# Colormap Normalization¶

Objects that use colormaps by default linearly map the colors in the colormap from data values vmin to vmax. For example:

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(x, y, Z, vmin=-1., vmax=1., cmap='RdBu_r')


will map the data in Z linearly from -1 to +1, so Z=0 will give a color at the center of the colormap RdBu_r (white in this case).

Matplotlib does this mapping in two steps, with a normalization from the input data to [0, 1] occurring first, and then mapping onto the indices in the colormap. Normalizations are classes defined in the matplotlib.colors() module. The default, linear normalization is matplotlib.colors.Normalize().

Artists that map data to color pass the arguments vmin and vmax to construct a matplotlib.colors.Normalize() instance, then call it:

In : import matplotlib as mpl

In : norm = mpl.colors.Normalize(vmin=-1, vmax=1)

In : norm(0)
Out: 0.5


However, there are sometimes cases where it is useful to map data to colormaps in a non-linear fashion.

## Logarithmic¶

One of the most common transformations is to plot data by taking its logarithm (to the base-10). This transformation is useful to display changes across disparate scales. Using colors.LogNorm normalizes the data via $$log_{10}$$. In the example below, there are two bumps, one much smaller than the other. Using colors.LogNorm, the shape and location of each bump can clearly be seen:

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import matplotlib.colors as colors
import matplotlib.cbook as cbook
from matplotlib import cm

N = 100
X, Y = np.mgrid[-3:3:complex(0, N), -2:2:complex(0, N)]

# A low hump with a spike coming out of the top right.  Needs to have
# z/colour axis on a log scale so we see both hump and spike.  linear
# scale only shows the spike.
Z1 = np.exp(-X**2 - Y**2)
Z2 = np.exp(-(X * 10)**2 - (Y * 10)**2)
Z = Z1 + 50 * Z2

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 1)

pcm = ax.pcolor(X, Y, Z,
norm=colors.LogNorm(vmin=Z.min(), vmax=Z.max()),
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='max')

pcm = ax.pcolor(X, Y, Z, cmap='PuBu_r', shading='auto')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='max')
plt.show() ## Centered¶

In many cases, data is symmetrical around a center, for example, positive and negative anomalies around a center 0. In this case, we would like the center to be mapped to 0.5 and the datapoint with the largest deviation from the center to be mapped to 1.0, if its value is greater than the center, or 0.0 otherwise. The norm colors.CenteredNorm creates such a mapping automatically. It is well suited to be combined with a divergent colormap which uses different colors edges that meet in the center at an unsaturated color.

If the center of symmetry is different from 0, it can be set with the vcenter argument. For logarithmic scaling on both sides of the center, see colors.SymLogNorm below; to apply a different mapping above and below the center, use colors.TwoSlopeNorm below.

delta = 0.1
x = np.arange(-3.0, 4.001, delta)
y = np.arange(-4.0, 3.001, delta)
X, Y = np.meshgrid(x, y)
Z1 = np.exp(-X**2 - Y**2)
Z2 = np.exp(-(X - 1)**2 - (Y - 1)**2)
Z = (0.9*Z1 - 0.5*Z2) * 2

# select a divergent colormap
cmap = cm.coolwarm

fig, (ax1, ax2) = plt.subplots(ncols=2)
pc = ax1.pcolormesh(Z, cmap=cmap)
fig.colorbar(pc, ax=ax1)
ax1.set_title('Normalize()')

pc = ax2.pcolormesh(Z, norm=colors.CenteredNorm(), cmap=cmap)
fig.colorbar(pc, ax=ax2)
ax2.set_title('CenteredNorm()')

plt.show() ## Symmetric logarithmic¶

Similarly, it sometimes happens that there is data that is positive and negative, but we would still like a logarithmic scaling applied to both. In this case, the negative numbers are also scaled logarithmically, and mapped to smaller numbers; e.g., if vmin=-vmax, then the negative numbers are mapped from 0 to 0.5 and the positive from 0.5 to 1.

Since the logarithm of values close to zero tends toward infinity, a small range around zero needs to be mapped linearly. The parameter linthresh allows the user to specify the size of this range (-linthresh, linthresh). The size of this range in the colormap is set by linscale. When linscale == 1.0 (the default), the space used for the positive and negative halves of the linear range will be equal to one decade in the logarithmic range.

N = 100
X, Y = np.mgrid[-3:3:complex(0, N), -2:2:complex(0, N)]
Z1 = np.exp(-X**2 - Y**2)
Z2 = np.exp(-(X - 1)**2 - (Y - 1)**2)
Z = (Z1 - Z2) * 2

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 1)

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z,
norm=colors.SymLogNorm(linthresh=0.03, linscale=0.03,
vmin=-1.0, vmax=1.0, base=10),
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='both')

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z, cmap='RdBu_r', vmin=-np.max(Z), shading='auto')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='both')
plt.show() ## Power-law¶

Sometimes it is useful to remap the colors onto a power-law relationship (i.e. $$y=x^{\gamma}$$, where $$\gamma$$ is the power). For this we use the colors.PowerNorm. It takes as an argument gamma (gamma == 1.0 will just yield the default linear normalization):

Note

There should probably be a good reason for plotting the data using this type of transformation. Technical viewers are used to linear and logarithmic axes and data transformations. Power laws are less common, and viewers should explicitly be made aware that they have been used.

N = 100
X, Y = np.mgrid[0:3:complex(0, N), 0:2:complex(0, N)]
Z1 = (1 + np.sin(Y * 10.)) * X**2

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 1, constrained_layout=True)

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z1, norm=colors.PowerNorm(gamma=0.5),
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='max')
ax.set_title('PowerNorm()')

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z1, cmap='PuBu_r', shading='auto')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='max')
ax.set_title('Normalize()')
plt.show() ## Discrete bounds¶

Another normalization that comes with Matplotlib is colors.BoundaryNorm. In addition to vmin and vmax, this takes as arguments boundaries between which data is to be mapped. The colors are then linearly distributed between these "bounds". It can also take an extend argument to add upper and/or lower out-of-bounds values to the range over which the colors are distributed. For instance:

In : import matplotlib.colors as colors

In : bounds = np.array([-0.25, -0.125, 0, 0.5, 1])

In : norm = colors.BoundaryNorm(boundaries=bounds, ncolors=4)

In : print(norm([-0.2, -0.15, -0.02, 0.3, 0.8, 0.99]))
[0 0 1 2 3 3]


Note: Unlike the other norms, this norm returns values from 0 to ncolors-1.

N = 100
X, Y = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(-3, 3, N), np.linspace(-2, 2, N))
Z1 = np.exp(-X**2 - Y**2)
Z2 = np.exp(-(X - 1)**2 - (Y - 1)**2)
Z = ((Z1 - Z2) * 2)[:-1, :-1]

fig, ax = plt.subplots(2, 2, figsize=(8, 6), constrained_layout=True)
ax = ax.flatten()

# Default norm:
pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z, cmap='RdBu_r')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, orientation='vertical')
ax.set_title('Default norm')

# Even bounds give a contour-like effect:
bounds = np.linspace(-1.5, 1.5, 7)
norm = colors.BoundaryNorm(boundaries=bounds, ncolors=256)
pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z, norm=norm, cmap='RdBu_r')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='both', orientation='vertical')
ax.set_title('BoundaryNorm: 7 boundaries')

# Bounds may be unevenly spaced:
bounds = np.array([-0.2, -0.1, 0, 0.5, 1])
norm = colors.BoundaryNorm(boundaries=bounds, ncolors=256)
pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z, norm=norm, cmap='RdBu_r')
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, extend='both', orientation='vertical')
ax.set_title('BoundaryNorm: nonuniform')

# With out-of-bounds colors:
bounds = np.linspace(-1.5, 1.5, 7)
norm = colors.BoundaryNorm(boundaries=bounds, ncolors=256, extend='both')
pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z, norm=norm, cmap='RdBu_r')
# The colorbar inherits the "extend" argument from BoundaryNorm.
fig.colorbar(pcm, ax=ax, orientation='vertical')
ax.set_title('BoundaryNorm: extend="both"')
plt.show() ## TwoSlopeNorm: Different mapping on either side of a center¶

Sometimes we want to have a different colormap on either side of a conceptual center point, and we want those two colormaps to have different linear scales. An example is a topographic map where the land and ocean have a center at zero, but land typically has a greater elevation range than the water has depth range, and they are often represented by a different colormap.

dem = cbook.get_sample_data('topobathy.npz', np_load=True)
topo = dem['topo']
longitude = dem['longitude']
latitude = dem['latitude']

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
# make a colormap that has land and ocean clearly delineated and of the
# same length (256 + 256)
colors_undersea = plt.cm.terrain(np.linspace(0, 0.17, 256))
colors_land = plt.cm.terrain(np.linspace(0.25, 1, 256))
all_colors = np.vstack((colors_undersea, colors_land))
terrain_map = colors.LinearSegmentedColormap.from_list(
'terrain_map', all_colors)

# make the norm:  Note the center is offset so that the land has more
# dynamic range:
divnorm = colors.TwoSlopeNorm(vmin=-500., vcenter=0, vmax=4000)

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(longitude, latitude, topo, rasterized=True, norm=divnorm,
# Simple geographic plot, set aspect ratio beecause distance between lines of
# longitude depends on latitude.
ax.set_title('TwoSlopeNorm(x)')
fig.colorbar(pcm, shrink=0.6)
plt.show() ## FuncNorm: Arbitrary function normalization¶

If the above norms do not provide the normalization you want, you can use FuncNorm to define your own. Note that this example is the same as PowerNorm with a power of 0.5:

def _forward(x):
return np.sqrt(x)

def _inverse(x):
return x**2

N = 100
X, Y = np.mgrid[0:3:complex(0, N), 0:2:complex(0, N)]
Z1 = (1 + np.sin(Y * 10.)) * X**2
fig, ax = plt.subplots()

norm = colors.FuncNorm((_forward, _inverse), vmin=0, vmax=20)
pcm = ax.pcolormesh(X, Y, Z1, norm=norm, cmap='PuBu_r', shading='auto')
ax.set_title('FuncNorm(x)')
fig.colorbar(pcm, shrink=0.6)
plt.show() ## Custom normalization: Manually implement two linear ranges¶

The TwoSlopeNorm described above makes a useful example for defining your own norm.

class MidpointNormalize(colors.Normalize):
def __init__(self, vmin=None, vmax=None, vcenter=None, clip=False):
self.vcenter = vcenter
super().__init__(vmin, vmax, clip)

def __call__(self, value, clip=None):
# I'm ignoring masked values and all kinds of edge cases to make a
# simple example...
x, y = [self.vmin, self.vcenter, self.vmax], [0, 0.5, 1]

fig, ax = plt.subplots()
midnorm = MidpointNormalize(vmin=-500., vcenter=0, vmax=4000)

pcm = ax.pcolormesh(longitude, latitude, topo, rasterized=True, norm=midnorm, 