P_{xy}` before scaling (complex valued). freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the elements in *Pxy*. line : `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` The line created by this function. Only returned if *return_line* is True. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- psd : is equivalent to setting ``y = x``. Notes ----- For plotting, the power is plotted as :math:`10 \log_{10}(P_{xy})` for decibels, though :math:`P_{xy}` itself is returned. References ---------- Bendat & Piersol -- Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, John Wiley & Sons (1986) """ if Fc is None: Fc = 0 pxy, freqs = mlab.csd(x=x, y=y, NFFT=NFFT, Fs=Fs, detrend=detrend, window=window, noverlap=noverlap, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides, scale_by_freq=scale_by_freq) # pxy is complex freqs += Fc line = self.plot(freqs, 10 * np.log10(np.abs(pxy)), **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Cross Spectrum Magnitude (dB)') self.grid(True) vmin, vmax = self.viewLim.intervaly intv = vmax - vmin step = 10 * int(np.log10(intv)) ticks = np.arange(math.floor(vmin), math.ceil(vmax) + 1, step) self.set_yticks(ticks) if return_line is None or not return_line: return pxy, freqs else: return pxy, freqs, line
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def magnitude_spectrum(self, x, Fs=None, Fc=None, window=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, scale=None, **kwargs): """ Plot the magnitude spectrum. Compute the magnitude spectrum of *x*. Data is padded to a length of *pad_to* and the windowing function *window* is applied to the signal. Parameters ---------- x : 1-D array or sequence Array or sequence containing the data. %(Spectral)s %(Single_Spectrum)s scale : {'default', 'linear', 'dB'} The scaling of the values in the *spec*. 'linear' is no scaling. 'dB' returns the values in dB scale, i.e., the dB amplitude (20 * log10). 'default' is 'linear'. Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. Returns ------- spectrum : 1-D array The values for the magnitude spectrum before scaling (real valued). freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the elements in *spectrum*. line : `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` The line created by this function. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- psd Plots the power spectral density. angle_spectrum Plots the angles of the corresponding frequencies. phase_spectrum Plots the phase (unwrapped angle) of the corresponding frequencies. specgram Can plot the magnitude spectrum of segments within the signal in a colormap. """ if Fc is None: Fc = 0 spec, freqs = mlab.magnitude_spectrum(x=x, Fs=Fs, window=window, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides) freqs += Fc yunits = _api.check_getitem( {None: 'energy', 'default': 'energy', 'linear': 'energy', 'dB': 'dB'}, scale=scale) if yunits == 'energy': Z = spec else: # yunits == 'dB' Z = 20. * np.log10(spec) line, = self.plot(freqs, Z, **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Magnitude (%s)' % yunits) return spec, freqs, line
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def angle_spectrum(self, x, Fs=None, Fc=None, window=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, **kwargs): """ Plot the angle spectrum. Compute the angle spectrum (wrapped phase spectrum) of *x*. Data is padded to a length of *pad_to* and the windowing function *window* is applied to the signal. Parameters ---------- x : 1-D array or sequence Array or sequence containing the data. %(Spectral)s %(Single_Spectrum)s Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. Returns ------- spectrum : 1-D array The values for the angle spectrum in radians (real valued). freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the elements in *spectrum*. line : `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` The line created by this function. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- magnitude_spectrum Plots the magnitudes of the corresponding frequencies. phase_spectrum Plots the unwrapped version of this function. specgram Can plot the angle spectrum of segments within the signal in a colormap. """ if Fc is None: Fc = 0 spec, freqs = mlab.angle_spectrum(x=x, Fs=Fs, window=window, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides) freqs += Fc lines = self.plot(freqs, spec, **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Angle (radians)') return spec, freqs, lines[0]
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def phase_spectrum(self, x, Fs=None, Fc=None, window=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, **kwargs): """ Plot the phase spectrum. Compute the phase spectrum (unwrapped angle spectrum) of *x*. Data is padded to a length of *pad_to* and the windowing function *window* is applied to the signal. Parameters ---------- x : 1-D array or sequence Array or sequence containing the data %(Spectral)s %(Single_Spectrum)s Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. Returns ------- spectrum : 1-D array The values for the phase spectrum in radians (real valued). freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the elements in *spectrum*. line : `~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` The line created by this function. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s See Also -------- magnitude_spectrum Plots the magnitudes of the corresponding frequencies. angle_spectrum Plots the wrapped version of this function. specgram Can plot the phase spectrum of segments within the signal in a colormap. """ if Fc is None: Fc = 0 spec, freqs = mlab.phase_spectrum(x=x, Fs=Fs, window=window, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides) freqs += Fc lines = self.plot(freqs, spec, **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Phase (radians)') return spec, freqs, lines[0]
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x", "y"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def cohere(self, x, y, NFFT=256, Fs=2, Fc=0, detrend=mlab.detrend_none, window=mlab.window_hanning, noverlap=0, pad_to=None, sides='default', scale_by_freq=None, **kwargs): r""" Plot the coherence between *x* and *y*. Plot the coherence between *x* and *y*. Coherence is the normalized cross spectral density: .. math:: C_{xy} = \frac{|P_{xy}|^2}{P_{xx}P_{yy}} Parameters ---------- %(Spectral)s %(PSD)s noverlap : int, default: 0 (no overlap) The number of points of overlap between blocks. Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. Returns ------- Cxy : 1-D array The coherence vector. freqs : 1-D array The frequencies for the elements in *Cxy*. Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs Keyword arguments control the `.Line2D` properties: %(_Line2D_docstr)s References ---------- Bendat & Piersol -- Random Data: Analysis and Measurement Procedures, John Wiley & Sons (1986) """ cxy, freqs = mlab.cohere(x=x, y=y, NFFT=NFFT, Fs=Fs, detrend=detrend, window=window, noverlap=noverlap, scale_by_freq=scale_by_freq) freqs += Fc self.plot(freqs, cxy, **kwargs) self.set_xlabel('Frequency') self.set_ylabel('Coherence') self.grid(True) return cxy, freqs
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["x"]) @docstring.dedent_interpd def specgram(self, x, NFFT=None, Fs=None, Fc=None, detrend=None, window=None, noverlap=None, cmap=None, xextent=None, pad_to=None, sides=None, scale_by_freq=None, mode=None, scale=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, **kwargs): """ Plot a spectrogram. Compute and plot a spectrogram of data in *x*. Data are split into *NFFT* length segments and the spectrum of each section is computed. The windowing function *window* is applied to each segment, and the amount of overlap of each segment is specified with *noverlap*. The spectrogram is plotted as a colormap (using imshow). Parameters ---------- x : 1-D array or sequence Array or sequence containing the data. %(Spectral)s %(PSD)s mode : {'default', 'psd', 'magnitude', 'angle', 'phase'} What sort of spectrum to use. Default is 'psd', which takes the power spectral density. 'magnitude' returns the magnitude spectrum. 'angle' returns the phase spectrum without unwrapping. 'phase' returns the phase spectrum with unwrapping. noverlap : int, default: 128 The number of points of overlap between blocks. scale : {'default', 'linear', 'dB'} The scaling of the values in the *spec*. 'linear' is no scaling. 'dB' returns the values in dB scale. When *mode* is 'psd', this is dB power (10 * log10). Otherwise this is dB amplitude (20 * log10). 'default' is 'dB' if *mode* is 'psd' or 'magnitude' and 'linear' otherwise. This must be 'linear' if *mode* is 'angle' or 'phase'. Fc : int, default: 0 The center frequency of *x*, which offsets the x extents of the plot to reflect the frequency range used when a signal is acquired and then filtered and downsampled to baseband. cmap : `.Colormap`, default: :rc:`image.cmap` xextent : *None* or (xmin, xmax) The image extent along the x-axis. The default sets *xmin* to the left border of the first bin (*spectrum* column) and *xmax* to the right border of the last bin. Note that for *noverlap>0* the width of the bins is smaller than those of the segments. **kwargs Additional keyword arguments are passed on to `~.axes.Axes.imshow` which makes the specgram image. The origin keyword argument is not supported. Returns ------- spectrum : 2D array Columns are the periodograms of successive segments. freqs : 1-D array The frequencies corresponding to the rows in *spectrum*. t : 1-D array The times corresponding to midpoints of segments (i.e., the columns in *spectrum*). im : `.AxesImage` The image created by imshow containing the spectrogram. See Also -------- psd Differs in the default overlap; in returning the mean of the segment periodograms; in not returning times; and in generating a line plot instead of colormap. magnitude_spectrum A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when *mode* is 'magnitude'. Plots a line instead of a colormap. angle_spectrum A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when *mode* is 'angle'. Plots a line instead of a colormap. phase_spectrum A single spectrum, similar to having a single segment when *mode* is 'phase'. Plots a line instead of a colormap. Notes ----- The parameters *detrend* and *scale_by_freq* do only apply when *mode* is set to 'psd'. """ if NFFT is None: NFFT = 256 # same default as in mlab.specgram() if Fc is None: Fc = 0 # same default as in mlab._spectral_helper() if noverlap is None: noverlap = 128 # same default as in mlab.specgram() if Fs is None: Fs = 2 # same default as in mlab._spectral_helper() if mode == 'complex': raise ValueError('Cannot plot a complex specgram') if scale is None or scale == 'default': if mode in ['angle', 'phase']: scale = 'linear' else: scale = 'dB' elif mode in ['angle', 'phase'] and scale == 'dB': raise ValueError('Cannot use dB scale with angle or phase mode') spec, freqs, t = mlab.specgram(x=x, NFFT=NFFT, Fs=Fs, detrend=detrend, window=window, noverlap=noverlap, pad_to=pad_to, sides=sides, scale_by_freq=scale_by_freq, mode=mode) if scale == 'linear': Z = spec elif scale == 'dB': if mode is None or mode == 'default' or mode == 'psd': Z = 10. * np.log10(spec) else: Z = 20. * np.log10(spec) else: raise ValueError('Unknown scale %s', scale) Z = np.flipud(Z) if xextent is None: # padding is needed for first and last segment: pad_xextent = (NFFT-noverlap) / Fs / 2 xextent = np.min(t) - pad_xextent, np.max(t) + pad_xextent xmin, xmax = xextent freqs += Fc extent = xmin, xmax, freqs[0], freqs[-1] if 'origin' in kwargs: raise TypeError("specgram() got an unexpected keyword argument " "'origin'") im = self.imshow(Z, cmap, extent=extent, vmin=vmin, vmax=vmax, origin='upper', **kwargs) self.axis('auto') return spec, freqs, t, im
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def spy(self, Z, precision=0, marker=None, markersize=None, aspect='equal', origin="upper", **kwargs): """ Plot the sparsity pattern of a 2D array. This visualizes the non-zero values of the array. Two plotting styles are available: image and marker. Both are available for full arrays, but only the marker style works for `scipy.sparse.spmatrix` instances. **Image style** If *marker* and *markersize* are *None*, `~.Axes.imshow` is used. Any extra remaining keyword arguments are passed to this method. **Marker style** If *Z* is a `scipy.sparse.spmatrix` or *marker* or *markersize* are *None*, a `.Line2D` object will be returned with the value of marker determining the marker type, and any remaining keyword arguments passed to `~.Axes.plot`. Parameters ---------- Z : array-like (M, N) The array to be plotted. precision : float or 'present', default: 0 If *precision* is 0, any non-zero value will be plotted. Otherwise, values of :math:`|Z| > precision` will be plotted. For `scipy.sparse.spmatrix` instances, you can also pass 'present'. In this case any value present in the array will be plotted, even if it is identically zero. aspect : {'equal', 'auto', None} or float, default: 'equal' The aspect ratio of the axes. This parameter is particularly relevant for images since it determines whether data pixels are square. This parameter is a shortcut for explicitly calling `.Axes.set_aspect`. See there for further details. - 'equal': Ensures an aspect ratio of 1. Pixels will be square. - 'auto': The axes is kept fixed and the aspect is adjusted so that the data fit in the axes. In general, this will result in non-square pixels. - *None*: Use :rc:`image.aspect`. origin : {'upper', 'lower'}, default: :rc:`image.origin` Place the [0, 0] index of the array in the upper left or lower left corner of the axes. The convention 'upper' is typically used for matrices and images. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` or `.Line2D` The return type depends on the plotting style (see above). Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs The supported additional parameters depend on the plotting style. For the image style, you can pass the following additional parameters of `~.Axes.imshow`: - *cmap* - *alpha* - *url* - any `.Artist` properties (passed on to the `.AxesImage`) For the marker style, you can pass any `.Line2D` property except for *linestyle*: %(_Line2D_docstr)s """ if marker is None and markersize is None and hasattr(Z, 'tocoo'): marker = 's' _api.check_in_list(["upper", "lower"], origin=origin) if marker is None and markersize is None: Z = np.asarray(Z) mask = np.abs(Z) > precision if 'cmap' not in kwargs: kwargs['cmap'] = mcolors.ListedColormap(['w', 'k'], name='binary') if 'interpolation' in kwargs: raise TypeError( "spy() got an unexpected keyword argument 'interpolation'") ret = self.imshow(mask, interpolation='nearest', aspect=aspect, origin=origin, **kwargs) else: if hasattr(Z, 'tocoo'): c = Z.tocoo() if precision == 'present': y = c.row x = c.col else: nonzero = np.abs(c.data) > precision y = c.row[nonzero] x = c.col[nonzero] else: Z = np.asarray(Z) nonzero = np.abs(Z) > precision y, x = np.nonzero(nonzero) if marker is None: marker = 's' if markersize is None: markersize = 10 if 'linestyle' in kwargs: raise TypeError( "spy() got an unexpected keyword argument 'linestyle'") ret = mlines.Line2D( x, y, linestyle='None', marker=marker, markersize=markersize, **kwargs) self.add_line(ret) nr, nc = Z.shape self.set_xlim(-0.5, nc - 0.5) if origin == "upper": self.set_ylim(nr - 0.5, -0.5) else: self.set_ylim(-0.5, nr - 0.5) self.set_aspect(aspect) self.title.set_y(1.05) if origin == "upper": self.xaxis.tick_top() else: self.xaxis.tick_bottom() self.xaxis.set_ticks_position('both') self.xaxis.set_major_locator( mticker.MaxNLocator(nbins=9, steps=[1, 2, 5, 10], integer=True)) self.yaxis.set_major_locator( mticker.MaxNLocator(nbins=9, steps=[1, 2, 5, 10], integer=True)) return ret
[docs] def matshow(self, Z, **kwargs): """ Plot the values of a 2D matrix or array as color-coded image. The matrix will be shown the way it would be printed, with the first row at the top. Row and column numbering is zero-based. Parameters ---------- Z : array-like(M, N) The matrix to be displayed. Returns ------- `~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` Other Parameters ---------------- **kwargs : `~matplotlib.axes.Axes.imshow` arguments See Also -------- imshow : More general function to plot data on a 2D regular raster. Notes ----- This is just a convenience function wrapping `.imshow` to set useful defaults for displaying a matrix. In particular: - Set ``origin='upper'``. - Set ``interpolation='nearest'``. - Set ``aspect='equal'``. - Ticks are placed to the left and above. - Ticks are formatted to show integer indices. """ Z = np.asanyarray(Z) kw = {'origin': 'upper', 'interpolation': 'nearest', 'aspect': 'equal', # (already the imshow default) **kwargs} im = self.imshow(Z, **kw) self.title.set_y(1.05) self.xaxis.tick_top() self.xaxis.set_ticks_position('both') self.xaxis.set_major_locator( mticker.MaxNLocator(nbins=9, steps=[1, 2, 5, 10], integer=True)) self.yaxis.set_major_locator( mticker.MaxNLocator(nbins=9, steps=[1, 2, 5, 10], integer=True)) return im
[docs] @_preprocess_data(replace_names=["dataset"]) def violinplot(self, dataset, positions=None, vert=True, widths=0.5, showmeans=False, showextrema=True, showmedians=False, quantiles=None, points=100, bw_method=None): """ Make a violin plot. Make a violin plot for each column of *dataset* or each vector in sequence *dataset*. Each filled area extends to represent the entire data range, with optional lines at the mean, the median, the minimum, the maximum, and user-specified quantiles. Parameters ---------- dataset : Array or a sequence of vectors. The input data. positions : array-like, default: [1, 2, ..., n] The positions of the violins. The ticks and limits are automatically set to match the positions. vert : bool, default: True. If true, creates a vertical violin plot. Otherwise, creates a horizontal violin plot. widths : array-like, default: 0.5 Either a scalar or a vector that sets the maximal width of each violin. The default is 0.5, which uses about half of the available horizontal space. showmeans : bool, default: False If `True`, will toggle rendering of the means. showextrema : bool, default: True If `True`, will toggle rendering of the extrema. showmedians : bool, default: False If `True`, will toggle rendering of the medians. quantiles : array-like, default: None If not None, set a list of floats in interval [0, 1] for each violin, which stands for the quantiles that will be rendered for that violin. points : int, default: 100 Defines the number of points to evaluate each of the gaussian kernel density estimations at. bw_method : str, scalar or callable, optional The method used to calculate the estimator bandwidth. This can be 'scott', 'silverman', a scalar constant or a callable. If a scalar, this will be used directly as `kde.factor`. If a callable, it should take a `GaussianKDE` instance as its only parameter and return a scalar. If None (default), 'scott' is used. Returns ------- dict A dictionary mapping each component of the violinplot to a list of the corresponding collection instances created. The dictionary has the following keys: - ``bodies``: A list of the `~.collections.PolyCollection` instances containing the filled area of each violin. - ``cmeans``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the mean values of each of the violin's distribution. - ``cmins``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the bottom of each violin's distribution. - ``cmaxes``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the top of each violin's distribution. - ``cbars``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the centers of each violin's distribution. - ``cmedians``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the median values of each of the violin's distribution. - ``cquantiles``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance created to identify the quantile values of each of the violin's distribution. """ def _kde_method(X, coords): if hasattr(X, 'values'): # support pandas.Series X = X.values # fallback gracefully if the vector contains only one value if np.all(X[0] == X): return (X[0] == coords).astype(float) kde = mlab.GaussianKDE(X, bw_method) return kde.evaluate(coords) vpstats = cbook.violin_stats(dataset, _kde_method, points=points, quantiles=quantiles) return self.violin(vpstats, positions=positions, vert=vert, widths=widths, showmeans=showmeans, showextrema=showextrema, showmedians=showmedians)
[docs] def violin(self, vpstats, positions=None, vert=True, widths=0.5, showmeans=False, showextrema=True, showmedians=False): """ Drawing function for violin plots. Draw a violin plot for each column of *vpstats*. Each filled area extends to represent the entire data range, with optional lines at the mean, the median, the minimum, the maximum, and the quantiles values. Parameters ---------- vpstats : list of dicts A list of dictionaries containing stats for each violin plot. Required keys are: - ``coords``: A list of scalars containing the coordinates that the violin's kernel density estimate were evaluated at. - ``vals``: A list of scalars containing the values of the kernel density estimate at each of the coordinates given in *coords*. - ``mean``: The mean value for this violin's dataset. - ``median``: The median value for this violin's dataset. - ``min``: The minimum value for this violin's dataset. - ``max``: The maximum value for this violin's dataset. Optional keys are: - ``quantiles``: A list of scalars containing the quantile values for this violin's dataset. positions : array-like, default: [1, 2, ..., n] The positions of the violins. The ticks and limits are automatically set to match the positions. vert : bool, default: True. If true, plots the violins vertically. Otherwise, plots the violins horizontally. widths : array-like, default: 0.5 Either a scalar or a vector that sets the maximal width of each violin. The default is 0.5, which uses about half of the available horizontal space. showmeans : bool, default: False If true, will toggle rendering of the means. showextrema : bool, default: True If true, will toggle rendering of the extrema. showmedians : bool, default: False If true, will toggle rendering of the medians. Returns ------- dict A dictionary mapping each component of the violinplot to a list of the corresponding collection instances created. The dictionary has the following keys: - ``bodies``: A list of the `~.collections.PolyCollection` instances containing the filled area of each violin. - ``cmeans``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the mean values of each of the violin's distribution. - ``cmins``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the bottom of each violin's distribution. - ``cmaxes``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the top of each violin's distribution. - ``cbars``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the centers of each violin's distribution. - ``cmedians``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance that marks the median values of each of the violin's distribution. - ``cquantiles``: A `~.collections.LineCollection` instance created to identify the quantiles values of each of the violin's distribution. """ # Statistical quantities to be plotted on the violins means = [] mins = [] maxes = [] medians = [] quantiles = np.asarray([]) # Collections to be returned artists = {} N = len(vpstats) datashape_message = ("List of violinplot statistics and `{0}` " "values must have the same length") # Validate positions if positions is None: positions = range(1, N + 1) elif len(positions) != N: raise ValueError(datashape_message.format("positions")) # Validate widths if np.isscalar(widths): widths = [widths] * N elif len(widths) != N: raise ValueError(datashape_message.format("widths")) # Calculate ranges for statistics lines pmins = -0.25 * np.array(widths) + positions pmaxes = 0.25 * np.array(widths) + positions # Check whether we are rendering vertically or horizontally if vert: fill = self.fill_betweenx perp_lines = self.hlines par_lines = self.vlines else: fill = self.fill_between perp_lines = self.vlines par_lines = self.hlines if rcParams['_internal.classic_mode']: fillcolor = 'y' edgecolor = 'r' else: fillcolor = edgecolor = self._get_lines.get_next_color() # Render violins bodies = [] for stats, pos, width in zip(vpstats, positions, widths): # The 0.5 factor reflects the fact that we plot from v-p to # v+p vals = np.array(stats['vals']) vals = 0.5 * width * vals / vals.max() bodies += [fill(stats['coords'], -vals + pos, vals + pos, facecolor=fillcolor, alpha=0.3)] means.append(stats['mean']) mins.append(stats['min']) maxes.append(stats['max']) medians.append(stats['median']) q = stats.get('quantiles') if q is not None: # If exist key quantiles, assume it's a list of floats quantiles = np.concatenate((quantiles, q)) artists['bodies'] = bodies # Render means if showmeans: artists['cmeans'] = perp_lines(means, pmins, pmaxes, colors=edgecolor) # Render extrema if showextrema: artists['cmaxes'] = perp_lines(maxes, pmins, pmaxes, colors=edgecolor) artists['cmins'] = perp_lines(mins, pmins, pmaxes, colors=edgecolor) artists['cbars'] = par_lines(positions, mins, maxes, colors=edgecolor) # Render medians if showmedians: artists['cmedians'] = perp_lines(medians, pmins, pmaxes, colors=edgecolor) # Render quantile values if quantiles.size > 0: # Recalculate ranges for statistics lines for quantiles. # ppmins are the left end of quantiles lines ppmins = np.asarray([]) # pmaxes are the right end of quantiles lines ppmaxs = np.asarray([]) for stats, cmin, cmax in zip(vpstats, pmins, pmaxes): q = stats.get('quantiles') if q is not None: ppmins = np.concatenate((ppmins, [cmin] * np.size(q))) ppmaxs = np.concatenate((ppmaxs, [cmax] * np.size(q))) # Start rendering artists['cquantiles'] = perp_lines(quantiles, ppmins, ppmaxs, colors=edgecolor) return artists
# Methods that are entirely implemented in other modules. table = mtable.table # args can by either Y or y1, y2, ... and all should be replaced stackplot = _preprocess_data()(mstack.stackplot) streamplot = _preprocess_data( replace_names=["x", "y", "u", "v", "start_points"])(mstream.streamplot) tricontour = mtri.tricontour tricontourf = mtri.tricontourf tripcolor = mtri.tripcolor triplot = mtri.triplot