Version 2.2.2
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Source code for matplotlib.figure

The figure module provides the top-level
:class:`~matplotlib.artist.Artist`, the :class:`Figure`, which
contains all the plot elements.  The following classes are defined

    control the default spacing of the subplots

    top level container for all plot elements


from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function,

import six

import logging
import warnings

import numpy as np

from matplotlib import rcParams
from matplotlib import docstring
from matplotlib import __version__ as _mpl_version

import matplotlib.artist as martist
from matplotlib.artist import Artist, allow_rasterization

import matplotlib.cbook as cbook

from matplotlib.cbook import Stack, iterable

from matplotlib import image as mimage
from matplotlib.image import FigureImage

import matplotlib.colorbar as cbar

from matplotlib.axes import Axes, SubplotBase, subplot_class_factory
from matplotlib.blocking_input import BlockingMouseInput, BlockingKeyMouseInput
from matplotlib.gridspec import GridSpec
import matplotlib.legend as mlegend
from matplotlib.patches import Rectangle
from matplotlib.projections import (get_projection_names,
from matplotlib.text import Text, _process_text_args
from matplotlib.transforms import (Affine2D, Bbox, BboxTransformTo,
import matplotlib._layoutbox as layoutbox
from matplotlib.backend_bases import NonGuiException

_log = logging.getLogger(__name__)


def _stale_figure_callback(self, val):
    if self.figure:
        self.figure.stale = val

[docs]class AxesStack(Stack): """ Specialization of the Stack to handle all tracking of Axes in a Figure. This stack stores ``key, (ind, axes)`` pairs, where: * **key** should be a hash of the args and kwargs used in generating the Axes. * **ind** is a serial number for tracking the order in which axes were added. The AxesStack is a callable, where ``ax_stack()`` returns the current axes. Alternatively the :meth:`current_key_axes` will return the current key and associated axes. """ def __init__(self): Stack.__init__(self) self._ind = 0
[docs] def as_list(self): """ Return a list of the Axes instances that have been added to the figure """ ia_list = [a for k, a in self._elements] ia_list.sort() return [a for i, a in ia_list]
[docs] def get(self, key): """ Return the Axes instance that was added with *key*. If it is not present, return None. """ item = dict(self._elements).get(key) if item is None: return None cbook.warn_deprecated( "2.1", "Adding an axes using the same arguments as a previous axes " "currently reuses the earlier instance. In a future version, " "a new instance will always be created and returned. Meanwhile, " "this warning can be suppressed, and the future behavior ensured, " "by passing a unique label to each axes instance.") return item[1]
def _entry_from_axes(self, e): ind, k = {a: (ind, k) for k, (ind, a) in self._elements}[e] return (k, (ind, e))
[docs] def remove(self, a): """Remove the axes from the stack.""" Stack.remove(self, self._entry_from_axes(a))
[docs] def bubble(self, a): """ Move the given axes, which must already exist in the stack, to the top. """ return Stack.bubble(self, self._entry_from_axes(a))
[docs] def add(self, key, a): """ Add Axes *a*, with key *key*, to the stack, and return the stack. If *key* is unhashable, replace it by a unique, arbitrary object. If *a* is already on the stack, don't add it again, but return *None*. """ # All the error checking may be unnecessary; but this method # is called so seldom that the overhead is negligible. if not isinstance(a, Axes): raise ValueError("second argument, {!r}, is not an Axes".format(a)) try: hash(key) except TypeError: key = object() a_existing = self.get(key) if a_existing is not None: Stack.remove(self, (key, a_existing)) warnings.warn( "key {!r} already existed; Axes is being replaced".format(key)) # I don't think the above should ever happen. if a in self: return None self._ind += 1 return Stack.push(self, (key, (self._ind, a)))
[docs] def current_key_axes(self): """ Return a tuple of ``(key, axes)`` for the active axes. If no axes exists on the stack, then returns ``(None, None)``. """ if not len(self._elements): return self._default, self._default else: key, (index, axes) = self._elements[self._pos] return key, axes
def __call__(self): return self.current_key_axes()[1] def __contains__(self, a): return a in self.as_list()
[docs]class SubplotParams(object): """ A class to hold the parameters for a subplot """ def __init__(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None): """ All dimensions are fraction of the figure width or height. All values default to their rc params The following attributes are available left : 0.125 The left side of the subplots of the figure right : 0.9 The right side of the subplots of the figure bottom : 0.1 The bottom of the subplots of the figure top : 0.9 The top of the subplots of the figure wspace : 0.2 The amount of width reserved for space between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the average axis width hspace : 0.2 The amount of height reserved for space between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the average axis height """ self.validate = True self.update(left, bottom, right, top, wspace, hspace)
[docs] def update(self, left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None): """ Update the current values. If any kwarg is None, default to the current value, if set, otherwise to rc """ thisleft = getattr(self, 'left', None) thisright = getattr(self, 'right', None) thistop = getattr(self, 'top', None) thisbottom = getattr(self, 'bottom', None) thiswspace = getattr(self, 'wspace', None) thishspace = getattr(self, 'hspace', None) self._update_this('left', left) self._update_this('right', right) self._update_this('bottom', bottom) self._update_this('top', top) self._update_this('wspace', wspace) self._update_this('hspace', hspace) def reset(): self.left = thisleft self.right = thisright = thistop self.bottom = thisbottom self.wspace = thiswspace self.hspace = thishspace if self.validate: if self.left >= self.right: reset() raise ValueError('left cannot be >= right') if self.bottom >= reset() raise ValueError('bottom cannot be >= top')
def _update_this(self, s, val): if val is None: val = getattr(self, s, None) if val is None: key = 'figure.subplot.' + s val = rcParams[key] setattr(self, s, val)
[docs]class Figure(Artist): """ The Figure instance supports callbacks through a *callbacks* attribute which is a `.CallbackRegistry` instance. The events you can connect to are 'dpi_changed', and the callback will be called with ``func(fig)`` where fig is the `Figure` instance. Attributes ---------- patch The `.Rectangle` instance representing the figure patch. suppressComposite For multiple figure images, the figure will make composite images depending on the renderer option_image_nocomposite function. If *suppressComposite* is a boolean, this will override the renderer. """ def __str__(self): return "Figure(%gx%g)" % tuple(self.bbox.size) def __repr__(self): return "<{clsname} size {h:g}x{w:g} with {naxes} Axes>".format( clsname=self.__class__.__name__, h=self.bbox.size[0], w=self.bbox.size[1], naxes=len(self.axes), ) def __init__(self, figsize=None, # defaults to rc figure.figsize dpi=None, # defaults to rc figure.dpi facecolor=None, # defaults to rc figure.facecolor edgecolor=None, # defaults to rc figure.edgecolor linewidth=0.0, # the default linewidth of the frame frameon=None, # whether or not to draw the figure frame subplotpars=None, # default to rc tight_layout=None, # default to rc figure.autolayout constrained_layout=None, # default to rc #figure.constrained_layout.use ): """ Parameters ---------- figsize : 2-tuple of floats ``(width, height)`` tuple in inches dpi : float Dots per inch facecolor The figure patch facecolor; defaults to rc ``figure.facecolor`` edgecolor The figure patch edge color; defaults to rc ``figure.edgecolor`` linewidth : float The figure patch edge linewidth; the default linewidth of the frame frameon : bool If ``False``, suppress drawing the figure frame subplotpars : :class:`SubplotParams` Subplot parameters, defaults to rc tight_layout : bool If ``False`` use *subplotpars*; if ``True`` adjust subplot parameters using `.tight_layout` with default padding. When providing a dict containing the keys ``pad``, ``w_pad``, ``h_pad``, and ``rect``, the default `.tight_layout` paddings will be overridden. Defaults to rc ``figure.autolayout``. constrained_layout : bool If ``True`` use constrained layout to adjust positioning of plot elements. Like ``tight_layout``, but designed to be more flexible. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` for examples. (Note: does not work with :meth:`.subplot` or :meth:`.subplot2grid`.) Defaults to rc ``figure.constrained_layout.use``. """ Artist.__init__(self) # remove the non-figure artist _axes property # as it makes no sense for a figure to be _in_ an axes # this is used by the property methods in the artist base class # which are over-ridden in this class del self._axes self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry() if figsize is None: figsize = rcParams['figure.figsize'] if dpi is None: dpi = rcParams['figure.dpi'] if facecolor is None: facecolor = rcParams['figure.facecolor'] if edgecolor is None: edgecolor = rcParams['figure.edgecolor'] if frameon is None: frameon = rcParams['figure.frameon'] if not np.isfinite(figsize).all(): raise ValueError('figure size must be finite not ' '{}'.format(figsize)) self.bbox_inches = Bbox.from_bounds(0, 0, *figsize) self.dpi_scale_trans = Affine2D().scale(dpi, dpi) # do not use property as it will trigger self._dpi = dpi self.bbox = TransformedBbox(self.bbox_inches, self.dpi_scale_trans) self.frameon = frameon self.transFigure = BboxTransformTo(self.bbox) self.patch = Rectangle( xy=(0, 0), width=1, height=1, facecolor=facecolor, edgecolor=edgecolor, linewidth=linewidth) self._set_artist_props(self.patch) self.patch.set_aa(False) self._hold = rcParams['axes.hold'] if self._hold is None: self._hold = True self.canvas = None self._suptitle = None if subplotpars is None: subplotpars = SubplotParams() self.subplotpars = subplotpars # constrained_layout: self._layoutbox = None # set in set_constrained_layout_pads() self.set_constrained_layout(constrained_layout) self.set_tight_layout(tight_layout) self._axstack = AxesStack() # track all figure axes and current axes self.clf() self._cachedRenderer = None # groupers to keep track of x and y labels we want to align. # see self.align_xlabels and self.align_ylabels and # axis._get_tick_boxes_siblings self._align_xlabel_grp = cbook.Grouper() self._align_ylabel_grp = cbook.Grouper() @property @cbook.deprecated("2.1", alternative="Figure.patch") def figurePatch(self): return self.patch # TODO: I'd like to dynamically add the _repr_html_ method # to the figure in the right context, but then IPython doesn't # use it, for some reason. def _repr_html_(self): # We can't use "isinstance" here, because then we'd end up importing # webagg unconditiionally. if (self.canvas is not None and 'WebAgg' in self.canvas.__class__.__name__): from matplotlib.backends import backend_webagg return backend_webagg.ipython_inline_display(self)
[docs] def show(self, warn=True): """ If using a GUI backend with pyplot, display the figure window. If the figure was not created using :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.figure`, it will lack a :class:`~matplotlib.backend_bases.FigureManagerBase`, and will raise an AttributeError. Parameters ---------- warm : bool If ``True``, issue warning when called on a non-GUI backend Notes ----- For non-GUI backends, this does nothing, in which case a warning will be issued if *warn* is ``True`` (default). """ try: manager = getattr(self.canvas, 'manager') except AttributeError as err: raise AttributeError("%s\n" " works only " "for figures managed by pyplot, normally " "created by pyplot.figure()." % err) if manager is not None: try: return except NonGuiException: pass if warn: import warnings warnings.warn( "matplotlib is currently using a non-GUI backend, " "so cannot show the figure")
def _get_axes(self): return self._axstack.as_list() axes = property(fget=_get_axes, doc="Read-only: list of axes in Figure") def _get_dpi(self): return self._dpi def _set_dpi(self, dpi, forward=True): """ Parameters ---------- dpi : float forward : bool Passed on to `~.Figure.set_size_inches` """ self._dpi = dpi self.dpi_scale_trans.clear().scale(dpi, dpi) w, h = self.get_size_inches() self.set_size_inches(w, h, forward=forward) self.callbacks.process('dpi_changed', self) dpi = property(_get_dpi, _set_dpi)
[docs] def get_tight_layout(self): """ Return whether and how `.tight_layout` is called when drawing. """ return self._tight
[docs] def set_tight_layout(self, tight): """ Set whether and how `.tight_layout` is called when drawing. Parameters ---------- tight : bool or dict with keys "pad", "w_pad", "h_pad", "rect" or None If a bool, sets whether to call `.tight_layout` upon drawing. If ``None``, use the ``figure.autolayout`` rcparam instead. If a dict, pass it as kwargs to `.tight_layout`, overriding the default paddings. .. ACCEPTS: [ bool | dict with keys "pad", "w_pad", "h_pad", "rect" | None ] """ if tight is None: tight = rcParams['figure.autolayout'] self._tight = bool(tight) self._tight_parameters = tight if isinstance(tight, dict) else {} self.stale = True
[docs] def get_constrained_layout(self): """ Return a boolean: True means constrained layout is being used. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` """ return self._constrained
[docs] def set_constrained_layout(self, constrained): """ Set whether ``constrained_layout`` is used upon drawing. If None, the rcParams['figure.constrained_layout.use'] value will be used. When providing a dict containing the keys `w_pad`, `h_pad` the default ``constrained_layout`` paddings will be overridden. These pads are in inches and default to 3.0/72.0. ``w_pad`` is the width padding and ``h_pad`` is the height padding. ACCEPTS: [True | False | dict | None ] See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` """ self._constrained_layout_pads = dict() self._constrained_layout_pads['w_pad'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['h_pad'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['wspace'] = None self._constrained_layout_pads['hspace'] = None if constrained is None: constrained = rcParams['figure.constrained_layout.use'] self._constrained = bool(constrained) if isinstance(constrained, dict): self.set_constrained_layout_pads(**constrained) else: self.set_constrained_layout_pads() self.stale = True
[docs] def set_constrained_layout_pads(self, **kwargs): """ Set padding for ``constrained_layout``. Note the kwargs can be passed as a dictionary ``fig.set_constrained_layout(**paddict)``. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` Parameters ---------- w_pad : scalar Width padding in inches. This is the pad around axes and is meant to make sure there is enough room for fonts to look good. Defaults to 3 pts = 0.04167 inches h_pad : scalar Height padding in inches. Defaults to 3 pts. wspace: scalar Width padding between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the subplot width. The total padding ends up being w_pad + wspace. hspace: scalar Height padding between subplots, expressed as a fraction of the subplot width. The total padding ends up being h_pad + hspace. """ todo = ['w_pad', 'h_pad', 'wspace', 'hspace'] for td in todo: if td in kwargs and kwargs[td] is not None: self._constrained_layout_pads[td] = kwargs[td] else: self._constrained_layout_pads[td] = ( rcParams['figure.constrained_layout.' + td])
[docs] def get_constrained_layout_pads(self, relative=False): """ Get padding for ``constrained_layout``. Returns a list of `w_pad, h_pad` in inches and `wspace` and `hspace` as fractions of the subplot. See :doc:`/tutorials/intermediate/constrainedlayout_guide` Parameters ---------- relative : boolean If `True`, then convert from inches to figure relative. """ w_pad = self._constrained_layout_pads['w_pad'] h_pad = self._constrained_layout_pads['h_pad'] wspace = self._constrained_layout_pads['wspace'] hspace = self._constrained_layout_pads['hspace'] if relative and ((w_pad is not None) or (h_pad is not None)): renderer0 = layoutbox.get_renderer(self) dpi = renderer0.dpi w_pad = w_pad * dpi / renderer0.width h_pad = h_pad * dpi / renderer0.height return w_pad, h_pad, wspace, hspace
[docs] def autofmt_xdate(self, bottom=0.2, rotation=30, ha='right', which=None): """ Date ticklabels often overlap, so it is useful to rotate them and right align them. Also, a common use case is a number of subplots with shared xaxes where the x-axis is date data. The ticklabels are often long, and it helps to rotate them on the bottom subplot and turn them off on other subplots, as well as turn off xlabels. Parameters ---------- bottom : scalar The bottom of the subplots for :meth:`subplots_adjust` rotation : angle in degrees The rotation of the xtick labels ha : string The horizontal alignment of the xticklabels which : {None, 'major', 'minor', 'both'} Selects which ticklabels to rotate (default is None which works same as major) """ allsubplots = all(hasattr(ax, 'is_last_row') for ax in self.axes) if len(self.axes) == 1: for label in self.axes[0].get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_ha(ha) label.set_rotation(rotation) else: if allsubplots: for ax in self.get_axes(): if ax.is_last_row(): for label in ax.get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_ha(ha) label.set_rotation(rotation) else: for label in ax.get_xticklabels(which=which): label.set_visible(False) ax.set_xlabel('') if allsubplots: self.subplots_adjust(bottom=bottom) self.stale = True
[docs] def get_children(self): """Get a list of artists contained in the figure.""" children = [self.patch] children.extend(self.artists) children.extend(self.axes) children.extend(self.lines) children.extend(self.patches) children.extend(self.texts) children.extend(self.images) children.extend(self.legends) return children
[docs] def contains(self, mouseevent): """ Test whether the mouse event occurred on the figure. Returns True, {}. """ if callable(self._contains): return self._contains(self, mouseevent) inside = self.bbox.contains(mouseevent.x, mouseevent.y) return inside, {}
[docs] def get_window_extent(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Return figure bounding box in display space; arguments are ignored. """ return self.bbox
[docs] def suptitle(self, t, **kwargs): """ Add a centered title to the figure. kwargs are :class:`matplotlib.text.Text` properties. Using figure coordinates, the defaults are: x : 0.5 The x location of the text in figure coords y : 0.98 The y location of the text in figure coords horizontalalignment : 'center' The horizontal alignment of the text verticalalignment : 'top' The vertical alignment of the text If the `fontproperties` keyword argument is given then the rcParams defaults for `fontsize` (`figure.titlesize`) and `fontweight` (`figure.titleweight`) will be ignored in favour of the `FontProperties` defaults. A :class:`matplotlib.text.Text` instance is returned. Example:: fig.suptitle('this is the figure title', fontsize=12) """ x = kwargs.pop('x', 0.5) y = kwargs.pop('y', 0.98) if ('horizontalalignment' not in kwargs) and ('ha' not in kwargs): kwargs['horizontalalignment'] = 'center' if ('verticalalignment' not in kwargs) and ('va' not in kwargs): kwargs['verticalalignment'] = 'top' if 'fontproperties' not in kwargs: if 'fontsize' not in kwargs and 'size' not in kwargs: kwargs['size'] = rcParams['figure.titlesize'] if 'fontweight' not in kwargs and 'weight' not in kwargs: kwargs['weight'] = rcParams['figure.titleweight'] sup = self.text(x, y, t, **kwargs) if self._suptitle is not None: self._suptitle.set_text(t) self._suptitle.set_position((x, y)) self._suptitle.update_from(sup) sup.remove() else: self._suptitle = sup if self._layoutbox is not None: # assign a layout box to the suptitle... figlb = self._layoutbox self._suptitle._layoutbox = layoutbox.LayoutBox( parent=figlb,'.suptitle') for child in figlb.children: if not (child == self._suptitle._layoutbox): w_pad, h_pad, wspace, hspace = \ self.get_constrained_layout_pads( relative=True) layoutbox.vstack([self._suptitle._layoutbox, child], padding=h_pad*2., strength='required') self.stale = True return self._suptitle
[docs] def set_canvas(self, canvas): """ Set the canvas that contains the figure ACCEPTS: a FigureCanvas instance """ self.canvas = canvas
[docs] @cbook.deprecated("2.0") def hold(self, b=None): """ Set the hold state. If hold is None (default), toggle the hold state. Else set the hold state to boolean value b. e.g.:: hold() # toggle hold hold(True) # hold is on hold(False) # hold is off All "hold" machinery is deprecated. """ if b is None: self._hold = not self._hold else: self._hold = b
[docs] def figimage(self, X, xo=0, yo=0, alpha=None, norm=None, cmap=None, vmin=None, vmax=None, origin=None, resize=False, **kwargs): """ Adds a non-resampled image to the figure. call signatures:: figimage(X, **kwargs) adds a non-resampled array *X* to the figure. :: figimage(X, xo, yo) with pixel offsets *xo*, *yo*, *X* must be a float array: * If *X* is MxN, assume luminance (grayscale) * If *X* is MxNx3, assume RGB * If *X* is MxNx4, assume RGBA Optional keyword arguments: ========= ========================================================= Keyword Description ========= ========================================================= resize a boolean, True or False. If "True", then re-size the Figure to match the given image size. xo or yo An integer, the *x* and *y* image offset in pixels cmap a :class:`matplotlib.colors.Colormap` instance, e.g., cm.jet. If *None*, default to the rc ``image.cmap`` value norm a :class:`matplotlib.colors.Normalize` instance. The default is normalization(). This scales luminance -> 0-1 vmin|vmax are used to scale a luminance image to 0-1. If either is *None*, the min and max of the luminance values will be used. Note if you pass a norm instance, the settings for *vmin* and *vmax* will be ignored. alpha the alpha blending value, default is *None* origin [ 'upper' | 'lower' ] Indicates where the [0,0] index of the array is in the upper left or lower left corner of the axes. Defaults to the rc image.origin value ========= ========================================================= figimage complements the axes image (:meth:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.imshow`) which will be resampled to fit the current axes. If you want a resampled image to fill the entire figure, you can define an :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` with extent [0,0,1,1]. An :class:`matplotlib.image.FigureImage` instance is returned. Additional kwargs are Artist kwargs passed on to :class:`~matplotlib.image.FigureImage` """ if not self._hold: self.clf() if resize: dpi = self.get_dpi() figsize = [x / dpi for x in (X.shape[1], X.shape[0])] self.set_size_inches(figsize, forward=True) im = FigureImage(self, cmap, norm, xo, yo, origin, **kwargs) im.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback im.set_array(X) im.set_alpha(alpha) if norm is None: im.set_clim(vmin, vmax) self.images.append(im) im._remove_method = lambda h: self.images.remove(h) self.stale = True return im
[docs] def set_size_inches(self, w, h=None, forward=True): """Set the figure size in inches (1in == 2.54cm) Usage :: fig.set_size_inches(w, h) # OR fig.set_size_inches((w, h)) optional kwarg *forward=True* will cause the canvas size to be automatically updated; e.g., you can resize the figure window from the shell ACCEPTS: a w, h tuple with w, h in inches See Also -------- matplotlib.Figure.get_size_inches """ # the width and height have been passed in as a tuple to the first # argument, so unpack them if h is None: w, h = w if not all(np.isfinite(_) for _ in (w, h)): raise ValueError('figure size must be finite not ' '({}, {})'.format(w, h)) self.bbox_inches.p1 = w, h if forward: canvas = getattr(self, 'canvas') if canvas is not None: ratio = getattr(self.canvas, '_dpi_ratio', 1) dpival = self.dpi / ratio canvasw = w * dpival canvash = h * dpival manager = getattr(self.canvas, 'manager', None) if manager is not None: manager.resize(int(canvasw), int(canvash)) self.stale = True
[docs] def get_size_inches(self): """ Returns the current size of the figure in inches (1in == 2.54cm) as an numpy array. Returns ------- size : ndarray The size of the figure in inches See Also -------- matplotlib.Figure.set_size_inches """ return np.array(self.bbox_inches.p1)
[docs] def get_edgecolor(self): """Get the edge color of the Figure rectangle.""" return self.patch.get_edgecolor()
[docs] def get_facecolor(self): """Get the face color of the Figure rectangle.""" return self.patch.get_facecolor()
[docs] def get_figwidth(self): """Return the figwidth as a float.""" return self.bbox_inches.width
[docs] def get_figheight(self): """Return the figheight as a float.""" return self.bbox_inches.height
[docs] def get_dpi(self): """Return the dpi as a float.""" return self.dpi
[docs] def get_frameon(self): """Get the boolean indicating frameon.""" return self.frameon
[docs] def set_edgecolor(self, color): """ Set the edge color of the Figure rectangle ACCEPTS: any matplotlib color - see help(colors) """ self.patch.set_edgecolor(color)
[docs] def set_facecolor(self, color): """ Set the face color of the Figure rectangle ACCEPTS: any matplotlib color - see help(colors) """ self.patch.set_facecolor(color)
[docs] def set_dpi(self, val): """ Set the dots-per-inch of the figure ACCEPTS: float """ self.dpi = val self.stale = True
[docs] def set_figwidth(self, val, forward=True): """ Set the width of the figure in inches ACCEPTS: float """ self.set_size_inches(val, self.get_figheight(), forward=forward)
[docs] def set_figheight(self, val, forward=True): """ Set the height of the figure in inches ACCEPTS: float """ self.set_size_inches(self.get_figwidth(), val, forward=forward)
[docs] def set_frameon(self, b): """ Set whether the figure frame (background) is displayed or invisible ACCEPTS: boolean """ self.frameon = b self.stale = True
[docs] def delaxes(self, ax): """ Remove the `.Axes` *ax* from the figure and update the current axes. """ self._axstack.remove(ax) for func in self._axobservers: func(self) self.stale = True
def _make_key(self, *args, **kwargs): """Make a hashable key out of args and kwargs.""" def fixitems(items): # items may have arrays and lists in them, so convert them # to tuples for the key ret = [] for k, v in items: # some objects can define __getitem__ without being # iterable and in those cases the conversion to tuples # will fail. So instead of using the iterable(v) function # we simply try and convert to a tuple, and proceed if not. try: v = tuple(v) except Exception: pass ret.append((k, v)) return tuple(ret) def fixlist(args): ret = [] for a in args: if iterable(a): a = tuple(a) ret.append(a) return tuple(ret) key = fixlist(args), fixitems(six.iteritems(kwargs)) return key
[docs] def add_axes(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Add an axes at position *rect* [*left*, *bottom*, *width*, *height*] where all quantities are in fractions of figure width and height. Parameters ---------- rect : sequence of float A 4-length sequence of [left, bottom, width, height] quantities. projection : ['aitoff' | 'hammer' | 'lambert' | 'mollweide' | \ 'polar' | 'rectilinear'], optional The projection type of the axes. polar : boolean, optional If True, equivalent to projection='polar'. **kwargs This method also takes the keyword arguments for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`. Returns ------- axes : Axes The added axes. Examples -------- A simple example:: rect = l,b,w,h fig.add_axes(rect) fig.add_axes(rect, frameon=False, facecolor='g') fig.add_axes(rect, polar=True) fig.add_axes(rect, projection='polar') fig.add_axes(ax) If the figure already has an axes with the same parameters, then it will simply make that axes current and return it. This behavior has been deprecated as of Matplotlib 2.1. Meanwhile, if you do not want this behavior (i.e., you want to force the creation of a new Axes), you must use a unique set of args and kwargs. The axes :attr:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.label` attribute has been exposed for this purpose: if you want two axes that are otherwise identical to be added to the figure, make sure you give them unique labels:: fig.add_axes(rect, label='axes1') fig.add_axes(rect, label='axes2') In rare circumstances, add_axes may be called with a single argument, an Axes instance already created in the present figure but not in the figure's list of axes. For example, if an axes has been removed with :meth:`delaxes`, it can be restored with:: fig.add_axes(ax) In all cases, the :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes` instance will be returned. """ if not len(args): return # shortcut the projection "key" modifications later on, if an axes # with the exact args/kwargs exists, return it immediately. key = self._make_key(*args, **kwargs) ax = self._axstack.get(key) if ax is not None: return ax if isinstance(args[0], Axes): a = args[0] if a.get_figure() is not self: raise ValueError( "The Axes must have been created in the present figure") else: rect = args[0] if not np.isfinite(rect).all(): raise ValueError('all entries in rect must be finite ' 'not {}'.format(rect)) projection_class, kwargs, key = process_projection_requirements( self, *args, **kwargs) # check that an axes of this type doesn't already exist, if it # does, set it as active and return it ax = self._axstack.get(key) if isinstance(ax, projection_class): return ax # create the new axes using the axes class given a = projection_class(self, rect, **kwargs) self._axstack.add(key, a) a._remove_method = self.__remove_ax self.stale = True a.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback return a
[docs] def add_subplot(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Add a subplot. Parameters ---------- *args Either a 3-digit integer or three separate integers describing the position of the subplot. If the three integers are R, C, and P in order, the subplot will take the Pth position on a grid with R rows and C columns. projection : ['aitoff' | 'hammer' | 'lambert' | \ 'mollweide' | 'polar' | 'rectilinear'], optional The projection type of the axes. polar : boolean, optional If True, equivalent to projection='polar'. **kwargs This method also takes the keyword arguments for :class:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes`. Returns ------- axes : Axes The axes of the subplot. Notes ----- If the figure already has a subplot with key (*args*, *kwargs*) then it will simply make that subplot current and return it. This behavior is deprecated. Examples -------- :: fig.add_subplot(111) # equivalent but more general fig.add_subplot(1, 1, 1) # add subplot with red background fig.add_subplot(212, facecolor='r') # add a polar subplot fig.add_subplot(111, projection='polar') # add Subplot instance sub fig.add_subplot(sub) See Also -------- matplotlib.pyplot.subplot : for an explanation of the args. """ if not len(args): return if len(args) == 1 and isinstance(args[0], int): if not 100 <= args[0] <= 999: raise ValueError("Integer subplot specification must be a " "three-digit number, not {}".format(args[0])) args = tuple(map(int, str(args[0]))) if isinstance(args[0], SubplotBase): a = args[0] if a.get_figure() is not self: raise ValueError( "The Subplot must have been created in the present figure") # make a key for the subplot (which includes the axes object id # in the hash) key = self._make_key(*args, **kwargs) else: projection_class, kwargs, key = process_projection_requirements( self, *args, **kwargs) # try to find the axes with this key in the stack ax = self._axstack.get(key) if ax is not None: if isinstance(ax, projection_class): # the axes already existed, so set it as active & return return ax else: # Undocumented convenience behavior: # subplot(111); subplot(111, projection='polar') # will replace the first with the second. # Without this, add_subplot would be simpler and # more similar to add_axes. self._axstack.remove(ax) a = subplot_class_factory(projection_class)(self, *args, **kwargs) self._axstack.add(key, a) a._remove_method = self.__remove_ax self.stale = True a.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback return a
[docs] def subplots(self, nrows=1, ncols=1, sharex=False, sharey=False, squeeze=True, subplot_kw=None, gridspec_kw=None): """ Add a set of subplots to this figure. Parameters ---------- nrows, ncols : int, default: 1 Number of rows/cols of the subplot grid. sharex, sharey : bool or {'none', 'all', 'row', 'col'}, default: False Controls sharing of properties among x (`sharex`) or y (`sharey`) axes: - True or 'all': x- or y-axis will be shared among all subplots. - False or 'none': each subplot x- or y-axis will be independent. - 'row': each subplot row will share an x- or y-axis. - 'col': each subplot column will share an x- or y-axis. When subplots have a shared x-axis along a column, only the x tick labels of the bottom subplot are visible. Similarly, when subplots have a shared y-axis along a row, only the y tick labels of the first column subplot are visible. squeeze : bool, default: True - If True, extra dimensions are squeezed out from the returned axis object: - if only one subplot is constructed (nrows=ncols=1), the resulting single Axes object is returned as a scalar. - for Nx1 or 1xN subplots, the returned object is a 1D numpy object array of Axes objects are returned as numpy 1D arrays. - for NxM, subplots with N>1 and M>1 are returned as a 2D arrays. - If False, no squeezing at all is done: the returned Axes object is always a 2D array containing Axes instances, even if it ends up being 1x1. subplot_kw : dict, default: {} Dict with keywords passed to the :meth:`~matplotlib.figure.Figure.add_subplot` call used to create each subplots. gridspec_kw : dict, default: {} Dict with keywords passed to the :class:`~matplotlib.gridspec.GridSpec` constructor used to create the grid the subplots are placed on. Returns ------- ax : single Axes object or array of Axes objects The added axes. The dimensions of the resulting array can be controlled with the squeeze keyword, see above. See Also -------- pyplot.subplots : pyplot API; docstring includes examples. """ # for backwards compatibility if isinstance(sharex, bool): sharex = "all" if sharex else "none" if isinstance(sharey, bool): sharey = "all" if sharey else "none" share_values = ["all", "row", "col", "none"] if sharex not in share_values: # This check was added because it is very easy to type # `subplots(1, 2, 1)` when `subplot(1, 2, 1)` was intended. # In most cases, no error will ever occur, but mysterious behavior # will result because what was intended to be the subplot index is # instead treated as a bool for sharex. if isinstance(sharex, int): warnings.warn( "sharex argument to subplots() was an integer. " "Did you intend to use subplot() (without 's')?") raise ValueError("sharex [%s] must be one of %s" % (sharex, share_values)) if sharey not in share_values: raise ValueError("sharey [%s] must be one of %s" % (sharey, share_values)) if subplot_kw is None: subplot_kw = {} if gridspec_kw is None: gridspec_kw = {} if self.get_constrained_layout(): gs = GridSpec(nrows, ncols, figure=self, **gridspec_kw) else: # this should turn constrained_layout off if we don't want it gs = GridSpec(nrows, ncols, figure=None, **gridspec_kw) # Create array to hold all axes. axarr = np.empty((nrows, ncols), dtype=object) for row in range(nrows): for col in range(ncols): shared_with = {"none": None, "all": axarr[0, 0], "row": axarr[row, 0], "col": axarr[0, col]} subplot_kw["sharex"] = shared_with[sharex] subplot_kw["sharey"] = shared_with[sharey] axarr[row, col] = self.add_subplot(gs[row, col], **subplot_kw) # turn off redundant tick labeling if sharex in ["col", "all"]: # turn off all but the bottom row for ax in axarr[:-1, :].flat: ax.xaxis.set_tick_params(which='both', labelbottom=False, labeltop=False) ax.xaxis.offsetText.set_visible(False) if sharey in ["row", "all"]: # turn off all but the first column for ax in axarr[:, 1:].flat: ax.yaxis.set_tick_params(which='both', labelleft=False, labelright=False) ax.yaxis.offsetText.set_visible(False) if squeeze: # Discarding unneeded dimensions that equal 1. If we only have one # subplot, just return it instead of a 1-element array. return axarr.item() if axarr.size == 1 else axarr.squeeze() else: # Returned axis array will be always 2-d, even if nrows=ncols=1. return axarr
def __remove_ax(self, ax): def _reset_loc_form(axis): axis.set_major_formatter(axis.get_major_formatter()) axis.set_major_locator(axis.get_major_locator()) axis.set_minor_formatter(axis.get_minor_formatter()) axis.set_minor_locator(axis.get_minor_locator()) def _break_share_link(ax, grouper): siblings = grouper.get_siblings(ax) if len(siblings) > 1: grouper.remove(ax) for last_ax in siblings: if ax is last_ax: continue return last_ax return None self.delaxes(ax) last_ax = _break_share_link(ax, ax._shared_y_axes) if last_ax is not None: _reset_loc_form(last_ax.yaxis) last_ax = _break_share_link(ax, ax._shared_x_axes) if last_ax is not None: _reset_loc_form(last_ax.xaxis)
[docs] def clf(self, keep_observers=False): """ Clear the figure. Set *keep_observers* to True if, for example, a gui widget is tracking the axes in the figure. """ self.suppressComposite = None self.callbacks = cbook.CallbackRegistry() for ax in tuple(self.axes): # Iterate over the copy. ax.cla() self.delaxes(ax) # removes ax from self._axstack toolbar = getattr(self.canvas, 'toolbar', None) if toolbar is not None: toolbar.update() self._axstack.clear() self.artists = [] self.lines = [] self.patches = [] self.texts = [] self.images = [] self.legends = [] if not keep_observers: self._axobservers = [] self._suptitle = None if self.get_constrained_layout(): layoutbox.nonetree(self._layoutbox) self.stale = True
[docs] def clear(self, keep_observers=False): """ Clear the figure -- synonym for :meth:`clf`. """ self.clf(keep_observers=keep_observers)
[docs] @allow_rasterization def draw(self, renderer): """ Render the figure using :class:`matplotlib.backend_bases.RendererBase` instance *renderer*. """ # draw the figure bounding box, perhaps none for white figure if not self.get_visible(): return artists = sorted( (artist for artist in (self.patches + self.lines + self.artists + self.images + self.axes + self.texts + self.legends) if not artist.get_animated()), key=lambda artist: artist.get_zorder()) try: renderer.open_group('figure') if self.get_constrained_layout() and self.axes: if True: self.execute_constrained_layout(renderer) else: pass if self.get_tight_layout() and self.axes: try: self.tight_layout(renderer, **self._tight_parameters) except ValueError: pass # ValueError can occur when resizing a window. if self.frameon: self.patch.draw(renderer) mimage._draw_list_compositing_images( renderer, self, artists, self.suppressComposite) renderer.close_group('figure') finally: self.stale = False self._cachedRenderer = renderer self.canvas.draw_event(renderer)
[docs] def draw_artist(self, a): """ Draw :class:`matplotlib.artist.Artist` instance *a* only. This is available only after the figure is drawn. """ if self._cachedRenderer is None: raise AttributeError("draw_artist can only be used after an " "initial draw which caches the renderer") a.draw(self._cachedRenderer)
[docs] def get_axes(self): return self.axes
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def legend(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Place a legend on the figure. To make a legend from existing artists on every axes:: legend() To make a legend for a list of lines and labels:: legend( (line1, line2, line3), ('label1', 'label2', 'label3'), loc='upper right') These can also be specified by keyword:: legend(handles=(line1, line2, line3), labels=('label1', 'label2', 'label3'), loc='upper right') Parameters ---------- handles : sequence of `.Artist`, optional A list of Artists (lines, patches) to be added to the legend. Use this together with *labels*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. The length of handles and labels should be the same in this case. If they are not, they are truncated to the smaller length. labels : sequence of strings, optional A list of labels to show next to the artists. Use this together with *handles*, if you need full control on what is shown in the legend and the automatic mechanism described above is not sufficient. Other Parameters ---------------- loc : int or string or pair of floats, default: 'upper right' The location of the legend. Possible codes are: =============== ============= Location String Location Code =============== ============= 'best' 0 'upper right' 1 'upper left' 2 'lower left' 3 'lower right' 4 'right' 5 'center left' 6 'center right' 7 'lower center' 8 'upper center' 9 'center' 10 =============== ============= Alternatively can be a 2-tuple giving ``x, y`` of the lower-left corner of the legend in axes coordinates (in which case ``bbox_to_anchor`` will be ignored). bbox_to_anchor : `.BboxBase` or pair of floats Specify any arbitrary location for the legend in `bbox_transform` coordinates (default Axes coordinates). For example, to put the legend's upper right hand corner in the center of the axes the following keywords can be used:: loc='upper right', bbox_to_anchor=(0.5, 0.5) ncol : integer The number of columns that the legend has. Default is 1. prop : None or :class:`matplotlib.font_manager.FontProperties` or dict The font properties of the legend. If None (default), the current :data:`matplotlib.rcParams` will be used. fontsize : int or float or {'xx-small', 'x-small', 'small', 'medium', \ 'large', 'x-large', 'xx-large'} Controls the font size of the legend. If the value is numeric the size will be the absolute font size in points. String values are relative to the current default font size. This argument is only used if `prop` is not specified. numpoints : None or int The number of marker points in the legend when creating a legend entry for a `.Line2D` (line). Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.numpoints`. scatterpoints : None or int The number of marker points in the legend when creating a legend entry for a `.PathCollection` (scatter plot). Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.scatterpoints`. scatteryoffsets : iterable of floats The vertical offset (relative to the font size) for the markers created for a scatter plot legend entry. 0.0 is at the base the legend text, and 1.0 is at the top. To draw all markers at the same height, set to ``[0.5]``. Default is ``[0.375, 0.5, 0.3125]``. markerscale : None or int or float The relative size of legend markers compared with the originally drawn ones. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.markerscale`. markerfirst : bool If *True*, legend marker is placed to the left of the legend label. If *False*, legend marker is placed to the right of the legend label. Default is *True*. frameon : None or bool Control whether the legend should be drawn on a patch (frame). Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.frameon`. fancybox : None or bool Control whether round edges should be enabled around the :class:`~matplotlib.patches.FancyBboxPatch` which makes up the legend's background. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.fancybox`. shadow : None or bool Control whether to draw a shadow behind the legend. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.shadow`. framealpha : None or float Control the alpha transparency of the legend's background. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.framealpha`. If shadow is activated and *framealpha* is ``None``, the default value is ignored. facecolor : None or "inherit" or a color spec Control the legend's background color. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.facecolor`. If ``"inherit"``, it will take :rc:`axes.facecolor`. edgecolor : None or "inherit" or a color spec Control the legend's background patch edge color. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.edgecolor` If ``"inherit"``, it will take :rc:`axes.edgecolor`. mode : {"expand", None} If `mode` is set to ``"expand"`` the legend will be horizontally expanded to fill the axes area (or `bbox_to_anchor` if defines the legend's size). bbox_transform : None or :class:`matplotlib.transforms.Transform` The transform for the bounding box (`bbox_to_anchor`). For a value of ``None`` (default) the Axes' :data:`~matplotlib.axes.Axes.transAxes` transform will be used. title : str or None The legend's title. Default is no title (``None``). borderpad : float or None The fractional whitespace inside the legend border. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.borderpad`. labelspacing : float or None The vertical space between the legend entries. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.labelspacing`. handlelength : float or None The length of the legend handles. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.handlelength`. handletextpad : float or None The pad between the legend handle and text. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.handletextpad`. borderaxespad : float or None The pad between the axes and legend border. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.borderaxespad`. columnspacing : float or None The spacing between columns. Measured in font-size units. Default is ``None``, which will take the value from :rc:`legend.columnspacing`. handler_map : dict or None The custom dictionary mapping instances or types to a legend handler. This `handler_map` updates the default handler map found at :func:`matplotlib.legend.Legend.get_legend_handler_map`. Returns ------- :class:`matplotlib.legend.Legend` instance Notes ----- Not all kinds of artist are supported by the legend command. See :ref:`` for details. """ handles, labels, extra_args, kwargs = mlegend._parse_legend_args( self.axes, *args, **kwargs) # check for third arg if len(extra_args): # cbook.warn_deprecated( # "2.1", # "Figure.legend will accept no more than two " # "positional arguments in the future. Use " # "'fig.legend(handles, labels, loc=location)' " # "instead.") # kwargs['loc'] = extra_args[0] # extra_args = extra_args[1:] pass l = mlegend.Legend(self, handles, labels, *extra_args, **kwargs) self.legends.append(l) l._remove_method = lambda h: self.legends.remove(h) self.stale = True return l
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def text(self, x, y, s, *args, **kwargs): """ Add text to figure. Call signature:: text(x, y, s, fontdict=None, **kwargs) Add text to figure at location *x*, *y* (relative 0-1 coords). See :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.text` for the meaning of the other arguments. kwargs control the :class:`~matplotlib.text.Text` properties: %(Text)s """ override = _process_text_args({}, *args, **kwargs) t = Text(x=x, y=y, text=s) t.update(override) self._set_artist_props(t) self.texts.append(t) t._remove_method = lambda h: self.texts.remove(h) self.stale = True return t
def _set_artist_props(self, a): if a != self: a.set_figure(self) a.stale_callback = _stale_figure_callback a.set_transform(self.transFigure)
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def gca(self, **kwargs): """ Get the current axes, creating one if necessary The following kwargs are supported for ensuring the returned axes adheres to the given projection etc., and for axes creation if the active axes does not exist: %(Axes)s """ ckey, cax = self._axstack.current_key_axes() # if there exists an axes on the stack see if it maches # the desired axes configuration if cax is not None: # if no kwargs are given just return the current axes # this is a convenience for gca() on axes such as polar etc. if not kwargs: return cax # if the user has specified particular projection detail # then build up a key which can represent this else: # we don't want to modify the original kwargs # so take a copy so that we can do what we like to it kwargs_copy = kwargs.copy() projection_class, _, key = process_projection_requirements( self, **kwargs_copy) # let the returned axes have any gridspec by removing it from # the key ckey = ckey[1:] key = key[1:] # if the cax matches this key then return the axes, otherwise # continue and a new axes will be created if key == ckey and isinstance(cax, projection_class): return cax else: warnings.warn('Requested projection is different from ' 'current axis projection, creating new axis ' 'with requested projection.', stacklevel=2) # no axes found, so create one which spans the figure return self.add_subplot(1, 1, 1, **kwargs)
[docs] def sca(self, a): """Set the current axes to be a and return a.""" self._axstack.bubble(a) for func in self._axobservers: func(self) return a
def _gci(self): """ Helper for :func:`~matplotlib.pyplot.gci`. Do not use elsewhere. """ # Look first for an image in the current Axes: cax = self._axstack.current_key_axes()[1] if cax is None: return None im = cax._gci() if im is not None: return im # If there is no image in the current Axes, search for # one in a previously created Axes. Whether this makes # sense is debatable, but it is the documented behavior. for ax in reversed(self.axes): im = ax._gci() if im is not None: return im return None def __getstate__(self): state = super(Figure, self).__getstate__() # print('\n\n\nStarting pickle') # the axobservers cannot currently be pickled. # Additionally, the canvas cannot currently be pickled, but this has # the benefit of meaning that a figure can be detached from one canvas, # and re-attached to another. for attr_to_pop in ('_axobservers', 'show', 'canvas', '_cachedRenderer'): state.pop(attr_to_pop, None) # add version information to the state state['__mpl_version__'] = _mpl_version # check to see if the figure has a manager and whether it is registered # with pyplot if getattr(self.canvas, 'manager', None) is not None: manager = self.canvas.manager import matplotlib._pylab_helpers if manager in list(six.itervalues( matplotlib._pylab_helpers.Gcf.figs)): state['_restore_to_pylab'] = True # set all the layoutbox information to None. kiwisolver # objects can't be pickeled, so we lose the layout options # at this point. state.pop('_layoutbox', None) # suptitle: if self._suptitle is not None: self._suptitle._layoutbox = None return state def __setstate__(self, state): version = state.pop('__mpl_version__') restore_to_pylab = state.pop('_restore_to_pylab', False) if version != _mpl_version: import warnings warnings.warn("This figure was saved with matplotlib version %s " "and is unlikely to function correctly." % (version, )) self.__dict__ = state # re-initialise some of the unstored state information self._axobservers = [] self.canvas = None self._layoutbox = None if restore_to_pylab: # lazy import to avoid circularity import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import matplotlib._pylab_helpers as pylab_helpers allnums = plt.get_fignums() num = max(allnums) + 1 if allnums else 1 mgr = plt._backend_mod.new_figure_manager_given_figure(num, self) # XXX The following is a copy and paste from pyplot. Consider # factoring to pylab_helpers if self.get_label(): mgr.set_window_title(self.get_label()) # make this figure current on button press event def make_active(event): pylab_helpers.Gcf.set_active(mgr) mgr._cidgcf = mgr.canvas.mpl_connect('button_press_event', make_active) pylab_helpers.Gcf.set_active(mgr) self.number = num plt.draw_if_interactive() self.stale = True
[docs] def add_axobserver(self, func): """Whenever the axes state change, ``func(self)`` will be called.""" self._axobservers.append(func)
[docs] def savefig(self, fname, **kwargs): """ Save the current figure. Call signature:: savefig(fname, dpi=None, facecolor='w', edgecolor='w', orientation='portrait', papertype=None, format=None, transparent=False, bbox_inches=None, pad_inches=0.1, frameon=None) The output formats available depend on the backend being used. Parameters ---------- fname : str or file-like object A string containing a path to a filename, or a Python file-like object, or possibly some backend-dependent object such as :class:`~matplotlib.backends.backend_pdf.PdfPages`. If *format* is *None* and *fname* is a string, the output format is deduced from the extension of the filename. If the filename has no extension, the value of the rc parameter ``savefig.format`` is used. If *fname* is not a string, remember to specify *format* to ensure that the correct backend is used. Other Parameters ---------------- dpi : [ *None* | scalar > 0 | 'figure'] The resolution in dots per inch. If *None* it will default to the value ``savefig.dpi`` in the matplotlibrc file. If 'figure' it will set the dpi to be the value of the figure. facecolor : color spec or None, optional the facecolor of the figure; if None, defaults to savefig.facecolor edgecolor : color spec or None, optional the edgecolor of the figure; if None, defaults to savefig.edgecolor orientation : {'landscape', 'portrait'} not supported on all backends; currently only on postscript output papertype : str One of 'letter', 'legal', 'executive', 'ledger', 'a0' through 'a10', 'b0' through 'b10'. Only supported for postscript output. format : str One of the file extensions supported by the active backend. Most backends support png, pdf, ps, eps and svg. transparent : bool If *True*, the axes patches will all be transparent; the figure patch will also be transparent unless facecolor and/or edgecolor are specified via kwargs. This is useful, for example, for displaying a plot on top of a colored background on a web page. The transparency of these patches will be restored to their original values upon exit of this function. frameon : bool If *True*, the figure patch will be colored, if *False*, the figure background will be transparent. If not provided, the rcParam 'savefig.frameon' will be used. bbox_inches : str or `~matplotlib.transforms.Bbox`, optional Bbox in inches. Only the given portion of the figure is saved. If 'tight', try to figure out the tight bbox of the figure. If None, use savefig.bbox pad_inches : scalar, optional Amount of padding around the figure when bbox_inches is 'tight'. If None, use savefig.pad_inches bbox_extra_artists : list of `~matplotlib.artist.Artist`, optional A list of extra artists that will be considered when the tight bbox is calculated. """ kwargs.setdefault('dpi', rcParams['savefig.dpi']) frameon = kwargs.pop('frameon', rcParams['savefig.frameon']) transparent = kwargs.pop('transparent', rcParams['savefig.transparent']) if transparent: kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', 'none') kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', 'none') original_axes_colors = [] for ax in self.axes: patch = ax.patch original_axes_colors.append((patch.get_facecolor(), patch.get_edgecolor())) patch.set_facecolor('none') patch.set_edgecolor('none') else: kwargs.setdefault('facecolor', rcParams['savefig.facecolor']) kwargs.setdefault('edgecolor', rcParams['savefig.edgecolor']) if frameon: original_frameon = self.get_frameon() self.set_frameon(frameon) self.canvas.print_figure(fname, **kwargs) if frameon: self.set_frameon(original_frameon) if transparent: for ax, cc in zip(self.axes, original_axes_colors): ax.patch.set_facecolor(cc[0]) ax.patch.set_edgecolor(cc[1])
[docs] @docstring.dedent_interpd def colorbar(self, mappable, cax=None, ax=None, use_gridspec=True, **kw): """ Create a colorbar for a ScalarMappable instance, *mappable*. Documentation for the pylab thin wrapper: %(colorbar_doc)s """ if ax is None: ax = self.gca() # Store the value of gca so that we can set it back later on. current_ax = self.gca() if cax is None: if use_gridspec and isinstance(ax, SubplotBase) \ and (not self.get_constrained_layout()): cax, kw = cbar.make_axes_gridspec(ax, **kw) else: cax, kw = cbar.make_axes(ax, **kw) cax._hold = True # need to remove kws that cannot be passed to Colorbar NON_COLORBAR_KEYS = ['fraction', 'pad', 'shrink', 'aspect', 'anchor', 'panchor'] cb_kw = {k: v for k, v in kw.items() if k not in NON_COLORBAR_KEYS} cb = cbar.colorbar_factory(cax, mappable, **cb_kw) self.stale = True return cb
[docs] def subplots_adjust(self, *args, **kwargs): """ Call signature:: subplots_adjust(left=None, bottom=None, right=None, top=None, wspace=None, hspace=None) Update the :class:`SubplotParams` with *kwargs* (defaulting to rc when *None*) and update the subplot locations. """ self.subplotpars.update(*args, **kwargs) for ax in self.axes: if not isinstance(ax, SubplotBase): # Check if sharing a subplots axis if isinstance(ax._sharex, SubplotBase): ax._sharex.update_params() ax.set_position(ax._sharex.figbox) elif isinstance(ax._sharey, SubplotBase): ax._sharey.update_params() ax.set_position(ax._sharey.figbox) else: ax.update_params() ax.set_position(ax.figbox) self.stale = True
[docs] def ginput(self, n=1, timeout=30, show_clicks=True, mouse_add=1, mouse_pop=3, mouse_stop=2): """ Blocking call to interact with a figure. Wait until the user clicks *n* times on the figure, and return the coordinates of each click in a list. The buttons used for the various actions (adding points, removing points, terminating the inputs) can be overridden via the arguments *mouse_add*, *mouse_pop* and *mouse_stop*, that give the associated mouse button: 1 for left, 2 for middle, 3 for right. Parameters ---------- n : int, optional, default: 1 Number of mouse clicks to accumulate. If negative, accumulate clicks until the input is terminated manually. timeout : scalar, optional, default: 30 Number of seconds to wait before timing out. If zero or negative will never timeout. show_clicks : bool, optional, default: False If True, show a red cross at the location of each click. mouse_add : int, one of (1, 2, 3), optional, default: 1 (left click) Mouse button used to add points. mouse_pop : int, one of (1, 2, 3), optional, default: 3 (right click) Mouse button used to remove the most recently added point. mouse_stop : int, one of (1, 2, 3), optional, default: 2 (middle click) Mouse button used to stop input. Returns ------- points : list of tuples A list of the clicked (x, y) coordinates. Notes ----- The keyboard can also be used to select points in case your mouse does not have one or more of the buttons. The delete and backspace keys act like right clicking (i.e., remove last point), the enter key terminates input and any other key (not already used by the window manager) selects a point. """ blocking_mouse_input = BlockingMouseInput(self, mouse_add=mouse_add, mouse_pop=mouse_pop, mouse_stop=mouse_stop) return blocking_mouse_input(n=n, timeout=timeout, show_clicks=show_clicks)
[docs] def waitforbuttonpress(self, timeout=-1): """ Blocking call to interact with the figure. This will return True is a key was pressed, False if a mouse button was pressed and None if *timeout* was reached without either being pressed. If *timeout* is negative, does not timeout. """ blocking_input = BlockingKeyMouseInput(self) return blocking_input(timeout=timeout)
[docs] def get_default_bbox_extra_artists(self): bbox_artists = [artist for artist in self.get_children() if artist.get_visible()] for ax in self.axes: if ax.get_visible(): bbox_artists.extend(ax.get_default_bbox_extra_artists()) # we don't want the figure's patch to influence the bbox calculation bbox_artists.remove(self.patch) return bbox_artists
[docs] def get_tightbbox(self, renderer): """ Return a (tight) bounding box of the figure in inches. It only accounts axes title, axis labels, and axis ticklabels. Needs improvement. """ bb = [] for ax in self.axes: if ax.get_visible(): bb.append(ax.get_tightbbox(renderer)) if len(bb) == 0: return self.bbox_inches _bbox = Bbox.union([b for b in bb if b.width != 0 or b.height != 0]) bbox_inches = TransformedBbox(_bbox, Affine2D().scale(1. / self.dpi)) return bbox_inches
[docs] def init_layoutbox(self): """ initilaize the layoutbox for use in constrained_layout. """ if self._layoutbox is None: self._layoutbox = layoutbox.LayoutBox(parent=None, name='figlb', artist=self) self._layoutbox.constrain_geometry(0., 0., 1., 1.)
[docs] def execute_constrained_layout(self, renderer=None): """ Use ``layoutbox`` to determine pos positions within axes. See also set_constrained_layout_pads """ from matplotlib._constrained_layout import (do_constrained_layout) _log.debug('Executing constrainedlayout') if self._layoutbox is None: warnings.warn("Calling figure.constrained_layout, but figure " "not setup to do constrained layout. " " You either called GridSpec without the " "fig keyword, you are using plt.subplot, " "or you need to call figure or subplots" "with the constrained_layout=True kwarg.") return w_pad, h_pad, wspace, hspace = self.get_constrained_layout_pads() # convert to unit-relative lengths fig = self width, height = fig.get_size_inches() w_pad = w_pad / width h_pad = h_pad / height if renderer is None: renderer = layoutbox.get_renderer(fig) do_constrained_layout(fig, renderer, h_pad, w_pad, hspace, wspace)
[docs] def tight_layout(self, renderer=None, pad=1.08, h_pad=None, w_pad=None, rect=None): """ Adjust subplot parameters to give specified padding. Parameters ---------- pad : float padding between the figure edge and the edges of subplots, as a fraction of the font-size. h_pad, w_pad : float, optional padding (height/width) between edges of adjacent subplots. Defaults to `pad_inches`. rect : tuple (left, bottom, right, top), optional a rectangle (left, bottom, right, top) in the normalized figure coordinate that the whole subplots area (including labels) will fit into. Default is (0, 0, 1, 1). """ from .tight_layout import ( get_renderer, get_subplotspec_list, get_tight_layout_figure) subplotspec_list = get_subplotspec_list(self.axes) if None in subplotspec_list: warnings.warn("This figure includes Axes that are not compatible " "with tight_layout, so results might be incorrect.") if renderer is None: renderer = get_renderer(self) kwargs = get_tight_layout_figure( self, self.axes, subplotspec_list, renderer, pad=pad, h_pad=h_pad, w_pad=w_pad, rect=rect) self.subplots_adjust(**kwargs)
[docs] def align_xlabels(self, axs=None): """ Align the ylabels of subplots in the same subplot column if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. If a label is on the bottom, it is aligned with labels on axes that also have their label on the bottom and that have the same bottom-most subplot row. If the label is on the top, it is aligned with labels on axes with the same top-most row. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` (None) Optional list of (or ndarray) `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the xlabels. Default is to align all axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_ylabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_labels Notes ----- This assumes that ``axs`` are from the same `.GridSpec`, so that their `.SubplotSpec` positions correspond to figure positions. Examples -------- Example with rotated xtick labels:: fig, axs = plt.subplots(1, 2) for tick in axs[0].get_xticklabels(): tick.set_rotation(55) axs[0].set_xlabel('XLabel 0') axs[1].set_xlabel('XLabel 1') fig.align_xlabels() """ if axs is None: axs = self.axes axs = np.asarray(axs).ravel() for ax in axs: _log.debug(' Working on: %s', ax.get_xlabel()) ss = ax.get_subplotspec() nrows, ncols, row0, row1, col0, col1 = ss.get_rows_columns() labpo = ax.xaxis.get_label_position() # top or bottom # loop through other axes, and search for label positions # that are same as this one, and that share the appropriate # row number. # Add to a grouper associated with each axes of sibblings. # This list is inspected in `axis.draw` by # `axis._update_label_position`. for axc in axs: if axc.xaxis.get_label_position() == labpo: ss = axc.get_subplotspec() nrows, ncols, rowc0, rowc1, colc, col1 = \ ss.get_rows_columns() if (labpo == 'bottom' and rowc1 == row1 or labpo == 'top' and rowc0 == row0): # grouper for groups of xlabels to align self._align_xlabel_grp.join(ax, axc)
[docs] def align_ylabels(self, axs=None): """ Align the ylabels of subplots in the same subplot column if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. If a label is on the left, it is aligned with labels on axes that also have their label on the left and that have the same left-most subplot column. If the label is on the right, it is aligned with labels on axes with the same right-most column. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` (None) Optional list (or ndarray) of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the ylabels. Default is to align all axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_xlabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_labels Notes ----- This assumes that ``axs`` are from the same `.GridSpec`, so that their `.SubplotSpec` positions correspond to figure positions. Examples -------- Example with large yticks labels:: fig, axs = plt.subplots(2, 1) axs[0].plot(np.arange(0, 1000, 50)) axs[0].set_ylabel('YLabel 0') axs[1].set_ylabel('YLabel 1') fig.align_ylabels() """ if axs is None: axs = self.axes axs = np.asarray(axs).ravel() for ax in axs: _log.debug(' Working on: %s', ax.get_ylabel()) ss = ax.get_subplotspec() nrows, ncols, row0, row1, col0, col1 = ss.get_rows_columns() same = [ax] labpo = ax.yaxis.get_label_position() # left or right # loop through other axes, and search for label positions # that are same as this one, and that share the appropriate # column number. # Add to a list associated with each axes of sibblings. # This list is inspected in `axis.draw` by # `axis._update_label_position`. for axc in axs: if axc != ax: if axc.yaxis.get_label_position() == labpo: ss = axc.get_subplotspec() nrows, ncols, row0, row1, colc0, colc1 = \ ss.get_rows_columns() if (labpo == 'left' and colc0 == col0 or labpo == 'right' and colc1 == col1): # grouper for groups of ylabels to align self._align_ylabel_grp.join(ax, axc)
[docs] def align_labels(self, axs=None): """ Align the xlabels and ylabels of subplots with the same subplots row or column (respectively) if label alignment is being done automatically (i.e. the label position is not manually set). Alignment persists for draw events after this is called. Parameters ---------- axs : list of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` (None) Optional list (or ndarray) of `~matplotlib.axes.Axes` to align the labels. Default is to align all axes on the figure. See Also -------- matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_xlabels matplotlib.figure.Figure.align_ylabels """ self.align_xlabels(axs=axs) self.align_ylabels(axs=axs)
[docs]def figaspect(arg): """ Create a figure with specified aspect ratio. If *arg* is a number, use that aspect ratio. If *arg* is an array, figaspect will determine the width and height for a figure that would fit array preserving aspect ratio. The figure width, height in inches are returned. Be sure to create an axes with equal with and height, e.g., Example usage:: # make a figure twice as tall as it is wide w, h = figaspect(2.) fig = Figure(figsize=(w,h)) ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8]) ax.imshow(A, **kwargs) # make a figure with the proper aspect for an array A = rand(5,3) w, h = figaspect(A) fig = Figure(figsize=(w,h)) ax = fig.add_axes([0.1, 0.1, 0.8, 0.8]) ax.imshow(A, **kwargs) Thanks to Fernando Perez for this function """ isarray = hasattr(arg, 'shape') and not np.isscalar(arg) # min/max sizes to respect when autoscaling. If John likes the idea, they # could become rc parameters, for now they're hardwired. figsize_min = np.array((4.0, 2.0)) # min length for width/height figsize_max = np.array((16.0, 16.0)) # max length for width/height # Extract the aspect ratio of the array if isarray: nr, nc = arg.shape[:2] arr_ratio = nr / nc else: arr_ratio = arg # Height of user figure defaults fig_height = rcParams['figure.figsize'][1] # New size for the figure, keeping the aspect ratio of the caller newsize = np.array((fig_height / arr_ratio, fig_height)) # Sanity checks, don't drop either dimension below figsize_min newsize /= min(1.0, *(newsize / figsize_min)) # Avoid humongous windows as well newsize /= max(1.0, *(newsize / figsize_max)) # Finally, if we have a really funky aspect ratio, break it but respect # the min/max dimensions (we don't want figures 10 feet tall!) newsize = np.clip(newsize, figsize_min, figsize_max) return newsize