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Source code for matplotlib

This is an object-oriented plotting library.

A procedural interface is provided by the companion pyplot module,
which may be imported directly, e.g.::

    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

or using ipython::


at your terminal, followed by::

    In [1]: %matplotlib
    In [2]: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

at the ipython shell prompt.

For the most part, direct use of the object-oriented library is
encouraged when programming; pyplot is primarily for working
interactively.  The
exceptions are the pyplot commands :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.figure`,
:func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.subplots`, and
:func:`~pyplot.savefig`, which can greatly simplify scripting.

Modules include:

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` class.  Most pyplot
        commands are wrappers for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`
        methods.  The axes module is the highest level of OO access to
        the library.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.figure.Figure` class.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist` base class for
        all classes that draw things.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` class for
        drawing lines and markers

        defines classes for drawing polygons

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text`,
        :class:`~matplotlib.text.TextWithDash`, and
        :class:`~matplotlib.text.Annotate` classes

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` and
        :class:`~matplotlib.image.FigureImage` classes

        classes for efficient drawing of groups of lines or polygons

        classes for interpreting color specifications and for making

        colormaps and the :class:`~matplotlib.image.ScalarMappable`
        mixin class for providing color mapping functionality to other

        classes for calculating tick mark locations and for formatting
        tick labels

        a subpackage with modules for various gui libraries and output

The base matplotlib namespace includes:

        a global dictionary of default configuration settings.  It is
        initialized by code which may be overridden by a matplotlibrc

        a function for setting groups of rcParams values

        a function for setting the matplotlib backend.  If used, this
        function must be called immediately after importing matplotlib
        for the first time.  In particular, it must be called
        **before** importing pyplot (if pyplot is imported).

matplotlib was initially written by John D. Hunter (1968-2012) and is now
developed and maintained by a host of others.

Occasionally the internal documentation (python docstrings) will refer
to MATLAB®, a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.

# NOTE: This file must remain Python 2 compatible for the foreseeable future,
# to ensure that we error out properly for existing editable installs.

import sys
if sys.version_info < (3, 5):  # noqa: E402
    raise ImportError("""
Matplotlib 3.0+ does not support Python 2.x, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, or 3.4.
Beginning with Matplotlib 3.0, Python 3.5 and above is required.

See Matplotlib `INSTALL.rst` file for more information:


import atexit
from collections import namedtuple
from import MutableMapping
import contextlib
from distutils.version import LooseVersion
import functools
import importlib
import inspect
from inspect import Parameter
import locale
import logging
import os
from pathlib import Path
import pprint
import re
import shutil
import subprocess
import tempfile

# cbook must import matplotlib only within function
# definitions, so it is safe to import from it here.
from . import cbook, rcsetup
from matplotlib.cbook import (
    MatplotlibDeprecationWarning, dedent, get_label, sanitize_sequence)
from matplotlib.cbook import mplDeprecation  # deprecated
from matplotlib.rcsetup import defaultParams, validate_backend, cycler

import numpy

# Get the version from the versioneer file. For a git checkout,
# this is computed based on the number of commits since the last tag.
from ._version import get_versions
__version__ = str(get_versions()['version'])
del get_versions

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

__bibtex__ = r"""@Article{Hunter:2007,
  Author    = {Hunter, J. D.},
  Title     = {Matplotlib: A 2D graphics environment},
  Journal   = {Computing in Science \& Engineering},
  Volume    = {9},
  Number    = {3},
  Pages     = {90--95},
  abstract  = {Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python
  for application development, interactive scripting, and
  publication-quality image generation across user
  interfaces and operating systems.},
  publisher = {IEEE COMPUTER SOC},
  year      = 2007

def compare_versions(a, b):
    "Return whether version *a* is greater than or equal to version *b*."
    if isinstance(a, bytes):
            "3.0", message="compare_versions arguments should be strs.")
        a = a.decode('ascii')
    if isinstance(b, bytes):
            "3.0", message="compare_versions arguments should be strs.")
        b = b.decode('ascii')
    if a:
        return LooseVersion(a) >= LooseVersion(b)
        return False

def _check_versions():
    for modname, minver in [
            ("cycler", "0.10"),
            ("dateutil", "2.1"),
            ("kiwisolver", "1.0.1"),
            ("numpy", "1.11"),
            ("pyparsing", "2.0.1"),
        module = importlib.import_module(modname)
        if LooseVersion(module.__version__) < minver:
            raise ImportError("Matplotlib requires {}>={}; you have {}"
                              .format(modname, minver, module.__version__))


if not hasattr(sys, 'argv'):  # for modpython
    sys.argv = ['modpython']

# The decorator ensures this always returns the same handler (and it is only
# attached once).
def _ensure_handler():
    The first time this function is called, attach a `StreamHandler` using the
    same format as `logging.basicConfig` to the Matplotlib root logger.

    Return this handler every time this function is called.
    handler = logging.StreamHandler()
    return handler

[docs]def set_loglevel(level): """ Sets the Matplotlib's root logger and root logger handler level, creating the handler if it does not exist yet. Typically, one should call ``set_loglevel("info")`` or ``set_loglevel("debug")`` to get additional debugging information. Parameters ---------- level : {"notset", "debug", "info", "warning", "error", "critical"} The log level of the handler. Notes ----- The first time this function is called, an additional handler is attached to Matplotlib's root handler; this handler is reused every time and this function simply manipulates the logger and handler's level. """ _log.setLevel(level.upper()) _ensure_handler().setLevel(level.upper())
def _logged_cached(fmt, func=None): """ Decorator that logs a function's return value, and memoizes that value. After :: @_logged_cached(fmt) def func(): ... the first call to *func* will log its return value at the DEBUG level using %-format string *fmt*, and memoize it; later calls to *func* will directly return that value. """ if func is None: # Return the actual decorator. return functools.partial(_logged_cached, fmt) called = False ret = None @functools.wraps(func) def wrapper(): nonlocal called, ret if not called: ret = func() called = True _log.debug(fmt, ret) return ret return wrapper _ExecInfo = namedtuple("_ExecInfo", "executable version") @functools.lru_cache() def _get_executable_info(name): """ Get the version of some executable that Matplotlib optionally depends on. .. warning: The list of executables that this function supports is set according to Matplotlib's internal needs, and may change without notice. Parameters ---------- name : str The executable to query. The following values are currently supported: "dvipng", "gs", "inkscape", "magick", "pdftops". This list is subject to change without notice. Returns ------- If the executable is found, a namedtuple with fields ``executable`` (`str`) and ``version`` (`distutils.version.LooseVersion`, or ``None`` if the version cannot be determined). Raises ------ FileNotFoundError If the executable is not found or older than the oldest version supported by Matplotlib. ValueError If the executable is not one that we know how to query. """ def impl(args, regex, min_ver=None): # Execute the subprocess specified by args; capture stdout and stderr. # Search for a regex match in the output; if the match succeeds, the # first group of the match is the version. # Return an _ExecInfo if the executable exists, and has a version of # at least min_ver (if set); else, raise FileNotFoundError. output = subprocess.check_output( args, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT, universal_newlines=True) match =, output) if match: version = LooseVersion( if min_ver is not None and version < min_ver: raise FileNotFoundError( f"You have {args[0]} version {version} but the minimum " f"version supported by Matplotlib is {min_ver}.") return _ExecInfo(args[0], version) else: raise FileNotFoundError( f"Failed to determine the version of {args[0]} from " f"{' '.join(args)}, which output {output}") if name == "dvipng": return impl(["dvipng", "-version"], "(?m)^dvipng .* (.+)", "1.6") elif name == "gs": execs = (["gswin32c", "gswin64c", "mgs", "gs"] # "mgs" for miktex. if sys.platform == "win32" else ["gs"]) for e in execs: try: return impl([e, "--version"], "(.*)", "9") except FileNotFoundError: pass raise FileNotFoundError("Failed to find a Ghostscript installation") elif name == "inkscape": return impl(["inkscape", "-V"], "^Inkscape ([^ ]*)") elif name == "magick": path = None if sys.platform == "win32": # Check the registry to avoid confusing ImageMagick's convert with # Windows's builtin convert.exe. import winreg binpath = "" for flag in [0, winreg.KEY_WOW64_32KEY, winreg.KEY_WOW64_64KEY]: try: with winreg.OpenKeyEx( winreg.HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, r"Software\Imagemagick\Current", 0, winreg.KEY_QUERY_VALUE | flag) as hkey: binpath = winreg.QueryValueEx(hkey, "BinPath")[0] except OSError: pass if binpath: for name in ["convert.exe", "magick.exe"]: candidate = Path(binpath, name) if candidate.exists(): path = str(candidate) break else: path = "convert" if path is None: raise FileNotFoundError( "Failed to find an ImageMagick installation") return impl([path, "--version"], r"^Version: ImageMagick (\S*)") elif name == "pdftops": info = impl(["pdftops", "-v"], "^pdftops version (.*)") if info and not ("3.0" <= info.version # poppler version numbers. or "0.9" <= info.version <= "1.0"): raise FileNotFoundError( f"You have pdftops version {info.version} but the minimum " f"version supported by Matplotlib is 3.0.") return info else: raise ValueError("Unknown executable: {!r}".format(name)) @cbook.deprecated("3.1") def checkdep_dvipng(): try: s = subprocess.Popen(['dvipng', '-version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) stdout, stderr = s.communicate() line = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')[1] v = line.split()[-1] return v except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError): return None @cbook.deprecated("3.1") def checkdep_ghostscript(): if checkdep_ghostscript.executable is None: if sys.platform == 'win32': # mgs is the name in miktex gs_execs = ['gswin32c', 'gswin64c', 'mgs', 'gs'] else: gs_execs = ['gs'] for gs_exec in gs_execs: try: s = subprocess.Popen( [gs_exec, '--version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) stdout, stderr = s.communicate() if s.returncode == 0: v = stdout[:-1].decode('ascii') if compare_versions(v, '9.0'): checkdep_ghostscript.executable = gs_exec checkdep_ghostscript.version = v except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError): pass return checkdep_ghostscript.executable, checkdep_ghostscript.version checkdep_ghostscript.executable = None checkdep_ghostscript.version = None @cbook.deprecated("3.1") def checkdep_pdftops(): try: s = subprocess.Popen(['pdftops', '-v'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) stdout, stderr = s.communicate() lines = stderr.decode('ascii').split('\n') for line in lines: if 'version' in line: v = line.split()[-1] return v except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError): return None @cbook.deprecated("3.1") def checkdep_inkscape(): if checkdep_inkscape.version is None: try: s = subprocess.Popen(['inkscape', '-V'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE) stdout, stderr = s.communicate() lines = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n') for line in lines: if 'Inkscape' in line: v = line.split()[1] break checkdep_inkscape.version = v except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError): pass return checkdep_inkscape.version checkdep_inkscape.version = None def checkdep_ps_distiller(s): if not s: return False try: _get_executable_info("gs") except FileNotFoundError: _log.warning( "Setting rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] requires ghostscript.") return False if s == "xpdf": try: _get_executable_info("pdftops") except FileNotFoundError: _log.warning( "Setting rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] to 'xpdf' requires xpdf.") return False return s def checkdep_usetex(s): if not s: return False if not shutil.which("tex"): _log.warning("usetex mode requires TeX.") return False try: _get_executable_info("dvipng") except FileNotFoundError: _log.warning("usetex mode requires dvipng.") return False try: _get_executable_info("gs") except FileNotFoundError: _log.warning("usetex mode requires ghostscript.") return False return True @_logged_cached('$HOME=%s') def get_home(): """ Return the user's home directory. If the user's home directory cannot be found, return None. """ try: return str(Path.home()) except Exception: return None def _create_tmp_config_or_cache_dir(): """ If the config or cache directory cannot be created, create a temporary one. """ configdir = os.environ['MPLCONFIGDIR'] = ( tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix='matplotlib-')) atexit.register(shutil.rmtree, configdir) return configdir def _get_xdg_config_dir(): """ Return the XDG configuration directory, according to the `XDG base directory spec <>`_. """ return (os.environ.get('XDG_CONFIG_HOME') or (str(Path(get_home(), ".config")) if get_home() else None)) def _get_xdg_cache_dir(): """ Return the XDG cache directory, according to the `XDG base directory spec <>`_. """ return (os.environ.get('XDG_CACHE_HOME') or (str(Path(get_home(), ".cache")) if get_home() else None)) def _get_config_or_cache_dir(xdg_base): configdir = os.environ.get('MPLCONFIGDIR') if configdir: configdir = Path(configdir).resolve() elif sys.platform.startswith(('linux', 'freebsd')) and xdg_base: configdir = Path(xdg_base, "matplotlib") elif get_home(): configdir = Path(get_home(), ".matplotlib") else: configdir = None if configdir: try: configdir.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True) except OSError: pass else: if os.access(str(configdir), os.W_OK) and configdir.is_dir(): return str(configdir) return _create_tmp_config_or_cache_dir() @_logged_cached('CONFIGDIR=%s') def get_configdir(): """ Return the string representing the configuration directory. The directory is chosen as follows: 1. If the MPLCONFIGDIR environment variable is supplied, choose that. 2a. On Linux, follow the XDG specification and look first in `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME`, if defined, or `$HOME/.config`. 2b. On other platforms, choose `$HOME/.matplotlib`. 3. If the chosen directory exists and is writable, use that as the configuration directory. 4. If possible, create a temporary directory, and use it as the configuration directory. 5. A writable directory could not be found or created; return None. """ return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_config_dir()) @_logged_cached('CACHEDIR=%s') def get_cachedir(): """ Return the location of the cache directory. The procedure used to find the directory is the same as for _get_config_dir, except using `$XDG_CACHE_HOME`/`~/.cache` instead. """ return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_cache_dir()) def _get_data_path(): 'get the path to matplotlib data' if 'MATPLOTLIBDATA' in os.environ: path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBDATA'] if not os.path.isdir(path): raise RuntimeError('Path in environment MATPLOTLIBDATA not a ' 'directory') cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.1", name="MATPLOTLIBDATA", obj_type="environment variable") return path def get_candidate_paths(): yield Path(__file__).with_name('mpl-data') # setuptools' namespace_packages may hijack this init file # so need to try something known to be in Matplotlib, not basemap. import matplotlib.afm yield Path(matplotlib.afm.__file__).with_name('mpl-data') # py2exe zips pure python, so still need special check. if getattr(sys, 'frozen', None): yield Path(sys.executable).with_name('mpl-data') # Try again assuming we need to step up one more directory. yield Path(sys.executable).parent.with_name('mpl-data') # Try again assuming sys.path[0] is a dir not a exe. yield Path(sys.path[0]) / 'mpl-data' for path in get_candidate_paths(): if path.is_dir(): return str(path) raise RuntimeError('Could not find the matplotlib data files') @_logged_cached('matplotlib data path: %s') def get_data_path(): if defaultParams['datapath'][0] is None: defaultParams['datapath'][0] = _get_data_path() return defaultParams['datapath'][0] @cbook.deprecated("3.1") def get_py2exe_datafiles(): data_path = Path(get_data_path()) d = {} for path in filter(Path.is_file, data_path.glob("**/*")): (d.setdefault(str(path.parent.relative_to(data_path.parent)), []) .append(str(path))) return list(d.items())
[docs]def matplotlib_fname(): """ Get the location of the config file. The file location is determined in the following order - ``$PWD/matplotlibrc`` - ``$MATPLOTLIBRC`` if it is not a directory - ``$MATPLOTLIBRC/matplotlibrc`` - ``$MPLCONFIGDIR/matplotlibrc`` - On Linux, - ``$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/matplotlib/matplotlibrc`` (if ``$XDG_CONFIG_HOME`` is defined) - or ``$HOME/.config/matplotlib/matplotlibrc`` (if ``$XDG_CONFIG_HOME`` is not defined) - On other platforms, - ``$HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc`` if ``$HOME`` is defined - Lastly, it looks in ``$MATPLOTLIBDATA/matplotlibrc``, which should always exist. """ def gen_candidates(): yield os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'matplotlibrc') try: matplotlibrc = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBRC'] except KeyError: pass else: yield matplotlibrc yield os.path.join(matplotlibrc, 'matplotlibrc') yield os.path.join(get_configdir(), 'matplotlibrc') yield os.path.join(get_data_path(), 'matplotlibrc') for fname in gen_candidates(): if os.path.exists(fname) and not os.path.isdir(fname): return fname raise RuntimeError("Could not find matplotlibrc file; your Matplotlib " "install is broken")
# rcParams deprecated and automatically mapped to another key. # Values are tuples of (version, new_name, f_old2new, f_new2old). _deprecated_map = {} # rcParams deprecated; some can manually be mapped to another key. # Values are tuples of (version, new_name_or_None). _deprecated_ignore_map = { 'pgf.debug': ('3.0', None), } # rcParams deprecated; can use None to suppress warnings; remain actually # listed in the rcParams (not included in _all_deprecated). # Values are tuples of (version,) _deprecated_remain_as_none = { 'text.latex.unicode': ('3.0',), 'savefig.frameon': ('3.1',), 'verbose.fileo': ('3.1',), 'verbose.level': ('3.1',), } _all_deprecated = {*_deprecated_map, *_deprecated_ignore_map}
[docs]class RcParams(MutableMapping, dict): """ A dictionary object including validation validating functions are defined and associated with rc parameters in :mod:`matplotlib.rcsetup` """ validate = {key: converter for key, (default, converter) in defaultParams.items() if key not in _all_deprecated} @cbook.deprecated("3.0") @property def msg_depr(self): return "%s is deprecated and replaced with %s; please use the latter." @cbook.deprecated("3.0") @property def msg_depr_ignore(self): return "%s is deprecated and ignored. Use %s instead." @cbook.deprecated("3.0") @property def msg_depr_set(self): return ("%s is deprecated. Please remove it from your matplotlibrc " "and/or style files.") @cbook.deprecated("3.0") @property def msg_obsolete(self): return ("%s is obsolete. Please remove it from your matplotlibrc " "and/or style files.") @cbook.deprecated("3.0") @property def msg_backend_obsolete(self): return ("The {} rcParam was deprecated in version 2.2. In order to " "force the use of a specific Qt binding, either import that " "binding first, or set the QT_API environment variable.") # validate values on the way in def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): self.update(*args, **kwargs) def __setitem__(self, key, val): try: if key in _deprecated_map: version, alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) key = alt_key val = alt_val(val) elif key in _deprecated_remain_as_none and val is not None: version, = _deprecated_remain_as_none[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam") elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return elif key == '': cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.0", name=key, obj_type="rcparam", addendum="In the " "future, examples will be found relative to the " "'datapath' directory.") elif key == 'backend': if val is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: if 'backend' in self: return try: cval = self.validate[key](val) except ValueError as ve: raise ValueError("Key %s: %s" % (key, str(ve))) dict.__setitem__(self, key, cval) except KeyError: raise KeyError( f"{key} is not a valid rc parameter (see rcParams.keys() for " f"a list of valid parameters)") def __getitem__(self, key): if key in _deprecated_map: version, alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return inverse_alt(dict.__getitem__(self, alt_key)) elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return dict.__getitem__(self, alt_key) if alt_key else None elif key == '': cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.0", name=key, obj_type="rcparam", addendum="In the future, " "examples will be found relative to the 'datapath' directory.") elif key == "backend": val = dict.__getitem__(self, key) if val is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: from matplotlib import pyplot as plt plt.switch_backend(rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel) return dict.__getitem__(self, key) def __repr__(self): class_name = self.__class__.__name__ indent = len(class_name) + 1 repr_split = pprint.pformat(dict(self), indent=1, width=80 - indent).split('\n') repr_indented = ('\n' + ' ' * indent).join(repr_split) return '{}({})'.format(class_name, repr_indented) def __str__(self): return '\n'.join(map('{0[0]}: {0[1]}'.format, sorted(self.items()))) def __iter__(self): """Yield sorted list of keys.""" with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): yield from sorted(dict.__iter__(self)) def __len__(self): return dict.__len__(self)
[docs] def find_all(self, pattern): """ Return the subset of this RcParams dictionary whose keys match, using :func:``, the given ``pattern``. .. note:: Changes to the returned dictionary are *not* propagated to the parent RcParams dictionary. """ pattern_re = re.compile(pattern) return RcParams((key, value) for key, value in self.items() if
[docs] def copy(self): return {k: dict.__getitem__(self, k) for k in self}
[docs]def rc_params(fail_on_error=False): """Return a :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` instance from the default matplotlib rc file. """ return rc_params_from_file(matplotlib_fname(), fail_on_error)
URL_REGEX = re.compile(r'http://|https://|ftp://|file://|file:\\') def is_url(filename): """Return True if string is an http, ftp, or file URL path.""" return URL_REGEX.match(filename) is not None @contextlib.contextmanager def _open_file_or_url(fname): if is_url(fname): import urllib.request with urllib.request.urlopen(fname) as f: yield (line.decode('utf-8') for line in f) else: fname = os.path.expanduser(fname) encoding = locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False) if encoding is None: encoding = "utf-8" with open(fname, encoding=encoding) as f: yield f _error_details_fmt = 'line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file "%s"' def _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error=False): """Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file. Unlike `rc_params_from_file`, the configuration class only contains the parameters specified in the file (i.e. default values are not filled in). """ cnt = 0 rc_temp = {} with _open_file_or_url(fname) as fd: try: for line in fd: cnt += 1 strippedline = line.split('#', 1)[0].strip() if not strippedline: continue tup = strippedline.split(':', 1) if len(tup) != 2: error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname) _log.warning('Illegal %s', error_details) continue key, val = tup key = key.strip() val = val.strip() if key in rc_temp: _log.warning('Duplicate key in file %r line #%d.', fname, cnt) rc_temp[key] = (val, line, cnt) except UnicodeDecodeError: _log.warning('Cannot decode configuration file %s with encoding ' '%s, check LANG and LC_* variables.', fname, locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False) or 'utf-8 (default)') raise config = RcParams() for key, (val, line, cnt) in rc_temp.items(): if key in defaultParams: if fail_on_error: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise else: try: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip except Exception as msg: error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname) _log.warning('Bad val %r on %s\n\t%s', val, error_details, msg) elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, alternative=alt_key, addendum="Please update your matplotlibrc.") else: print(""" Bad key "%s" on line %d in %s. You probably need to get an updated matplotlibrc file from or from the matplotlib source distribution""" % (key, cnt, fname), file=sys.stderr) return config
[docs]def rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error=False, use_default_template=True): """Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file. Parameters ---------- fname : str Name of file parsed for matplotlib settings. fail_on_error : bool If True, raise an error when the parser fails to convert a parameter. use_default_template : bool If True, initialize with default parameters before updating with those in the given file. If False, the configuration class only contains the parameters specified in the file. (Useful for updating dicts.) """ config_from_file = _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error) if not use_default_template: return config_from_file iter_params = defaultParams.items() with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): config = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, _) in iter_params if key not in _all_deprecated]) config.update(config_from_file) if config['datapath'] is None: config['datapath'] = get_data_path() if "".join(config['text.latex.preamble']):""" ***************************************************************** You have the following UNSUPPORTED LaTeX preamble customizations: %s Please do not ask for support with these customizations active. ***************************************************************** """, '\n'.join(config['text.latex.preamble'])) _log.debug('loaded rc file %s', fname) return config
# this is the instance used by the matplotlib classes rcParams = rc_params() # Don't trigger deprecation warning when just fetching. if dict.__getitem__(rcParams, ''): # paths that are intended to be relative to matplotlib_fname() # are allowed for the parameter. # However, we will need to fully qualify the path because # Sphinx requires absolute paths. if not os.path.isabs(rcParams['']): _basedir, _fname = os.path.split(matplotlib_fname()) # Sometimes matplotlib_fname() can return relative paths, # Also, using realpath() guarantees that Sphinx will use # the same path that matplotlib sees (in case of weird symlinks). _basedir = os.path.realpath(_basedir) _fullpath = os.path.join(_basedir, rcParams['']) rcParams[''] = _fullpath with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): rcParamsOrig = RcParams(rcParams.copy()) rcParamsDefault = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, converter) in defaultParams.items() if key not in _all_deprecated]) rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] = checkdep_ps_distiller( rcParams['ps.usedistiller']) if rcParams['axes.formatter.use_locale']: locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, '')
[docs]def rc(group, **kwargs): """ Set the current rc params. *group* is the grouping for the rc, e.g., for ``lines.linewidth`` the group is ``lines``, for ``axes.facecolor``, the group is ``axes``, and so on. Group may also be a list or tuple of group names, e.g., (*xtick*, *ytick*). *kwargs* is a dictionary attribute name/value pairs, e.g.,:: rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r') sets the current rc params and is equivalent to:: rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2 rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r' The following aliases are available to save typing for interactive users: ===== ================= Alias Property ===== ================= 'lw' 'linewidth' 'ls' 'linestyle' 'c' 'color' 'fc' 'facecolor' 'ec' 'edgecolor' 'mew' 'markeredgewidth' 'aa' 'antialiased' ===== ================= Thus you could abbreviate the above rc command as:: rc('lines', lw=2, c='r') Note you can use python's kwargs dictionary facility to store dictionaries of default parameters. e.g., you can customize the font rc as follows:: font = {'family' : 'monospace', 'weight' : 'bold', 'size' : 'larger'} rc('font', **font) # pass in the font dict as kwargs This enables you to easily switch between several configurations. Use ``'default')`` or :func:`~matplotlib.rcdefaults` to restore the default rc params after changes. """ aliases = { 'lw': 'linewidth', 'ls': 'linestyle', 'c': 'color', 'fc': 'facecolor', 'ec': 'edgecolor', 'mew': 'markeredgewidth', 'aa': 'antialiased', } if isinstance(group, str): group = (group,) for g in group: for k, v in kwargs.items(): name = aliases.get(k) or k key = '%s.%s' % (g, name) try: rcParams[key] = v except KeyError: raise KeyError(('Unrecognized key "%s" for group "%s" and ' 'name "%s"') % (key, g, name))
[docs]def rcdefaults(): """ Restore the rc params from Matplotlib's internal default style. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. See Also -------- rc_file_defaults Restore the rc params from the rc file originally loaded by Matplotlib. : Use a specific style file. Call ``style.use('default')`` to restore the default style. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled when creating rcParamsDefault, # no need to reemit them here. with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rcParams.clear() rcParams.update({k: v for k, v in rcParamsDefault.items() if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]def rc_file_defaults(): """ Restore the rc params from the original rc file loaded by Matplotlib. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled when creating rcParamsOrig, no # need to reemit them here. with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rcParams.update({k: rcParamsOrig[k] for k in rcParamsOrig if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]def rc_file(fname, *, use_default_template=True): """ Update rc params from file. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. Parameters ---------- fname : str Name of file parsed for matplotlib settings. use_default_template : bool If True, initialize with default parameters before updating with those in the given file. If False, the current configuration persists and only the parameters specified in the file are updated. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled in rc_params_from_file, no need # to reemit them here. with cbook._suppress_matplotlib_deprecation_warning(): from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rc_from_file = rc_params_from_file( fname, use_default_template=use_default_template) rcParams.update({k: rc_from_file[k] for k in rc_from_file if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]class rc_context: """ Return a context manager for managing rc settings. This allows one to do:: with mpl.rc_context(fname='screen.rc'): plt.plot(x, a) with mpl.rc_context(fname='print.rc'): plt.plot(x, b) plt.plot(x, c) The 'a' vs 'x' and 'c' vs 'x' plots would have settings from 'screen.rc', while the 'b' vs 'x' plot would have settings from 'print.rc'. A dictionary can also be passed to the context manager:: with mpl.rc_context(rc={'text.usetex': True}, fname='screen.rc'): plt.plot(x, a) The 'rc' dictionary takes precedence over the settings loaded from 'fname'. Passing a dictionary only is also valid. For example a common usage is:: with mpl.rc_context(rc={'interactive': False}): fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.plot(range(3), range(3)) fig.savefig('A.png', format='png') plt.close(fig) """ # While it may seem natural to implement rc_context using # contextlib.contextmanager, that would entail always calling the finally: # clause of the contextmanager (which restores the original rcs) including # during garbage collection; as a result, something like `plt.xkcd(); # gc.collect()` would result in the style being lost (as `xkcd()` is # implemented on top of rc_context, and nothing is holding onto context # manager except possibly circular references. def __init__(self, rc=None, fname=None): self._orig = rcParams.copy() try: if fname: rc_file(fname) if rc: rcParams.update(rc) except Exception: self.__fallback() raise def __fallback(self): # If anything goes wrong, revert to the original rcs. updated_backend = self._orig['backend'] dict.update(rcParams, self._orig) # except for the backend. If the context block triggered resolving # the auto backend resolution keep that value around if self._orig['backend'] is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: rcParams['backend'] = updated_backend def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, exc_tb): self.__fallback()
[docs]@cbook._rename_parameter("3.1", "arg", "backend") def use(backend, warn=False, force=True): """ Select the backend used for rendering and GUI integration. Parameters ---------- backend : str The backend to switch to. This can either be one of the standard backend names, which are case-insensitive: - interactive backends: GTK3Agg, GTK3Cairo, MacOSX, nbAgg, Qt4Agg, Qt4Cairo, Qt5Agg, Qt5Cairo, TkAgg, TkCairo, WebAgg, WX, WXAgg, WXCairo - non-interactive backends: agg, cairo, pdf, pgf, ps, svg, template or a string of the form: ``module://``. warn : bool, optional, default: False If True and not *force*, warn that the call will have no effect if this is called after pyplot has been imported and a backend is set up. force : bool, optional, default: True If True, attempt to switch the backend. An ImportError is raised if an interactive backend is selected, but another interactive backend has already started. See Also -------- :ref:`backends` matplotlib.get_backend """ name = validate_backend(backend) if dict.__getitem__(rcParams, 'backend') == name: # Nothing to do if the requested backend is already set pass elif 'matplotlib.pyplot' in sys.modules: # pyplot has already been imported (which triggered backend selection) # and the requested backend is different from the current one. # If we are going to force the switch, never warn, else, if warn # is True, then direct users to `plt.switch_backend` if (not force) and warn: cbook._warn_external( "matplotlib.pyplot has already been imported, " "this call will have no effect.") # if we are going to force switching the backend, pull in # `switch_backend` from pyplot. This will only happen if # pyplot is already imported. if force: from matplotlib.pyplot import switch_backend switch_backend(name) else: # Finally if pyplot is not imported update both rcParams and # rcDefaults so restoring the defaults later with rcdefaults # won't change the backend. This is a bit of overkill as 'backend' # is already in style.core.STYLE_BLACKLIST, but better to be safe. rcParams['backend'] = rcParamsDefault['backend'] = name
if os.environ.get('MPLBACKEND'): rcParams['backend'] = os.environ.get('MPLBACKEND')
[docs]def get_backend(): """ Return the name of the current backend. See Also -------- matplotlib.use """ return rcParams['backend']
[docs]def interactive(b): """ Set interactive mode to boolean b. If b is True, then draw after every plotting command, e.g., after xlabel """ rcParams['interactive'] = b
[docs]def is_interactive(): 'Return true if plot mode is interactive' return rcParams['interactive']
@cbook.deprecated("3.1", alternative="rcParams['tk.window_focus']") def tk_window_focus(): """Return true if focus maintenance under TkAgg on win32 is on. This currently works only for python.exe and IPython.exe. Both IDLE and Pythonwin.exe fail badly when tk_window_focus is on.""" if rcParams['backend'] != 'TkAgg': return False return rcParams['tk.window_focus'] default_test_modules = [ 'matplotlib.tests', 'matplotlib.sphinxext.tests', 'mpl_toolkits.tests', ] def _init_tests(): # CPython's faulthandler since v3.6 handles exceptions on Windows # but until v3.6.4 it was printing # non-fatal exceptions import platform if not (sys.platform == 'win32' and (3, 6) < sys.version_info < (3, 6, 4) and platform.python_implementation() == 'CPython'): import faulthandler faulthandler.enable() # The version of FreeType to install locally for running the # tests. This must match the value in `` LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION = '2.6.1' from matplotlib import ft2font if (ft2font.__freetype_version__ != LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION or ft2font.__freetype_build_type__ != 'local'): _log.warning( "Matplotlib is not built with the correct FreeType version to run " "tests. Set local_freetype=True in setup.cfg and rebuild. " "Expect many image comparison failures below. " "Expected freetype version {0}. " "Found freetype version {1}. " "Freetype build type is {2}local".format( LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION, ft2font.__freetype_version__, "" if ft2font.__freetype_build_type__ == 'local' else "not ")) try: import pytest except ImportError: print("matplotlib.test requires pytest to run.") raise def test(verbosity=None, coverage=False, switch_backend_warn=True, recursionlimit=0, **kwargs): """Run the matplotlib test suite.""" _init_tests() if not os.path.isdir(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'tests')): raise ImportError("Matplotlib test data is not installed") old_backend = get_backend() old_recursionlimit = sys.getrecursionlimit() try: use('agg') if recursionlimit: sys.setrecursionlimit(recursionlimit) import pytest args = kwargs.pop('argv', []) provide_default_modules = True use_pyargs = True for arg in args: if any(arg.startswith(module_path) for module_path in default_test_modules): provide_default_modules = False break if os.path.exists(arg): provide_default_modules = False use_pyargs = False break if use_pyargs: args += ['--pyargs'] if provide_default_modules: args += default_test_modules if coverage: args += ['--cov'] if verbosity: args += ['-' + 'v' * verbosity] retcode = pytest.main(args, **kwargs) finally: if old_backend.lower() != 'agg': use(old_backend, warn=switch_backend_warn) if recursionlimit: sys.setrecursionlimit(old_recursionlimit) return retcode test.__test__ = False # pytest: this function is not a test def _replacer(data, value): """ Either returns ``data[value]`` or passes ``data`` back, converts either to a sequence. """ try: # if key isn't a string don't bother if isinstance(value, str): # try to use __getitem__ value = data[value] except Exception: # key does not exist, silently fall back to key pass return sanitize_sequence(value) def _label_from_arg(y, default_name): try: return except AttributeError: if isinstance(default_name, str): return default_name return None _DATA_DOC_TITLE = """ Notes ----- """ _DATA_DOC_APPENDIX = """ .. note:: In addition to the above described arguments, this function can take a **data** keyword argument. If such a **data** argument is given, the following arguments are replaced by **data[<arg>]**: {replaced} Objects passed as **data** must support item access (``data[<arg>]``) and membership test (``<arg> in data``). """ def _add_data_doc(docstring, replace_names): """Add documentation for a *data* field to the given docstring. Parameters ---------- docstring : str The input docstring. replace_names : list of str or None The list of parameter names which arguments should be replaced by ``data[name]`` (if ``data[name]`` does not throw an exception). If None, replacement is attempted for all arguments. Returns ------- The augmented docstring. """ docstring = inspect.cleandoc(docstring) if docstring is not None else "" repl = ("* All positional and all keyword arguments." if replace_names is None else "" if len(replace_names) == 0 else "* All arguments with the following names: {}.".format( ", ".join(map(repr, sorted(replace_names))))) addendum = _DATA_DOC_APPENDIX.format(replaced=repl) if _DATA_DOC_TITLE not in docstring: addendum = _DATA_DOC_TITLE + addendum return docstring + addendum def _preprocess_data(func=None, *, replace_names=None, label_namer=None): """ A decorator to add a 'data' kwarg to a function. :: @_preprocess_data() def func(ax, *args, **kwargs): ... is a function with signature ``decorated(ax, *args, data=None, **kwargs)`` with the following behavior: - if called with ``data=None``, forward the other arguments to ``func``; - otherwise, *data* must be a mapping; for any argument passed in as a string ``name``, replace the argument by ``data[name]`` (if this does not throw an exception), then forward the arguments to ``func``. In either case, any argument that is a `MappingView` is also converted to a list. Parameters ---------- replace_names : list of str or None, optional, default: None The list of parameter names for which lookup into *data* should be attempted. If None, replacement is attempted for all arguments. label_namer : string, optional, default: None If set e.g. to "namer" (which must be a kwarg in the function's signature -- not as ``**kwargs``), if the *namer* argument passed in is a (string) key of *data* and no *label* kwarg is passed, then use the (string) value of the *namer* as *label*. :: @_preprocess_data(label_namer="foo") def func(foo, label=None): ... func("key", data={"key": value}) # is equivalent to func.__wrapped__(value, label="key") """ if func is None: # Return the actual decorator. return functools.partial( _preprocess_data, replace_names=replace_names, label_namer=label_namer) sig = inspect.signature(func) varargs_name = None varkwargs_name = None arg_names = [] params = list(sig.parameters.values()) for p in params: if p.kind is Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL: varargs_name = elif p.kind is Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD: varkwargs_name = else: arg_names.append( data_param = Parameter("data", Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY, default=None) if varkwargs_name: params.insert(-1, data_param) else: params.append(data_param) new_sig = sig.replace(parameters=params) arg_names = arg_names[1:] # remove the first "ax" / self arg if replace_names is not None: replace_names = set(replace_names) assert (replace_names or set()) <= set(arg_names) or varkwargs_name, ( "Matplotlib internal error: invalid replace_names ({!r}) for {!r}" .format(replace_names, func.__name__)) assert label_namer is None or label_namer in arg_names, ( "Matplotlib internal error: invalid label_namer ({!r}) for {!r}" .format(label_namer, func.__name__)) @functools.wraps(func) def inner(ax, *args, data=None, **kwargs): if data is None: return func(ax, *map(sanitize_sequence, args), **kwargs) bound = new_sig.bind(ax, *args, **kwargs) needs_label = (label_namer and "label" not in bound.arguments and "label" not in bound.kwargs) auto_label = (bound.arguments.get(label_namer) or bound.kwargs.get(label_namer)) for k, v in bound.arguments.items(): if k == varkwargs_name: for k1, v1 in v.items(): if replace_names is None or k1 in replace_names: v[k1] = _replacer(data, v1) elif k == varargs_name: if replace_names is None: bound.arguments[k] = tuple(_replacer(data, v1) for v1 in v) else: if replace_names is None or k in replace_names: bound.arguments[k] = _replacer(data, v) bound.apply_defaults() del bound.arguments["data"] if needs_label: all_kwargs = {**bound.arguments, **bound.kwargs} # label_namer will be in all_kwargs as we asserted above that # `label_namer is None or label_namer in arg_names`. label = _label_from_arg(all_kwargs[label_namer], auto_label) if "label" in arg_names: bound.arguments["label"] = label try: bound.arguments.move_to_end(varkwargs_name) except KeyError: pass else: bound.arguments.setdefault(varkwargs_name, {})["label"] = label return func(*bound.args, **bound.kwargs) inner.__doc__ = _add_data_doc(inner.__doc__, replace_names) inner.__signature__ = new_sig return inner _log.debug('matplotlib version %s', __version__) _log.debug('interactive is %s', is_interactive()) _log.debug('platform is %s', sys.platform) _log.debug('loaded modules: %s', list(sys.modules))