You are reading an old version of the documentation (v2.2.5). For the latest version see https://matplotlib.org/stable/

```
"""
NumPy
=====
Provides
1. An array object of arbitrary homogeneous items
2. Fast mathematical operations over arrays
3. Linear Algebra, Fourier Transforms, Random Number Generation
How to use the documentation
----------------------------
Documentation is available in two forms: docstrings provided
with the code, and a loose standing reference guide, available from
`the NumPy homepage <https://www.scipy.org>`_.
We recommend exploring the docstrings using
`IPython <https://ipython.org>`_, an advanced Python shell with
TAB-completion and introspection capabilities. See below for further
instructions.
The docstring examples assume that `numpy` has been imported as `np`::
>>> import numpy as np
Code snippets are indicated by three greater-than signs::
>>> x = 42
>>> x = x + 1
Use the built-in ``help`` function to view a function's docstring::
>>> help(np.sort)
... # doctest: +SKIP
For some objects, ``np.info(obj)`` may provide additional help. This is
particularly true if you see the line "Help on ufunc object:" at the top
of the help() page. Ufuncs are implemented in C, not Python, for speed.
The native Python help() does not know how to view their help, but our
np.info() function does.
To search for documents containing a keyword, do::
>>> np.lookfor('keyword')
... # doctest: +SKIP
General-purpose documents like a glossary and help on the basic concepts
of numpy are available under the ``doc`` sub-module::
>>> from numpy import doc
>>> help(doc)
... # doctest: +SKIP
Available subpackages
---------------------
doc
Topical documentation on broadcasting, indexing, etc.
lib
Basic functions used by several sub-packages.
random
Core Random Tools
linalg
Core Linear Algebra Tools
fft
Core FFT routines
polynomial
Polynomial tools
testing
NumPy testing tools
f2py
Fortran to Python Interface Generator.
distutils
Enhancements to distutils with support for
Fortran compilers support and more.
Utilities
---------
test
Run numpy unittests
show_config
Show numpy build configuration
dual
Overwrite certain functions with high-performance Scipy tools
matlib
Make everything matrices.
__version__
NumPy version string
Viewing documentation using IPython
-----------------------------------
Start IPython with the NumPy profile (``ipython -p numpy``), which will
import `numpy` under the alias `np`. Then, use the ``cpaste`` command to
paste examples into the shell. To see which functions are available in
`numpy`, type ``np.<TAB>`` (where ``<TAB>`` refers to the TAB key), or use
``np.*cos*?<ENTER>`` (where ``<ENTER>`` refers to the ENTER key) to narrow
down the list. To view the docstring for a function, use
``np.cos?<ENTER>`` (to view the docstring) and ``np.cos??<ENTER>`` (to view
the source code).
Copies vs. in-place operation
-----------------------------
Most of the functions in `numpy` return a copy of the array argument
(e.g., `np.sort`). In-place versions of these functions are often
available as array methods, i.e. ``x = np.array([1,2,3]); x.sort()``.
Exceptions to this rule are documented.
"""
from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function
import sys
import warnings
from ._globals import ModuleDeprecationWarning, VisibleDeprecationWarning
from ._globals import _NoValue
# We first need to detect if we're being called as part of the numpy setup
# procedure itself in a reliable manner.
try:
__NUMPY_SETUP__
except NameError:
__NUMPY_SETUP__ = False
if __NUMPY_SETUP__:
sys.stderr.write('Running from numpy source directory.\n')
else:
try:
from numpy.__config__ import show as show_config
except ImportError:
msg = """Error importing numpy: you should not try to import numpy from
its source directory; please exit the numpy source tree, and relaunch
your python interpreter from there."""
raise ImportError(msg)
from .version import git_revision as __git_revision__
from .version import version as __version__
__all__ = ['ModuleDeprecationWarning',
'VisibleDeprecationWarning']
# Allow distributors to run custom init code
from . import _distributor_init
from . import core
from .core import *
from . import compat
from . import lib
# FIXME: why have numpy.lib if everything is imported here??
from .lib import *
from . import linalg
from . import fft
from . import polynomial
from . import random
from . import ctypeslib
from . import ma
from . import matrixlib as _mat
from .matrixlib import *
from .compat import long
# Make these accessible from numpy name-space
# but not imported in from numpy import *
# TODO[gh-6103]: Deprecate these
if sys.version_info[0] >= 3:
from builtins import bool, int, float, complex, object, str
unicode = str
else:
from __builtin__ import bool, int, float, complex, object, unicode, str
from .core import round, abs, max, min
# now that numpy modules are imported, can initialize limits
core.getlimits._register_known_types()
__all__.extend(['__version__', 'show_config'])
__all__.extend(core.__all__)
__all__.extend(_mat.__all__)
__all__.extend(lib.__all__)
__all__.extend(['linalg', 'fft', 'random', 'ctypeslib', 'ma'])
# These are added by `from .core import *` and `core.__all__`, but we
# overwrite them above with builtins we do _not_ want to export.
__all__.remove('long')
__all__.remove('unicode')
# Remove things that are in the numpy.lib but not in the numpy namespace
# Note that there is a test (numpy/tests/test_public_api.py:test_numpy_namespace)
# that prevents adding more things to the main namespace by accident.
# The list below will grow until the `from .lib import *` fixme above is
# taken care of
__all__.remove('Arrayterator')
del Arrayterator
# Filter out Cython harmless warnings
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", message="numpy.dtype size changed")
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", message="numpy.ufunc size changed")
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore", message="numpy.ndarray size changed")
# oldnumeric and numarray were removed in 1.9. In case some packages import
# but do not use them, we define them here for backward compatibility.
oldnumeric = 'removed'
numarray = 'removed'
if sys.version_info[:2] >= (3, 7):
# Importing Tester requires importing all of UnitTest which is not a
# cheap import Since it is mainly used in test suits, we lazy import it
# here to save on the order of 10 ms of import time for most users
#
# The previous way Tester was imported also had a side effect of adding
# the full `numpy.testing` namespace
#
# module level getattr is only supported in 3.7 onwards
# https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0562/
def __getattr__(attr):
if attr == 'testing':
import numpy.testing as testing
return testing
elif attr == 'Tester':
from .testing import Tester
return Tester
else:
raise AttributeError("module {!r} has no attribute "
"{!r}".format(__name__, attr))
def __dir__():
return list(globals().keys()) + ['Tester', 'testing']
else:
# We don't actually use this ourselves anymore, but I'm not 100% sure that
# no-one else in the world is using it (though I hope not)
from .testing import Tester
# Pytest testing
from numpy._pytesttester import PytestTester
test = PytestTester(__name__)
del PytestTester
def _sanity_check():
"""
Quick sanity checks for common bugs caused by environment.
There are some cases e.g. with wrong BLAS ABI that cause wrong
results under specific runtime conditions that are not necessarily
achieved during test suite runs, and it is useful to catch those early.
See https://github.com/numpy/numpy/issues/8577 and other
similar bug reports.
"""
try:
x = ones(2, dtype=float32)
if not abs(x.dot(x) - 2.0) < 1e-5:
raise AssertionError()
except AssertionError:
msg = ("The current Numpy installation ({!r}) fails to "
"pass simple sanity checks. This can be caused for example "
"by incorrect BLAS library being linked in, or by mixing "
"package managers (pip, conda, apt, ...). Search closed "
"numpy issues for similar problems.")
raise RuntimeError(msg.format(__file__))
_sanity_check()
del _sanity_check
```