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Source code for matplotlib

This is an object-oriented plotting library.

A procedural interface is provided by the companion pyplot module,
which may be imported directly, e.g.::

    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

or using ipython::


at your terminal, followed by::

    In [1]: %matplotlib
    In [2]: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

at the ipython shell prompt.

For the most part, direct use of the object-oriented library is
encouraged when programming; pyplot is primarily for working
interactively.  The
exceptions are the pyplot commands :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.figure`,
:func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.subplots`, and
:func:`~pyplot.savefig`, which can greatly simplify scripting.

Modules include:

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` class.  Most pyplot
        commands are wrappers for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`
        methods.  The axes module is the highest level of OO access to
        the library.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.figure.Figure` class.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist` base class for
        all classes that draw things.

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.lines.Line2D` class for
        drawing lines and markers

        defines classes for drawing polygons

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text`,
        :class:`~matplotlib.text.TextWithDash`, and
        :class:`~matplotlib.text.Annotate` classes

        defines the :class:`~matplotlib.image.AxesImage` and
        :class:`~matplotlib.image.FigureImage` classes

        classes for efficient drawing of groups of lines or polygons

        classes for interpreting color specifications and for making

        colormaps and the :class:`~matplotlib.image.ScalarMappable`
        mixin class for providing color mapping functionality to other

        classes for calculating tick mark locations and for formatting
        tick labels

        a subpackage with modules for various gui libraries and output

The base matplotlib namespace includes:

        a global dictionary of default configuration settings.  It is
        initialized by code which may be overridden by a matplotlibrc

        a function for setting groups of rcParams values

        a function for setting the matplotlib backend.  If used, this
        function must be called immediately after importing matplotlib
        for the first time.  In particular, it must be called
        **before** importing pyplot (if pyplot is imported).

matplotlib was initially written by John D. Hunter (1968-2012) and is now
developed and maintained by a host of others.

Occasionally the internal documentation (python docstrings) will refer
to MATLAB®, a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc.

# NOTE: This file must remain Python 2 compatible for the foreseeable future,
# to ensure that we error out properly for existing editable installs.

import sys
if sys.version_info < (3, 5):  # noqa: E402
    raise ImportError("""
Matplotlib 3.0+ does not support Python 2.x, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, or 3.4.
Beginning with Matplotlib 3.0, Python 3.5 and above is required.

See Matplotlib `INSTALL.rst` file for more information:


import atexit
from import MutableMapping
import contextlib
import distutils.version
import functools
import io
import importlib
import inspect
from inspect import Parameter
import locale
import logging
import os
from pathlib import Path
import pprint
import re
import shutil
import stat
import subprocess
import tempfile
import urllib.request
import warnings

# cbook must import matplotlib only within function
# definitions, so it is safe to import from it here.
from . import cbook, rcsetup
from matplotlib.cbook import (
    MatplotlibDeprecationWarning, dedent, get_label, sanitize_sequence)
from matplotlib.cbook import mplDeprecation  # deprecated
from matplotlib.rcsetup import defaultParams, validate_backend, cycler

import numpy

# Get the version from the versioneer file. For a git checkout,
# this is computed based on the number of commits since the last tag.
from ._version import get_versions
__version__ = str(get_versions()['version'])
del get_versions

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

__version__numpy__ = '1.10.0'  # minimum required numpy version

__bibtex__ = r"""@Article{Hunter:2007,
  Author    = {Hunter, J. D.},
  Title     = {Matplotlib: A 2D graphics environment},
  Journal   = {Computing In Science \& Engineering},
  Volume    = {9},
  Number    = {3},
  Pages     = {90--95},
  abstract  = {Matplotlib is a 2D graphics package used for Python
  for application development, interactive scripting, and
  publication-quality image generation across user
  interfaces and operating systems.},
  publisher = {IEEE COMPUTER SOC},
  year      = 2007

def compare_versions(a, b):
    "return True if a is greater than or equal to b"
    if isinstance(a, bytes):
            "3.0", "compare_version arguments should be strs.")
        a = a.decode('ascii')
    if isinstance(b, bytes):
            "3.0", "compare_version arguments should be strs.")
        b = b.decode('ascii')
    if a:
        a = distutils.version.LooseVersion(a)
        b = distutils.version.LooseVersion(b)
        return a >= b
        return False

    import dateutil
except ImportError:
    raise ImportError("Matplotlib requires dateutil")

    import pyparsing
except ImportError:
    raise ImportError("Matplotlib requires pyparsing")
    if not compare_versions(pyparsing.__version__, '2.0.1'):
        raise ImportError(
            "Matplotlib requires pyparsing>=2.0.1; you have %s"
            % pyparsing.__version__)

if not compare_versions(numpy.__version__, __version__numpy__):
    raise ImportError(
        "Matplotlib requires numpy>=%s; you have %s" % (
            __version__numpy__, numpy.__version__))

if not hasattr(sys, 'argv'):  # for modpython
    sys.argv = ['modpython']

_verbose_msg = """\
matplotlib.verbose is deprecated;
Command line argument --verbose-LEVEL is deprecated.
This functionality is now provided by the standard
python logging library.  To get more (or less) logging output:
    import logging
    logger = logging.getLogger('matplotlib')

def _set_logger_verbose_level(level_str='silent', file_str='sys.stdout'):
    Use a --verbose-LEVEL level to set the logging level:

    levelmap = {'silent': logging.WARNING, 'helpful': logging.INFO,
                'debug': logging.DEBUG, 'debug-annoying': logging.DEBUG,
                'info': logging.INFO, 'warning': logging.WARNING}
    # Check that current state of logger isn't already more verbose
    # than the requested level.  If it is more verbose, then leave more
    # verbose.
    newlev = levelmap[level_str]
    oldlev = _log.getEffectiveLevel()
    if newlev < oldlev:
        std = {
            'sys.stdout': sys.stdout,
            'sys.stderr': sys.stderr,
        if file_str in std:
            fileo = std[file_str]
            fileo = sys.stdout
                fileo = open(file_str, 'w')
                # if this fails, we will just write to stdout
            except IOError:
                warnings.warn('could not open log file "{0}"'
                              'for writing.  Check your '
        console = logging.StreamHandler(fileo)

def _parse_commandline():
    Check for --verbose-LEVEL type command line arguments and
    set logging level appropriately.

    levels = ('silent', 'helpful', 'debug', 'debug-annoying',
              'info', 'warning')

    for arg in sys.argv[1:]:
        if arg.startswith('--verbose-'):
            level_str = arg[10:]
            # If it doesn't match one of ours, then don't even
            # bother noting it, we are just a 3rd-party library
            # to somebody else's script.
            if level_str in levels:


class Verbose(object):
    A class to handle reporting.  Set the fileo attribute to any file
    instance to handle the output.  Default is sys.stdout
    levels = ('silent', 'helpful', 'debug', 'debug-annoying')
    vald = {level: i for i, level in enumerate(levels)}

    # parse the verbosity from the command line; flags look like
    # --verbose-silent or --verbose-helpful
    _commandLineVerbose = None

    for arg in sys.argv[1:]:
        if not arg.startswith('--verbose-'):
        level_str = arg[10:]
        # If it doesn't match one of ours, then don't even
        # bother noting it, we are just a 3rd-party library
        # to somebody else's script.
        if level_str in levels:
            _commandLineVerbose = level_str

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def __init__(self):
        self.fileo = sys.stdout

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def set_level(self, level):
        'set the verbosity to one of the Verbose.levels strings'

        if self._commandLineVerbose is not None:
            level = self._commandLineVerbose
        if level not in self.levels:
            warnings.warn('matplotlib: unrecognized --verbose-* string "%s".'
                          ' Legal values are %s' % (level, self.levels))
            self.level = level

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def set_fileo(self, fname):
        std = {
            'sys.stdout': sys.stdout,
            'sys.stderr': sys.stderr,
        if fname in std:
            self.fileo = std[fname]
                fileo = open(fname, 'w')
            except IOError:
                raise ValueError('Verbose object could not open log file "{0}"'
                                 ' for writing.\nCheck your matplotlibrc '
                                 'verbose.fileo setting'.format(fname))
                self.fileo = fileo

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def report(self, s, level='helpful'):
        print message s to self.fileo if self.level>=level.  Return
        value indicates whether a message was issued

            print(s, file=self.fileo)
            return True
        return False

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def wrap(self, fmt, func, level='helpful', always=True):
        return a callable function that wraps func and reports it
        output through the verbose handler if current verbosity level
        is higher than level

        if always is True, the report will occur on every function
        call; otherwise only on the first time the function is called
        assert callable(func)

        def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
            ret = func(*args, **kwargs)

            if (always or not wrapper._spoke):
                spoke = % ret, level)
                if not wrapper._spoke:
                    wrapper._spoke = spoke
            return ret
        wrapper._spoke = False
        wrapper.__doc__ = func.__doc__
        return wrapper

    @cbook.deprecated("2.2", message=_verbose_msg)
    def ge(self, level):
        'return true if self.level is >= level'
        return self.vald[self.level] >= self.vald[level]

with warnings.catch_warnings():
    verbose = Verbose()

def _logged_cached(fmt, func=None):
    Decorator that logs a function's return value, and memoizes that value.

    After ::

        def func(): ...

    the first call to *func* will log its return value at the DEBUG level using
    %-format string *fmt*, and memoize it; later calls to *func* will directly
    return that value.
    if func is None:  # Return the actual decorator.
        return functools.partial(_logged_cached, fmt)

    called = False
    ret = None

    def wrapper():
        nonlocal called, ret
        if not called:
            ret = func()
            called = True
            _log.debug(fmt, ret)
        return ret

    return wrapper

def checkdep_dvipng():
        s = subprocess.Popen(['dvipng', '-version'],
        stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
        line = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')[1]
        v = line.split()[-1]
        return v
    except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
        return None

def checkdep_ghostscript():
    if checkdep_ghostscript.executable is None:
        if sys.platform == 'win32':
            # mgs is the name in miktex
            gs_execs = ['gswin32c', 'gswin64c', 'mgs', 'gs']
            gs_execs = ['gs']
        for gs_exec in gs_execs:
                s = subprocess.Popen(
                    [gs_exec, '--version'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
                stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
                if s.returncode == 0:
                    v = stdout[:-1].decode('ascii')
                    checkdep_ghostscript.executable = gs_exec
                    checkdep_ghostscript.version = v
            except (IndexError, ValueError, OSError):
    return checkdep_ghostscript.executable, checkdep_ghostscript.version
checkdep_ghostscript.executable = None
checkdep_ghostscript.version = None

def checkdep_pdftops():
        s = subprocess.Popen(['pdftops', '-v'], stdout=subprocess.PIPE,
        stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
        lines = stderr.decode('ascii').split('\n')
        for line in lines:
            if 'version' in line:
                v = line.split()[-1]
        return v
    except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
        return None

def checkdep_inkscape():
    if checkdep_inkscape.version is None:
            s = subprocess.Popen(['inkscape', '-V'],
            stdout, stderr = s.communicate()
            lines = stdout.decode('ascii').split('\n')
            for line in lines:
                if 'Inkscape' in line:
                    v = line.split()[1]
            checkdep_inkscape.version = v
        except (IndexError, ValueError, UnboundLocalError, OSError):
    return checkdep_inkscape.version
checkdep_inkscape.version = None

def checkdep_ps_distiller(s):
    if not s:
        return False

    flag = True
    gs_req = '8.60'
    gs_exec, gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
    if not compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):
        flag = False
        warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller option can not be used '
                       'unless ghostscript-%s or later is installed on your '
                       'system') % gs_req)

    if s == 'xpdf':
        pdftops_req = '3.0'
        pdftops_req_alt = '0.9'  # poppler version numbers, ugh
        pdftops_v = checkdep_pdftops()
        if compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req):
        elif (compare_versions(pdftops_v, pdftops_req_alt) and not
              compare_versions(pdftops_v, '1.0')):
            flag = False
            warnings.warn(('matplotlibrc ps.usedistiller can not be set to '
                           'xpdf unless xpdf-%s or later is installed on '
                           'your system') % pdftops_req)

    if flag:
        return s
        return False

def checkdep_usetex(s):
    if not s:
        return False

    gs_req = '9.00'
    dvipng_req = '1.6'
    flag = True

    if shutil.which("tex") is None:
        flag = False
        warnings.warn('matplotlibrc text.usetex option can not be used unless '
                      'TeX is installed on your system')

    dvipng_v = checkdep_dvipng()
    if not compare_versions(dvipng_v, dvipng_req):
        flag = False
        warnings.warn('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used with *Agg '
                      'backend unless dvipng-%s or later is installed on '
                      'your system' % dvipng_req)

    gs_exec, gs_v = checkdep_ghostscript()
    if not compare_versions(gs_v, gs_req):
        flag = False
        warnings.warn('matplotlibrc text.usetex can not be used unless '
                      'ghostscript-%s or later is installed on your system'
                      % gs_req)

    return flag

def get_home():
    Return the user's home directory.

    If the user's home directory cannot be found, return None.
        return str(Path.home())
    except Exception:
        return None

def _create_tmp_config_dir():
    If the config directory can not be created, create a temporary directory.
    configdir = os.environ['MPLCONFIGDIR'] = (
    atexit.register(shutil.rmtree, configdir)
    return configdir

def _get_xdg_config_dir():
    Returns the XDG configuration directory, according to the `XDG
    base directory spec
    return (os.environ.get('XDG_CONFIG_HOME')
            or (str(Path(get_home(), ".config"))
                if get_home()
                else None))

def _get_xdg_cache_dir():
    Returns the XDG cache directory, according to the `XDG
    base directory spec
    return (os.environ.get('XDG_CACHE_HOME')
            or (str(Path(get_home(), ".cache"))
                if get_home()
                else None))

def _get_config_or_cache_dir(xdg_base):
    configdir = os.environ.get('MPLCONFIGDIR')
    if configdir:
        configdir = Path(configdir).resolve()
    elif sys.platform.startswith(('linux', 'freebsd')) and xdg_base:
        configdir = Path(xdg_base, "matplotlib")
    elif get_home():
        configdir = Path(get_home(), ".matplotlib")
        configdir = None

    if configdir:
            configdir.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True)
        except OSError:
            if os.access(str(configdir), os.W_OK) and configdir.is_dir():
                return str(configdir)

    return _create_tmp_config_dir()

def get_configdir():
    Return the string representing the configuration directory.

    The directory is chosen as follows:

    1. If the MPLCONFIGDIR environment variable is supplied, choose that.
    2a. On Linux, follow the XDG specification and look first in
        `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME`, if defined, or `$HOME/.config`.
    2b. On other platforms, choose `$HOME/.matplotlib`.
    3. If the chosen directory exists and is writable, use that as the
       configuration directory.
    4. If possible, create a temporary directory, and use it as the
       configuration directory.
    5. A writable directory could not be found or created; return None.
    return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_config_dir())

def get_cachedir():
    Return the location of the cache directory.

    The procedure used to find the directory is the same as for
    _get_config_dir, except using `$XDG_CACHE_HOME`/`~/.cache` instead.
    return _get_config_or_cache_dir(_get_xdg_cache_dir())

def _get_data_path():
    'get the path to matplotlib data'

    if 'MATPLOTLIBDATA' in os.environ:
        path = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBDATA']
        if not os.path.isdir(path):
            raise RuntimeError('Path in environment MATPLOTLIBDATA not a '
        return path

    def get_candidate_paths():
        yield Path(__file__).with_name('mpl-data')
        # setuptools' namespace_packages may highjack this init file
        # so need to try something known to be in Matplotlib, not basemap.
        import matplotlib.afm
        yield Path(matplotlib.afm.__file__).with_name('mpl-data')
        # py2exe zips pure python, so still need special check.
        if getattr(sys, 'frozen', None):
            yield Path(sys.executable).with_name('mpl-data')
            # Try again assuming we need to step up one more directory.
            yield Path(sys.executable).parent.with_name('mpl-data')
            # Try again assuming sys.path[0] is a dir not a exe.
            yield Path(sys.path[0]) / 'mpl-data'

    for path in get_candidate_paths():
        if path.is_dir():
            return str(path)

    raise RuntimeError('Could not find the matplotlib data files')

@_logged_cached('matplotlib data path: %s')
def get_data_path():
    if defaultParams['datapath'][0] is None:
        defaultParams['datapath'][0] = _get_data_path()
    return defaultParams['datapath'][0]

def get_py2exe_datafiles():
    data_path = Path(get_data_path())
    d = {}
    for path in filter(Path.is_file, data_path.glob("**/*")):
        (d.setdefault(str(path.parent.relative_to(data_path.parent)), [])
    return list(d.items())

[docs]def matplotlib_fname(): """ Get the location of the config file. The file location is determined in the following order - `$PWD/matplotlibrc` - `$MATPLOTLIBRC` if it is a file (or a named pipe, which can be created e.g. by process substitution) - `$MATPLOTLIBRC/matplotlibrc` - `$MPLCONFIGDIR/matplotlibrc` - On Linux, - `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/matplotlib/matplotlibrc` (if $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is defined) - or `$HOME/.config/matplotlib/matplotlibrc` (if $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not defined) - On other platforms, - `$HOME/.matplotlib/matplotlibrc` if `$HOME` is defined. - Lastly, it looks in `$MATPLOTLIBDATA/matplotlibrc` for a system-defined copy. """ def gen_candidates(): yield os.path.join(os.getcwd(), 'matplotlibrc') try: matplotlibrc = os.environ['MATPLOTLIBRC'] except KeyError: pass else: yield matplotlibrc yield os.path.join(matplotlibrc, 'matplotlibrc') yield os.path.join(get_configdir(), 'matplotlibrc') yield os.path.join(get_data_path(), 'matplotlibrc') for fname in gen_candidates(): if os.path.exists(fname): st_mode = os.stat(fname).st_mode if stat.S_ISREG(st_mode) or stat.S_ISFIFO(st_mode): break # Return first candidate that is a file, or last candidate if none is # valid (in that case, a warning is raised at startup by `rc_params`). return fname
# rcParams deprecated and automatically mapped to another key. # Values are tuples of (version, new_name, f_old2new, f_new2old). _deprecated_map = {} # rcParams deprecated; some can manually be mapped to another key. # Values are tuples of (version, new_name_or_None). _deprecated_ignore_map = { 'text.dvipnghack': ('2.1', None), 'nbagg.transparent': ('2.2', 'figure.facecolor'), '': ('2.2', None), 'pgf.debug': ('3.0', None), } # rcParams deprecated; can use None to suppress warnings; remain actually # listed in the rcParams (not included in _all_deprecated). # Values are typles of (version,) _deprecated_remain_as_none = { 'axes.hold': ('2.1',), 'backend.qt4': ('2.2',), 'backend.qt5': ('2.2',), 'text.latex.unicode': ('3.0',), } _all_deprecated = {*_deprecated_map, *_deprecated_ignore_map}
[docs]class RcParams(MutableMapping, dict): """ A dictionary object including validation validating functions are defined and associated with rc parameters in :mod:`matplotlib.rcsetup` """ validate = {key: converter for key, (default, converter) in defaultParams.items() if key not in _all_deprecated} @property @cbook.deprecated("3.0") def msg_depr(self): return "%s is deprecated and replaced with %s; please use the latter." @property @cbook.deprecated("3.0") def msg_depr_ignore(self): return "%s is deprecated and ignored. Use %s instead." @property @cbook.deprecated("3.0") def msg_depr_set(self): return ("%s is deprecated. Please remove it from your matplotlibrc " "and/or style files.") @property @cbook.deprecated("3.0") def msg_obsolete(self): return ("%s is obsolete. Please remove it from your matplotlibrc " "and/or style files.") @property @cbook.deprecated("3.0") def msg_backend_obsolete(self): return ("The {} rcParam was deprecated in version 2.2. In order to " "force the use of a specific Qt binding, either import that " "binding first, or set the QT_API environment variable.") # validate values on the way in def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): self.update(*args, **kwargs) def __setitem__(self, key, val): try: if key in _deprecated_map: version, alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) key = alt_key val = alt_val(val) elif key in _deprecated_remain_as_none and val is not None: version, = _deprecated_remain_as_none[key] addendum = '' if key.startswith('backend'): addendum = ( "In order to force the use of a specific Qt binding, " "either import that binding first, or set the QT_API " "environment variable.") cbook.warn_deprecated( "2.2", name=key, obj_type="rcparam", addendum=addendum) elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, name=key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return elif key == '': cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.0", "{} is deprecated; in the future, examples will be " "found relative to the 'datapath' directory.".format(key)) elif key == 'backend': if val is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: if 'backend' in self: return try: cval = self.validate[key](val) except ValueError as ve: raise ValueError("Key %s: %s" % (key, str(ve))) dict.__setitem__(self, key, cval) except KeyError: raise KeyError( '%s is not a valid rc parameter. See rcParams.keys() for a ' 'list of valid parameters.' % (key,)) def __getitem__(self, key): if key in _deprecated_map: version, alt_key, alt_val, inverse_alt = _deprecated_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return inverse_alt(dict.__getitem__(self, alt_key)) elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, key, obj_type="rcparam", alternative=alt_key) return dict.__getitem__(self, alt_key) if alt_key else None elif key == '': cbook.warn_deprecated( "3.0", "{} is deprecated; in the future, examples will be " "found relative to the 'datapath' directory.".format(key)) elif key == "backend": val = dict.__getitem__(self, key) if val is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: from matplotlib import pyplot as plt plt.switch_backend(rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel) return dict.__getitem__(self, key) def __repr__(self): class_name = self.__class__.__name__ indent = len(class_name) + 1 repr_split = pprint.pformat(dict(self), indent=1, width=80 - indent).split('\n') repr_indented = ('\n' + ' ' * indent).join(repr_split) return '{}({})'.format(class_name, repr_indented) def __str__(self): return '\n'.join(map('{0[0]}: {0[1]}'.format, sorted(self.items()))) def __iter__(self): """Yield sorted list of keys.""" with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter('ignore', MatplotlibDeprecationWarning) yield from sorted(dict.__iter__(self)) def __len__(self): return dict.__len__(self)
[docs] def find_all(self, pattern): """ Return the subset of this RcParams dictionary whose keys match, using :func:``, the given ``pattern``. .. note:: Changes to the returned dictionary are *not* propagated to the parent RcParams dictionary. """ pattern_re = re.compile(pattern) return RcParams((key, value) for key, value in self.items() if
[docs] def copy(self): return {k: dict.__getitem__(self, k) for k in self}
[docs]def rc_params(fail_on_error=False): """Return a :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` instance from the default matplotlib rc file. """ fname = matplotlib_fname() if not os.path.exists(fname): # this should never happen, default in mpl-data should always be found message = 'could not find rc file; returning defaults' ret = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, _) in defaultParams.items() if key not in _all_deprecated]) warnings.warn(message) return ret return rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error)
URL_REGEX = re.compile(r'http://|https://|ftp://|file://|file:\\') def is_url(filename): """Return True if string is an http, ftp, or file URL path.""" return URL_REGEX.match(filename) is not None @contextlib.contextmanager def _open_file_or_url(fname): if is_url(fname): with urllib.request.urlopen(fname) as f: yield (line.decode('utf-8') for line in f) else: fname = os.path.expanduser(fname) encoding = locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False) if encoding is None: encoding = "utf-8" with open(fname, encoding=encoding) as f: yield f _error_details_fmt = 'line #%d\n\t"%s"\n\tin file "%s"' def _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error=False): """Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file. Unlike `rc_params_from_file`, the configuration class only contains the parameters specified in the file (i.e. default values are not filled in). """ cnt = 0 rc_temp = {} with _open_file_or_url(fname) as fd: try: for line in fd: cnt += 1 strippedline = line.split('#', 1)[0].strip() if not strippedline: continue tup = strippedline.split(':', 1) if len(tup) != 2: error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname) warnings.warn('Illegal %s' % error_details) continue key, val = tup key = key.strip() val = val.strip() if key in rc_temp: warnings.warn('Duplicate key in file "%s", line #%d' % (fname, cnt)) rc_temp[key] = (val, line, cnt) except UnicodeDecodeError: warnings.warn( ('Cannot decode configuration file %s with ' 'encoding %s, check LANG and LC_* variables') % (fname, locale.getpreferredencoding(do_setlocale=False) or 'utf-8 (default)')) raise config = RcParams() for key in ('verbose.level', 'verbose.fileo'): if key in rc_temp: val, line, cnt = rc_temp.pop(key) if fail_on_error: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise else: try: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip except Exception as msg: error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname) warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on %s\n\t%s' % (val, error_details, msg)) for key, (val, line, cnt) in rc_temp.items(): if key in defaultParams: if fail_on_error: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or raise else: try: config[key] = val # try to convert to proper type or skip except Exception as msg: error_details = _error_details_fmt % (cnt, line, fname) warnings.warn('Bad val "%s" on %s\n\t%s' % (val, error_details, msg)) elif key in _deprecated_ignore_map: version, alt_key = _deprecated_ignore_map[key] cbook.warn_deprecated( version, key, alternative=alt_key, addendum="Please update your matplotlibrc.") else: print(""" Bad key "%s" on line %d in %s. You probably need to get an updated matplotlibrc file from or from the matplotlib source distribution""" % (key, cnt, fname), file=sys.stderr) return config
[docs]def rc_params_from_file(fname, fail_on_error=False, use_default_template=True): """Return :class:`matplotlib.RcParams` from the contents of the given file. Parameters ---------- fname : str Name of file parsed for matplotlib settings. fail_on_error : bool If True, raise an error when the parser fails to convert a parameter. use_default_template : bool If True, initialize with default parameters before updating with those in the given file. If False, the configuration class only contains the parameters specified in the file. (Useful for updating dicts.) """ config_from_file = _rc_params_in_file(fname, fail_on_error) if not use_default_template: return config_from_file iter_params = defaultParams.items() with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore", MatplotlibDeprecationWarning) config = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, _) in iter_params if key not in _all_deprecated]) config.update(config_from_file) if config['datapath'] is None: config['datapath'] = get_data_path() if "".join(config['text.latex.preamble']):""" ***************************************************************** You have the following UNSUPPORTED LaTeX preamble customizations: %s Please do not ask for support with these customizations active. ***************************************************************** """, '\n'.join(config['text.latex.preamble'])) _log.debug('loaded rc file %s', fname) return config
# this is the instance used by the matplotlib classes rcParams = rc_params() # Don't trigger deprecation warning when just fetching. if dict.__getitem__(rcParams, ''): # paths that are intended to be relative to matplotlib_fname() # are allowed for the parameter. # However, we will need to fully qualify the path because # Sphinx requires absolute paths. if not os.path.isabs(rcParams['']): _basedir, _fname = os.path.split(matplotlib_fname()) # Sometimes matplotlib_fname() can return relative paths, # Also, using realpath() guarantees that Sphinx will use # the same path that matplotlib sees (in case of weird symlinks). _basedir = os.path.realpath(_basedir) _fullpath = os.path.join(_basedir, rcParams['']) rcParams[''] = _fullpath with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore", MatplotlibDeprecationWarning) rcParamsOrig = RcParams(rcParams.copy()) rcParamsDefault = RcParams([(key, default) for key, (default, converter) in defaultParams.items() if key not in _all_deprecated]) rcParams['ps.usedistiller'] = checkdep_ps_distiller( rcParams['ps.usedistiller']) rcParams['text.usetex'] = checkdep_usetex(rcParams['text.usetex']) if rcParams['axes.formatter.use_locale']: locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, '')
[docs]def rc(group, **kwargs): """ Set the current rc params. *group* is the grouping for the rc, e.g., for ``lines.linewidth`` the group is ``lines``, for ``axes.facecolor``, the group is ``axes``, and so on. Group may also be a list or tuple of group names, e.g., (*xtick*, *ytick*). *kwargs* is a dictionary attribute name/value pairs, e.g.,:: rc('lines', linewidth=2, color='r') sets the current rc params and is equivalent to:: rcParams['lines.linewidth'] = 2 rcParams['lines.color'] = 'r' The following aliases are available to save typing for interactive users: ===== ================= Alias Property ===== ================= 'lw' 'linewidth' 'ls' 'linestyle' 'c' 'color' 'fc' 'facecolor' 'ec' 'edgecolor' 'mew' 'markeredgewidth' 'aa' 'antialiased' ===== ================= Thus you could abbreviate the above rc command as:: rc('lines', lw=2, c='r') Note you can use python's kwargs dictionary facility to store dictionaries of default parameters. e.g., you can customize the font rc as follows:: font = {'family' : 'monospace', 'weight' : 'bold', 'size' : 'larger'} rc('font', **font) # pass in the font dict as kwargs This enables you to easily switch between several configurations. Use ``'default')`` or :func:`~matplotlib.rcdefaults` to restore the default rc params after changes. """ aliases = { 'lw': 'linewidth', 'ls': 'linestyle', 'c': 'color', 'fc': 'facecolor', 'ec': 'edgecolor', 'mew': 'markeredgewidth', 'aa': 'antialiased', } if isinstance(group, str): group = (group,) for g in group: for k, v in kwargs.items(): name = aliases.get(k) or k key = '%s.%s' % (g, name) try: rcParams[key] = v except KeyError: raise KeyError(('Unrecognized key "%s" for group "%s" and ' 'name "%s"') % (key, g, name))
[docs]def rcdefaults(): """ Restore the rc params from Matplotlib's internal default style. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. See Also -------- rc_file_defaults : Restore the rc params from the rc file originally loaded by Matplotlib. : Use a specific style file. Call ``style.use('default')`` to restore the default style. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled when creating rcParamsDefault, # no need to reemit them here. with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore", mplDeprecation) from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rcParams.clear() rcParams.update({k: v for k, v in rcParamsDefault.items() if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]def rc_file_defaults(): """ Restore the rc params from the original rc file loaded by Matplotlib. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled when creating rcParamsOrig, no # need to reemit them here. with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore", mplDeprecation) from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rcParams.update({k: rcParamsOrig[k] for k in rcParamsOrig if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]def rc_file(fname): """ Update rc params from file. Style-blacklisted rc params (defined in ``) are not updated. """ # Deprecation warnings were already handled in rc_params_from_file, no need # to reemit them here. with warnings.catch_warnings(): warnings.simplefilter("ignore", mplDeprecation) from .style.core import STYLE_BLACKLIST rc_from_file = rc_params_from_file(fname) rcParams.update({k: rc_from_file[k] for k in rc_from_file if k not in STYLE_BLACKLIST})
[docs]class rc_context: """ Return a context manager for managing rc settings. This allows one to do:: with mpl.rc_context(fname='screen.rc'): plt.plot(x, a) with mpl.rc_context(fname='print.rc'): plt.plot(x, b) plt.plot(x, c) The 'a' vs 'x' and 'c' vs 'x' plots would have settings from 'screen.rc', while the 'b' vs 'x' plot would have settings from 'print.rc'. A dictionary can also be passed to the context manager:: with mpl.rc_context(rc={'text.usetex': True}, fname='screen.rc'): plt.plot(x, a) The 'rc' dictionary takes precedence over the settings loaded from 'fname'. Passing a dictionary only is also valid. For example a common usage is:: with mpl.rc_context(rc={'interactive': False}): fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.plot(range(3), range(3)) fig.savefig('A.png', format='png') plt.close(fig) """ # While it may seem natural to implement rc_context using # contextlib.contextmanager, that would entail always calling the finally: # clause of the contextmanager (which restores the original rcs) including # during garbage collection; as a result, something like `plt.xkcd(); # gc.collect()` would result in the style being lost (as `xkcd()` is # implemented on top of rc_context, and nothing is holding onto context # manager except possibly circular references. def __init__(self, rc=None, fname=None): self._orig = rcParams.copy() try: if fname: rc_file(fname) if rc: rcParams.update(rc) except Exception: self.__fallback() raise def __fallback(self): # If anything goes wrong, revert to the original rcs. updated_backend = self._orig['backend'] dict.update(rcParams, self._orig) # except for the backend. If the context block triggered resloving # the auto backend resolution keep that value around if self._orig['backend'] is rcsetup._auto_backend_sentinel: rcParams['backend'] = updated_backend def __enter__(self): return self def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, exc_tb): self.__fallback()
[docs]def use(arg, warn=False, force=True): """ Set the matplotlib backend to one of the known backends. Parameters ---------- arg : str The backend to switch to. This can either be one of the 'standard' backend names: - interactive backends: GTK3Agg, GTK3Cairo, MacOSX, nbAgg, Qt4Agg, Qt4Cairo, Qt5Agg, Qt5Cairo, TkAgg, TkCairo, WebAgg, WX, WXAgg, WXCairo - non-interactive backends: agg, cairo, pdf, pgf, ps, svg, template or a string of the form: ``module://``. Note: Standard backend names are case-insensitive here. warn : bool, optional If True, warn if this is called after pyplot has been imported and a backend is set up. defaults to False. force : bool, optional If True, attempt to switch the backend. An ImportError is raised if an interactive backend is selected, but another interactive backend has already started. This defaults to True. See Also -------- :ref:`backends` matplotlib.get_backend """ name = validate_backend(arg) # if setting back to the same thing, do nothing if (dict.__getitem__(rcParams, 'backend') == name): pass # Check if we have already imported pyplot and triggered # backend selection, do a bit more work elif 'matplotlib.pyplot' in sys.modules: # If we are here then the requested is different than the current. # If we are going to force the switch, never warn, else, if warn # is True, then direct users to `plt.switch_backend` if (not force) and warn: warnings.warn( ("matplotlib.pyplot as already been imported, " "this call will have no effect."), stacklevel=2) # if we are going to force switching the backend, pull in # `switch_backend` from pyplot. This will only happen if # pyplot is already imported. if force: from matplotlib.pyplot import switch_backend switch_backend(name) # Finally if pyplot is not imported update both rcParams and # rcDefaults so restoring the defaults later with rcdefaults # won't change the backend. This is a bit of overkill as 'backend' # is already in style.core.STYLE_BLACKLIST, but better to be safe. else: rcParams['backend'] = rcParamsDefault['backend'] = name
if os.environ.get('MPLBACKEND'): rcParams['backend'] = os.environ.get('MPLBACKEND')
[docs]def get_backend(): """ Return the name of the current backend. See Also -------- matplotlib.use """ return rcParams['backend']
[docs]def interactive(b): """ Set interactive mode to boolean b. If b is True, then draw after every plotting command, e.g., after xlabel """ rcParams['interactive'] = b
[docs]def is_interactive(): 'Return true if plot mode is interactive' return rcParams['interactive']
def tk_window_focus(): """Return true if focus maintenance under TkAgg on win32 is on. This currently works only for python.exe and IPython.exe. Both IDLE and Pythonwin.exe fail badly when tk_window_focus is on.""" if rcParams['backend'] != 'TkAgg': return False return rcParams['tk.window_focus'] default_test_modules = [ 'matplotlib.tests', 'matplotlib.sphinxext.tests', 'mpl_toolkits.tests', ] def _init_tests(): # CPython's faulthandler since v3.6 handles exceptions on Windows # but until v3.6.4 it was printing # non-fatal exceptions import platform if not (sys.platform == 'win32' and (3, 6) < sys.version_info < (3, 6, 4) and platform.python_implementation() == 'CPython'): import faulthandler faulthandler.enable() # The version of FreeType to install locally for running the # tests. This must match the value in `` LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION = '2.6.1' from matplotlib import ft2font if (ft2font.__freetype_version__ != LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION or ft2font.__freetype_build_type__ != 'local'): warnings.warn( "Matplotlib is not built with the correct FreeType version to run " "tests. Set local_freetype=True in setup.cfg and rebuild. " "Expect many image comparison failures below. " "Expected freetype version {0}. " "Found freetype version {1}. " "Freetype build type is {2}local".format( LOCAL_FREETYPE_VERSION, ft2font.__freetype_version__, "" if ft2font.__freetype_build_type__ == 'local' else "not " ) ) try: import pytest except ImportError: print("matplotlib.test requires pytest to run.") raise def test(verbosity=None, coverage=False, switch_backend_warn=True, recursionlimit=0, **kwargs): """run the matplotlib test suite""" _init_tests() if not os.path.isdir(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), 'tests')): raise ImportError("Matplotlib test data is not installed") old_backend = get_backend() old_recursionlimit = sys.getrecursionlimit() try: use('agg') if recursionlimit: sys.setrecursionlimit(recursionlimit) import pytest args = kwargs.pop('argv', []) provide_default_modules = True use_pyargs = True for arg in args: if any(arg.startswith(module_path) for module_path in default_test_modules): provide_default_modules = False break if os.path.exists(arg): provide_default_modules = False use_pyargs = False break if use_pyargs: args += ['--pyargs'] if provide_default_modules: args += default_test_modules if coverage: args += ['--cov'] if verbosity: args += ['-' + 'v' * verbosity] retcode = pytest.main(args, **kwargs) finally: if old_backend.lower() != 'agg': use(old_backend, warn=switch_backend_warn) if recursionlimit: sys.setrecursionlimit(old_recursionlimit) return retcode test.__test__ = False # pytest: this function is not a test def _replacer(data, key): """Either returns data[key] or passes data back. Also converts input data to a sequence as needed. """ # if key isn't a string don't bother if not isinstance(key, str): return key # try to use __getitem__ try: return sanitize_sequence(data[key]) # key does not exist, silently fall back to key except KeyError: return key _DATA_DOC_APPENDIX = """ .. note:: In addition to the above described arguments, this function can take a **data** keyword argument. If such a **data** argument is given, the following arguments are replaced by **data[<arg>]**: {replaced} Objects passed as **data** must support item access (``data[<arg>]``) and membership test (``<arg> in data``). """ def _add_data_doc(docstring, replace_names, replace_all_args): """Add documentation for a *data* field to the given docstring. Parameters ---------- docstring : str The input docstring. replace_names : list of strings or None The list of parameter names which arguments should be replaced by `data[name]`. If None, all arguments are replaced if they are included in `data`. replace_all_args : bool If True, all arguments in *args get replaced, even if they are not in replace_names. Returns ------- The augmented docstring. """ if docstring is None: docstring = '' else: docstring = dedent(docstring) _repl = "" if replace_names is None: _repl = "* All positional and all keyword arguments." else: if len(replace_names) != 0: _repl = "* All arguments with the following names: '{names}'." if replace_all_args: _repl += "\n * All positional arguments." _repl = _repl.format(names="', '".join(sorted(replace_names))) return docstring + _DATA_DOC_APPENDIX.format(replaced=_repl) def _preprocess_data(replace_names=None, replace_all_args=False, label_namer=None, positional_parameter_names=None): """ A decorator to add a 'data' kwarg to any a function. The signature of the input function must include the ax argument at the first position :: def foo(ax, *args, **kwargs) so this is suitable for use with Axes methods. Parameters ---------- replace_names : list of strings, optional, default: None The list of parameter names which arguments should be replaced by `data[name]`. If None, all arguments are replaced if they are included in `data`. replace_all_args : bool, default: False If True, all arguments in *args get replaced, even if they are not in replace_names. label_namer : string, optional, default: None The name of the parameter which argument should be used as label, if label is not set. If None, the label keyword argument is not set. positional_parameter_names : list of strings or callable, optional The full list of positional parameter names (excluding an explicit `ax`/'self' argument at the first place and including all possible positional parameter in `*args`), in the right order. Can also include all other keyword parameter. Only needed if the wrapped function does contain `*args` and (replace_names is not None or replace_all_args is False). If it is a callable, it will be called with the actual tuple of *args and the data and should return a list like above. NOTE: callables should only be used when the names and order of *args can only be determined at runtime. Please use list of names when the order and names of *args is clear before runtime! .. note:: decorator also converts MappingView input data to list. """ if replace_names is not None: replace_names = set(replace_names) def param(func): sig = inspect.signature(func) _has_varargs = False _has_varkwargs = False _arg_names = [] params = list(sig.parameters.values()) for p in params: if p.kind is Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL: _has_varargs = True elif p.kind is Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD: _has_varkwargs = True else: _arg_names.append( data_param = Parameter('data', Parameter.KEYWORD_ONLY, default=None) if _has_varkwargs: params.insert(-1, data_param) else: params.append(data_param) new_sig = sig.replace(parameters=params) # Import-time check: do we have enough information to replace *args? arg_names_at_runtime = False # there can't be any positional arguments behind *args and no # positional args can end up in **kwargs, so only *varargs make # problems. # if not _has_varargs: # all args are "named", so no problem # remove the first "ax" / self arg arg_names = _arg_names[1:] else: # Here we have "unnamed" variables and we need a way to determine # whether to replace a arg or not if replace_names is None: # all argnames should be replaced arg_names = None elif len(replace_names) == 0: # No argnames should be replaced arg_names = [] elif len(_arg_names) > 1 and (positional_parameter_names is None): # we got no manual parameter names but more than an 'ax' ... if len(replace_names - set(_arg_names[1:])) == 0: # all to be replaced arguments are in the list arg_names = _arg_names[1:] else: raise AssertionError( "Got unknown 'replace_names' and wrapped function " "{!r} uses '*args', need 'positional_parameter_names'" .format(func.__name__)) else: if positional_parameter_names is not None: if callable(positional_parameter_names): # determined by the function at runtime arg_names_at_runtime = True # so that we don't compute the label_pos at import time arg_names = [] else: arg_names = positional_parameter_names else: if replace_all_args: arg_names = [] else: raise AssertionError( "Got 'replace_names' and wrapped function {!r} " "uses *args, need 'positional_parameter_names' or " "'replace_all_args'".format(func.__name__)) # compute the possible label_namer and label position in positional # arguments label_pos = 9999 # bigger than all "possible" argument lists label_namer_pos = 9999 # bigger than all "possible" argument lists if (label_namer and # we actually want a label here ... arg_names and # and we can determine a label in *args ... label_namer in arg_names): # and it is in *args label_namer_pos = arg_names.index(label_namer) if "label" in arg_names: label_pos = arg_names.index("label") # Check the case we know a label_namer but we can't find it the # arg_names... Unfortunately the label_namer can be in **kwargs, # which we can't detect here and which results in a non-set label # which might surprise the user :-( if label_namer and not arg_names_at_runtime and not _has_varkwargs: if not arg_names: raise AssertionError( "label_namer {!r} can't be found as the parameter without " "'positional_parameter_names'".format(label_namer)) elif label_namer not in arg_names: raise AssertionError( "label_namer {!r} can't be found in the parameter names " "(known argnames: %s).".format(label_namer, arg_names)) else: # this is the case when the name is in arg_names pass @functools.wraps(func) def inner(ax, *args, data=None, **kwargs): # this is needed because we want to change these values if # arg_names_at_runtime==True, but python does not allow assigning # to a variable in a outer scope. So use some new local ones and # set them to the already computed values. _label_pos = label_pos _label_namer_pos = label_namer_pos _arg_names = arg_names label = None if data is None: # data validation args = tuple(sanitize_sequence(a) for a in args) else: if arg_names_at_runtime: # update the information about replace names and # label position _arg_names = positional_parameter_names(args, data) if (label_namer and # we actually want a label here ... _arg_names and # and we can find a label in *args (label_namer in _arg_names)): # and it is in *args _label_namer_pos = _arg_names.index(label_namer) if "label" in _arg_names: _label_pos = arg_names.index("label") # save the current label_namer value so that it can be used as # a label if _label_namer_pos < len(args): label = args[_label_namer_pos] else: label = kwargs.get(label_namer, None) # ensure a string, as label can't be anything else if not isinstance(label, str): label = None if (replace_names is None) or (replace_all_args is True): # all should be replaced args = tuple(_replacer(data, a) for j, a in enumerate(args)) else: # An arg is replaced if the arg_name of that position is # in replace_names ... if len(_arg_names) < len(args): raise RuntimeError( "Got more args than function expects") args = tuple(_replacer(data, a) if _arg_names[j] in replace_names else a for j, a in enumerate(args)) if replace_names is None: # replace all kwargs ... kwargs = {k: _replacer(data, v) for k, v in kwargs.items()} else: # ... or only if a kwarg of that name is in replace_names kwargs = { k: _replacer(data, v) if k in replace_names else v for k, v in kwargs.items()} # replace the label if this func "wants" a label arg and the user # didn't set one. Note: if the user puts in "label=None", it does # *NOT* get replaced! user_supplied_label = ( len(args) >= _label_pos or # label is included in args 'label' in kwargs # ... or in kwargs ) if label_namer and not user_supplied_label: if _label_namer_pos < len(args): kwargs['label'] = get_label(args[_label_namer_pos], label) elif label_namer in kwargs: kwargs['label'] = get_label(kwargs[label_namer], label) else: warnings.warn( "Tried to set a label via parameter %r in func %r but " "couldn't find such an argument.\n" "(This is a programming error, please report to " "the Matplotlib list!)" % (label_namer, func.__name__), RuntimeWarning, stacklevel=2) return func(ax, *args, **kwargs) inner.__doc__ = _add_data_doc(inner.__doc__, replace_names, replace_all_args) inner.__signature__ = new_sig return inner return param _log.debug('matplotlib version %s', __version__) _log.debug('interactive is %s', is_interactive()) _log.debug('platform is %s', sys.platform) _log.debug('loaded modules: %s', list(sys.modules))